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Xamiol gel

Last Updated on eMC 16-Apr-2012 View changes  | Leo Laboratories Limited Contact details

Discontinued Items

The preparations being discontinued are:

  • Xamiol gel (LEO Pharma)

The pharmaceutical company has decided to discontinue the product and so it may not be available in the future.  This document has been left on the eMC for information purposes.

1. Name of the medicinal product

Xamiol 50 microgram/g + 0.5 mg/g gel

2. Qualitative and quantitative composition

One gram of gel contains 50 micrograms of calcipotriol (as monohydrate) and 0.5 mg of betamethasone (as dipropionate).

Excipient: 160 micrograms butylated hydroxytoluene/g gel

For a full list of excipients, see section 6.1.

3. Pharmaceutical form

Gel.

An almost clear, colourless to slightly off-white gel.

4. Clinical particulars
4.1 Therapeutic indications

Topical treatment of scalp psoriasis in adults.

4.2 Posology and method of administration

Posology

Xamiol gel should be applied to affected areas once daily. The recommended treatment period is 4 weeks. If it is necessary to continue or restart treatment after this period, treatment should be continued after medical review and under regular medical supervision.

When using calcipotriol containing medicinal products, the maximum daily dose should not exceed 15 g. The body surface area treated with calcipotriol containing medicinal products should not exceed 30 % (see section 4.4).

All the affected scalp areas may be treated with Xamiol gel. Usually an amount between 1 g and 4 g per day is sufficient for treatment of the scalp (4 g corresponds to one teaspoon).

Special populations

Renal and hepatic impairment

The safety and efficacy of Xamiol gel in patients with severe renal insufficiency or severe hepatic disorders have not been evaluated.

Paediatric population

The safety and efficacy of Xamiol gel in children below 18 years have not been established. No data are available.

Method of administration

The bottle should be shaken before use and Xamiol gel applied to the affected area. Xamiol gel should not be applied directly to the face or eyes. The hands should be washed after use. In order to achieve optimal effect, it is not recommended to wash the hair immediately after application of Xamiol gel. Xamiol gel should remain on the scalp during the night or during the day.

4.3 Contraindications

Hypersensitivity to the active substances or to any of the excipients.

Xamiol gel is contraindicated in erythrodermic, exfoliative and pustular psoriasis.

Due to the content of calcipotriol, Xamiol gel is contraindicated in patients with known disorders of calcium metabolism.

Due to the content of corticosteroid, Xamiol gel is contraindicated in the following conditions: Viral (e.g. herpes or varicella) lesions of the skin, fungal or bacterial skin infections, parasitic infections, skin manifestations in relation to tuberculosis or syphilis, perioral dermatitis, atrophic skin, striae atrophicae, fragility of skin veins, ichthyosis, acne vulgaris, acne rosacea, rosacea, ulcers, wounds, perianal and genital pruritus.

4.4 Special warnings and precautions for use

Effects on endocrine system

Xamiol gel contains a potent group III steroid and concurrent treatment with other steroids on the scalp must be avoided. Adverse reactions found in connection with systemic corticosteroid treatment, such as adrenocortical suppression or impact on the metabolic control of diabetes mellitus, may occur also during topical corticosteroid treatment due to systemic absorption. Application under occlusive dressings should be avoided since it increases the systemic absorption of corticosteroids. Application on large areas of damaged skin or on mucous membranes or in skin folds should be avoided since it increases the systemic absorption of corticosteroids (see section 4.8).

In a study in patients with both extensive scalp and extensive body psoriasis using a combination of high doses of Xamiol gel (scalp application) and high doses of Dovobet ointment (body application), 5 of 32 patients showed a borderline decrease in cortisol response to adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) challenge after 4 weeks of treatment (see section 5.1).

Effects on calcium metabolism

Due to the content of calcipotriol, hypercalcaemia may occur if the maximum daily dose (15 g) is exceeded. Serum calcium is, however, quickly normalised when treatment is discontinued. The risk of hypercalcaemia is minimal when the recommendations relevant to calcipotriol are followed.

Treatment of more than 30 % of the body surface should be avoided (see section 4.2).

Local adverse reactions

Skin of the face and genitals are very sensitive to corticosteroids. The medicinal product should not be used in these areas. Uncommon local adverse reactions (such as eye irritation or irritation of facial skin) were observed, when the medicinal product was accidentally administered in the area of face, or accidentally to the eyes or conjunctives (see sections 4.8 and 5.1). The patient must be instructed in correct use of the medicinal product to avoid application and accidental transfer to the face, mouth and eyes. Hands must be washed after each application to avoid accidental transfer to these areas.

Concomitant skin infections

When lesions become secondarily infected, they should be treated with antimicrobiological therapy. However, if infection worsens, treatment with corticosteroids should be stopped.

Discontinuation of treatment

When treating psoriasis with topical corticosteroids, there may be a risk of generalised pustular psoriasis or of rebound effects when discontinuing treatment. Medical supervision should therefore continue in the post-treatment period.

Long-term use

With long-term use there is an increased risk of local and systemic corticosteroid adverse reactions. The treatment should be discontinued in case of adverse reactions related to long-term use of corticosteroid (see section 4.8).

Unevaluated uses

There is no experience for the use of Xamiol gel in guttate psoriasis.

Concurrent treatment and UV exposure

Dovobet ointment for body psoriasis lesions has been used in combination with Xamiol gel for scalp psoriasis lesions, but there is no experience of combination of Xamiol with other topical anti-psoriatic products at the same treatment area, other anti-psoriatic medicinal products administered systemically or with phototherapy.

During Xamiol gel treatment, physicians are recommended to advise patients to limit or avoid excessive exposure to either natural or artificial sunlight. Topical calcipotriol should be used with UVR only if the physician and patient consider that the potential benefits outweigh the potential risks (see section 5.3).

Adverse reactions to excipients

Xamiol gel contains butylated hydroxytoluene (E321), which may cause local skin reactions (e.g. contact dermatitis), or irritation to the eyes and mucous membranes.

4.5 Interaction with other medicinal products and other forms of interaction

No interaction studies have been performed.

4.6 Fertility, pregnancy and lactation

Pregnancy

There are no adequate data from the use of Xamiol gel in pregnant women. Studies in animals with glucocorticoids have shown reproductive toxicity (see section 5.3), but a number of epidemiological studies have not revealed congenital anomalies among infants born to women treated with corticosteroids during pregnancy. The potential risk for humans is uncertain. Therefore, during pregnancy, Xamiol gel should only be used when the potential benefit justifies the potential risk.

Breastfeeding

Betamethasone passes into breast milk, but risk of an adverse effect on the infant seems unlikely with therapeutic doses. There are no data on the excretion of calcipotriol in breast milk. Caution should be exercised when prescribing Xamiol gel to women who breast-feed.

Fertility

Studies in rats with oral doses of calcipotriol or betamethasone dipropionate demonstrated no impairment of male and female fertility.

4.7 Effects on ability to drive and use machines

Xamiol gel has no influence on the ability to drive and use machines.

4.8 Undesirable effects

The clinical trial programme for Xamiol gel has so far included more than 4,400 patients of whom more than 1,900 were treated with Xamiol gel. Approximately 8 % of patients treated with Xamiol gel experienced a non-serious adverse reaction.

These reactions are usually mild and cover mainly various skin reactions with pruritus being the most common.

Based on data from clinical trials and postmarket use the following adverse reactions are listed for Xamiol gel.

The adverse reactions are listed by MedDRA System Organ Class, and the individual adverse reactions are listed starting with the most frequently reported. Within each frequency grouping, the adverse reactions are listed in order of decreasing seriousness.

The following terminologies have been used in order to classify the frequencies of adverse reactions:

Very common

≥1/10

Common

≥1/100 to <1/10

Uncommon

≥1/1,000 to <1/100

Rare

≥1/10,000 to <1/1,000

Very rare

<1/10,000

Not known (cannot be estimated from the available data)

Eye disorders

Uncommon

Eye irritation

Skin and subcutaneous tissue disorders

Common

Pruritus

Uncommon

Exacerbation of psoriasis

Burning sensation of skin

Skin pain or irritation

Folliculitis

Dermatitis

Erythema

Acne

Dry skin

Rash

Pustular rash

The following adverse reactions are considered to be related to the pharmacological classes of calcipotriol and betamethasone, respectively:

Calcipotriol

Adverse reactions include application site reactions, pruritus, skin irritation, burning and stinging sensation, dry skin, erythema, rash, dermatitis, eczema, psoriasis aggravated, photosensitivity and hypersensitivity reactions including very rare cases of angioedema and facial oedema. Systemic effects after topical use may appear very rarely causing hypercalcaemia or hypercalciuria (see section 4.4).

Betamethasone (as dipropionate)

Local reactions can occur after topical use, especially during prolonged application, including skin atrophy, telangiectasia, striae, folliculitis, hypertrichosis, perioral dermatitis, allergic contact dermatitis, depigmentation and colloid milia. When treating psoriasis, there may be a risk of generalised pustular psoriasis.

Systemic reactions due to topical use of corticosteroids are rare in adults, however they can be severe. Adrenocortical suppression, cataract, infections, impact on the metabolic control of diabetes mellitus and increase of intra-ocular pressure can occur, especially after long-term treatment. Systemic reactions occur more frequently when applied under occlusion (plastic, skin folds), when applied on large areas and during long-term treatment (see section 4.4).

4.9 Overdose

Use above the recommended dose may cause elevated serum calcium which should rapidly subside when treatment is discontinued.

Excessive prolonged use of topical corticosteroids may suppress the pituitary-adrenal functions, resulting in secondary adrenal insufficiency which is usually reversible. In such cases, symptomatic treatment is indicated.

In case of chronic toxicity, the corticosteroid treatment must be discontinued gradually.

It has been reported that due to misuse one patient with extensive erythrodermic psoriasis treated with 240 g of Dovobet ointment weekly (corresponding to a daily dose of approximately 34 g) for 5 months (maximum recommended dose 15 g daily) developed Cushing's syndrome and pustular psoriasis after abruptly stopping treatment.

5. Pharmacological properties
5.1 Pharmacodynamic properties

Pharmacotherapeutic group: Antipsoriatics. Other antipsoriatics for topical use, Calcipotriol, combinations. ATC Code: D05AX52

Calcipotriol is a vitamin D analogue. In vitro data suggest that calcipotriol induces differentiation and suppresses proliferation of keratinocytes. This is the proposed basis for its effect in psoriasis.

Like other topical corticosteroids, betamethasone dipropionate has anti-inflammatory, antipruritic, vasoconstrictive and immunosuppresive properties, however, without curing the underlying condition. Through occlusion the effect can be enhanced due to increased penetration of the stratum corneum. The incidence of adverse events will increase because of this. In general, the mechanism of the anti-inflammatory activity of the topical steroids is unclear.

Adrenal response to ACTH was determined by measuring serum cortisol levels in patients with both extensive scalp and body psoriasis, using up to 106 g per week combined Xamiol gel and Dovobet ointment. A borderline decrease in cortisol response at 30 minutes post ACTH challenge was seen in 5 of 32 patients (15.6 %) after 4 weeks of treatment and in 2 of 11 patients (18.2 %) who continued treatment until 8 weeks. In all cases, the serum cortisol levels were normal at 60 minutes post ACTH challenge. There was no evidence of change of calcium metabolism observed in these patients. With regard to HPA suppression, therefore, this study shows some evidence that very high doses of Xamiol gel and Dovobet ointment may have a weak effect on the HPA axis.

The efficacy of once daily use of Xamiol gel was investigated in two randomised, double-blind, 8-week clinical studies including a total of more than 2,900 patients with scalp psoriasis of at least mild severity according to the Investigator's Global Assessment of disease severity (IGA). Comparators were betamethasone dipropionate in the gel vehicle, calcipotriol in the gel vehicle and (in one of the studies) the gel vehicle alone, all used once daily. Results for the primary response criterion (absent or very mild disease according to the IGA at week 8) showed that Xamiol gel was statistically significantly more effective than the comparators. Results for speed of onset based on similar data at week 2 also showed Xamiol gel to be statistically significantly more effective than the comparators.

% of patients with absent or very mild disease

Xamiol gel (n=1,108)

Betamethasone dipropionate (n=1,118)

Calcipotriol

(n=558)

Gel vehicle (n=136)

week 2

53.2 %

42.8 %1

17.2 %1

11.8 %1

week 8

69.8 %

62.5 %1

40.1 %1

22.8 %1

1 Statistically significantly less effective than Xamiol gel (P<0.001)

Another randomised, investigator-blinded clinical study including 312 patients with scalp psoriasis of at least moderate severity according to the IGA investigated use of Xamiol gel once daily compared with Dovonex Scalp solution twice daily for up to 8 weeks. Results for the primary response criterion (absent or very mild disease according to the IGA at week 8) showed that Xamiol gel was statistically significantly more effective than Dovonex Scalp solution.

% of patients with absent or very mild disease

Xamiol gel (n=207)

Dovonex Scalp solution (n=105)

week 8

68.6 %

31.4 %1

1 Statistically significantly less effective than Xamiol gel (P<0.001)

A randomised, double-blind long-term clinical study including 873 patients with scalp psoriasis of at least moderate severity (according to the IGA) investigated the use of Xamiol gel compared with calcipotriol in the gel vehicle. Both treatments were applied once daily, intermittently as required, for up to 52 weeks. Adverse events possibly related to long-term use of corticosteroids on the scalp, were identified by an independent, blinded panel of dermatologists. There was no difference in the percentages of patients experiencing such adverse events between the treatment groups (2.6 % in the Xamiol gel group and 3.0 % in the calcipotriol group; P=0.73). No cases of skin atrophy were reported.

5.2 Pharmacokinetic properties

The systemic exposure to calcipotriol and betamethasone dipropionate from topically applied Xamiol gel is comparable to Dovobet ointment in rats and minipigs. Clinical studies with radiolabelled ointment indicate that the systemic absorption of calcipotriol and betamethasone from Dovobet ointment formulation is less than 1% of the dose (2.5 g) when applied to normal skin (625 cm2) for 12 hours. Application to psoriasis plaques and under occlusive dressings may increase the absorption of topical corticosteroids. Absorption through damaged skin is approx. 24 %.

Following systemic exposure, both active ingredients – calcipotriol and betamethasone dipropionate – are rapidly and extensively metabolised. Protein binding is approx. 64 %. Plasma elimination half-life after intravenous application is 5-6 hours. Due to the formation of a depot in the skin elimination after dermal application is in order of days. Betamethasone is metabolised especially in the liver, but also in the kidneys to glucuronide and sulphate esters. The main route of excretion of calcipotriol is via faeces (rats and minipigs) and for betamethasone dipropionate it is via urine (rats and mice). In rats, tissue distribution studies with radiolabelled calcipotriol and betamethasone dipropionate, respectively, showed that the kidney and liver had the highest level of radioactivity.

Calcipotriol and betamethasone dipropionate were below the lower limit of quantification in all blood samples of 34 patients treated for 4 or 8 weeks with both Xamiol gel and Dovobet ointment for extensive psoriasis involving the body and scalp. One metabolite of calcipotriol and one metabolite of betamethasone dipropionate were quantifiable in some of the patients.

5.3 Preclinical safety data

Studies of corticosteroids in animals have shown reproductive toxicity (cleft palate, skeletal malformations). In reproduction toxicity studies with long-term oral administration of corticosteroids to rats, prolonged gestation and prolonged and difficult labour were detected. Moreover, reduction in offspring survival, body weight and body weight gain was observed. There was no impairment of fertility. The relevance for humans is unknown.

A dermal carcinogenicity study with calcipotriol in mice revealed no special hazard to humans.

Photo(co)carcinogenicity studies in mice suggest that calcipotriol may enhance the effect of UVR to induce skin tumours.

No carcinogenicity or photocarcinogenicity studies have been performed with betamethasone dipropionate.

In local tolerability studies in rabbits, Xamiol gel caused mild to moderate skin irritation and a slight transient irritation of the eye.

6. Pharmaceutical particulars
6.1 List of excipients

Paraffin, liquid

Polyoxypropylene-15 stearyl ether

Castor oil, hydrogenated

Butylhydroxytoluene (E321)

All-rac-α-tocopherol

6.2 Incompatibilities

In the absence of compatibility studies, this medicinal product must not be mixed with other medicinal products.

6.3 Shelf life

2 years.

After first opening: 3 months.

6.4 Special precautions for storage

Do not refrigerate. Keep the bottle in the outer carton in order to protect from light.

6.5 Nature and contents of container

High-density polyethylene bottles with low-density polyethylene nozzle and a high-density polyethylene screw cap. The bottles are placed in cartons.

Pack sizes: 15, 30, 60 and 2 x 60 g.

Not all pack sizes may be marketed.

6.6 Special precautions for disposal and other handling

Any unused medicinal product or waste material should be disposed of in accordance with local requirements.

7. Marketing authorisation holder

LEO Pharma A/S

Industriparken 55

DK-2750 Ballerup

Denmark

8. Marketing authorisation number(s)

PL 05293/0006

9. Date of first authorisation/renewal of the authorisation

25/09/2008

10. Date of revision of the text

27/01/2012

Company contact details

Leo Laboratories Limited

Company image
Address

Horizon, Honey Lane, Hurley, Berkshire, SL6 6RJ, UK

Medical Information e-mail
Telephone

+44 (0)1844 347 333

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Active ingredients

betamethasone dipropionate, calcipotriol monohydrate

Legal categories

POM - Prescription Only Medicine

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