- 1. Name of the medicinal product
- 2. Qualitative and quantitative composition
- 3. Pharmaceutical form
- 4. Clinical particulars
- 4.1 Therapeutic indications
- 4.2 Posology and method of administration
- 4.3 Contraindications
- 4.4 Special warnings and precautions for use
- 4.5 Interaction with other medicinal products and other forms of interaction
- 4.6 Fertility, pregnancy and lactation
- 4.7 Effects on ability to drive and use machines
- 4.8 Undesirable effects
- 4.9 Overdose
- 5. Pharmacological properties
- 5.1 Pharmacodynamic properties
- 5.2 Pharmacokinetic properties
- 5.3 Preclinical safety data
- 6. Pharmaceutical particulars
- 6.1 List of excipients
- 6.2 Incompatibilities
- 6.3 Shelf life
- 6.4 Special precautions for storage
- 6.5 Nature and contents of container
- 6.6 Special precautions for disposal and other handling
- 7. Marketing authorisation holder
- 8. Marketing authorisation number(s)
- 9. Date of first authorisation/renewal of the authorisation
- 10. Date of revision of the text
Excipient(s) with known effect:Each vial of 5 ml contains 1.29 mmol sodium.For the full list of excipients, see section 6.1.
PosologyThe recommended dosage regimen of Aldurazyme is 100 U/kg body weight administered once every week.
Paediatric populationNo dose adjustment is necessary for the paediatric population.
ElderlyThe safety and efficacy of Aldurazyme in patients older than 65 years have not been established and no dosage regimen can be recommended in these patients.
Renal and hepatic impairmentThe safety and efficacy of Aldurazyme in patients with renal or hepatic insufficiency have not been evaluated and no dosage regimen can be recommended in these patients.
Method of administrationAldurazyme is to be administered as an intravenous infusion.The initial infusion rate of 2 U/kg/h may be incrementally increased every fifteen minutes, if tolerated, to a maximum of 43 U/kg/h. The total volume of the administration should be delivered in approximately 3-4 hours. For information on pre-treatment, see section 4.4.For instruction on dilution of the medicinal product before administration, see section 6.6.
Infusion-associated reactionsPatients treated with Aldurazyme may develop infusion-associated reactions (IARs), defined as any related adverse event occurring during the infusion or until the end of the infusion day (see section 4.8). Some of these IARs may be severe (see below).Patients treated with Aldurazyme should be closely monitored and all cases of infusion-associated reactions, delayed reactions and possible immunological reactions reported. Antibody status should be regularly monitored and reported. Severe IARs have been reported in patients with pre-existent severe underlying upper airway involvement and therefore specifically these patients should continue to be closely monitored and only be infused with Aldurazyme in an appropriate clinical setting where resuscitation equipment to manage medical emergencies would be readily available. Patients with an acute underlying illness at the time of Aldurazyme infusion appear to be at greater risk for IARs. Careful consideration should be given to the patient's clinical status prior to administration of Aldurazyme.Based on the Phase 3 clinical trial, almost all patients are expected to develop IgG antibodies to laronidase, mostly within 3 months of initiation of treatment. Patients who have developed antibodies or symptoms of IARs should be treated with caution when administering Aldurazyme (see sections 4.3 and 4.8).In clinical studies IARs were usually manageable by slowing the rate of infusion and by (pre-) treating the patient with antihistamines and/or antipyretics (paracetamol or ibuprofen), thus enabling the patient to continue treatment. As there is little experience on resumption of treatment following prolonged interruption, use caution due to the theoretical increased risk of hypersensitivity reaction after treatment interruption.With initial administration of Aldurazyme or upon re-administration following interruption of treatment, it is recommended that patients be administered pre-treatment medicines (antihistamines and/or antipyretics) approximately 60 minutes prior to the start of the infusion, to minimise the potential occurrence of IARs. If clinically indicated, administration of pre-treatment medications with subsequent infusions of Aldurazyme should be considered.In case of a mild or moderate IAR, treatment with antihistamines and paracetamol/ibuprofen should be considered and/or a reduction in the infusion rate to half the infusion rate at which the reaction occurred. In case of a single severe IAR, the infusion should be stopped until the symptoms are resolved and treatment with antihistamines and paracetamol/ibuprofen should be considered. The infusion can be restarted with a reduction of the infusion rate to 1/2 1/4 the rate of the infusion at which the reaction occurred.In case of a recurrent moderate IAR or re-challenge after a single severe IAR, pre-treatment should be considered (antihistamines and paracetamol/ibuprofen and/or corticosteroids) and a reduction of the infusion rate to 1/2 1/4 the rate of the infusion at which the previous reaction occurred. As with any intravenous protein product, severe allergic-type hypersensitivity reactions are possible. If these reactions occur, immediate discontinuation of Aldurazyme is recommended and appropriate medical treatment should be initiated. The current medical standards for emergency treatment are to be observed.
ExcipientsThis medicinal product contains sodium and is administered in 0.9% sodium chloride intravenous solution (see section 6.6). To be taken into consideration by patients on a controlled sodium diet.
PregnancyThere are inadequate data on the use of Aldurazyme in pregnant women. Animal studies do not indicate direct or indirect harmful effects on pregnancy, embryonal/foetal development, parturition and postnatal development (see section 5.3). The potential risk for humans is unknown. Therefore Aldurazyme should not be used during pregnancy unless clearly necessary.
Breast-feedingLaronidase may be excreted in milk. Because there are no data available in neonates exposed to laronidase via breast milk, it is recommended to stop breast-feeding during Aldurazyme treatment.
FertilityThere are no clinical data on the effects of laronidase on fertility. Preclinical data did not reveal any significant adverse finding (see section 5.3).
Summary of the safety profileThe majority of the related adverse events in the clinical trials were classified as infusion-associated reactions (IARs), experienced by 53% of the patients in the Phase 3 study (treated for up to 4 years) and 35% of the patients in the under 5 study (up to 1 year of treatment). Some of the IARs were severe. Over time the number of these reactions decreased. The most frequent adverse drug reactions (ADRs) were: headache, nausea, abdominal pain, rash, arthralgia, backpain, pain at extremity, flushing, pyrexia, infusion site reactions, blood pressure increased, oxygen saturation decreased, tachycardia and chills. Post-marketing experience of infusion-associated reactions revealed reporting of cyanosis, hypoxia, tachypnoea, pyrexia, vomiting, chills and erythema, in which some of these reactions were severe.
Tabulated list of adverse reactionsADRs to Aldurazyme reported during the Phase 3 study and its extension in a total of 45 patients age 5 years and older and treated up to 4 years are listed below using the following categories of frequency: very common (≥1/10); common (≥1/100 to <1/10), uncommon (≥1/1,000 to <1/100), rare (≥1/10,000 to <1/1,000), very rare (<1/10,000) and not known (cannot be estimated from the available data). Due to the small patient population, an ADR reported in a single patient is classified as common.
|MedDRA System Organ Class||Very common||Common||Not known|
|Immune system disorders||Anaphylactic reaction|
|Nervous system disorders||Headache||Paraesthesia, dizziness|
|Vascular disorders||Flushing||Hypotension, pallor, peripheral coldness|
|Respiratory, thoracic and mediastinal disorders||Respiratory distress, dyspnoea, cough||Cyanosis, hypoxia, tachypnoea, bronchospasm, respiratory arrest|
|Gastrointestinal disorders||Nausea, abdominal pain||Vomiting, diarrhoea|
|Skin and subcutaneous tissue disorders||Rash||Angioneurotic edema, swelling face, urticaria, pruritus, cold sweat, alopecia, hyperhidrosis||Erythema, facial edema, laryngeal edema, edema peripheral|
|Musculoskeletal and connective tissue disorders||Arthropathy, arthralgia, back pain, pain in extremity||Musculoskeletal pain|
|General disorders and administration site conditions||Pyrexia, infusion site reaction||Chills, feeling hot, feeling cold, fatigue, influenza like illness||Extravasation|
|Investigations||Body temperature increased, oxygen saturation decreased|
Paediatric populationADRs to Aldurazyme reported during a Phase 2 study in a total of 20 patients, under 5 years of age and mainly of the severe phenotype, treated up to 12 months are listed below. ADRs were all mild to moderate in severity.
|MedDRA System Organ Class||MedDRA Preferred term||Frequency|
|Cardiac disorders||tachycardia||Very common|
|General disorders and administration site conditions||pyrexia||Very common|
|Investigations||blood pressure increased||Very common|
|oxygen saturation decreased||Very common|
Description of selected adverse reactions
ImmunogenicityAlmost all patients developed IgG antibodies to laronidase. Most patients seroconverted within 3 months of initiation of treatment; although seroconversion in patients under 5 years old with a more severe phenotype occurred mostly within 1 month (mean 26 days versus 45 days in patients 5 years and older). By the end of the Phase 3 study (or at time of early study withdrawal), 13/45 patients had no detectable antibodies by radioimmunoprecipitation (RIP) assay, including 3 patients that had never seroconverted. Patients with absent to low antibody levels showed a robust reduction in urinary GAG level, whereas patients with high antibody titers showed variable reduction in urinary GAG. The clinical significance of this finding is unknown since there were no consistent relationships between IgG antibody level and clinical efficacy endpoints.In addition 60 patients in the Phase 2 and 3 studies were tested for in-vitro neutralising effects. Four patients (three in the Phase 3 study and one in the Phase 2 study) showed marginal to low level in vitro inhibition of laronidase enzymatic activity, which did not appear to impact clinical efficacy and/or urinary GAG reduction.The presence of antibodies did not appear to be related to the incidence of IARs, although the onset of IARs typically coincided with the formation of IgG antibodies. The occurrence of IgE antibodies was not fully explored. Reporting of suspected adverse reactions Reporting suspected adverse reactions after authorisation of the medicinal product is important. It allows continued monitoring of the benefit/risk balance of the medicinal product. Healthcare professionals are asked to report any suspected adverse reactions via the national reporting system below. United Kingdom Yellow Card Scheme Website: www.mhra.gov.uk/yellowcard Ireland HPRA Pharmacovigilance Earlsfort Terrace IRL - Dublin 2 Tel: +353 1 6764971 Fax: +353 1 6762517 Website: www.hpra.ie e-mail: email@example.com Malta ADR Reporting Website: www.medicinesauthority.gov.mt/adrportal
Mechanism of actionThe rationale for enzyme replacement therapy is to restore a level of enzymatic activity sufficient to hydrolyse the accumulated substrate and to prevent further accumulation. After intravenous infusion, laronidase is rapidly removed from the circulation and taken up by cells into lysosomes, most likely via mannose-6 phosphate receptors.Purified laronidase is a glycoprotein with a molecular weight of approximately 83 kDa. Laronidase is comprised of 628 amino acids after cleavage of the N-terminus. The molecule contains 6 N-linked oligosaccharide modifications sites.
Clinical efficacy and safetyThree clinical trials were performed with Aldurazyme to assess its efficacy and safety. One clinical study focussed mainly on assessing the effect of Aldurazyme on the systemic manifestations of MPS I such as poor endurance, restrictive lung disease, upper airway obstruction, reduced joint range of motion, hepatomegaly and visual impairment. One study mainly assessed the safety and pharmacokinetics of Aldurazyme in patients less than 5 years old, but some efficacy measurements were included as well. The third study was conducted to evaluate the pharmacodynamics and safety of different dose regimens of Aldurazyme.To date there are no clinical data that demonstrate any benefit on the neurological manifestations of the disorder.The safety and efficacy of Aldurazyme was assessed in a randomised, double-blind, placebo controlled, Phase 3 Study of 45 patients, ranging in age from 6 to 43 years. Although patients representing the full range of the disease spectrum were enrolled, the majority of the patients were of the intermediate phenotype, with only one patient exhibiting the severe phenotype. Patients were enrolled with a Forced Vital Capacity (FVC) less than 80% of the predicted value and had to be able to stand for 6 minutes and to walk 5 meters. Patients received either 100 U/kg of Aldurazyme or placebo every week for a total of 26 weeks. The primary efficacy endpoints were changes in percent of predicted normal FVC and absolute distance travelled in the six-minute walk test (6MWT). All patients subsequently enrolled in an open label extension study where they all received 100 U/kg of Aldurazyme every week for an additional 3.5 years (182 weeks).Following 26 weeks of therapy, Aldurazyme-treated patients showed improved respiratory function and walking ability as compared to placebo as indicated below.
|Phase 3, 26 weeks of treatment compared to placebo|
|p value||Confidence interval (95%)|
|Percent Predicted FVC (percentage point)||mean||5.6||-|
|median||3.0||0.009||0.9 - 8.6|
|median||38.5||0.066||-2.0 - 79.0|
|At 208 weeks||At 182 weeks|
|Mean change from pre-treatment baseline|
|Percent predicted FVC (%)1||- 1.2||- 3.3|
|6MWT (meters)||+ 39.2||+ 19.4|
|Apnea/Hypopnea Index (AHI)||- 4.0||- 4.8|
|Shoulder flexion Range Of Motion (degrees)||+ 13.1||+ 18.3|
|CHAQ/HAQ Disability Index 2||- 0.43||- 0.26|
|Parameter||Infusion 1 Mean ± SD||Infusion 12 Mean ± SD||Infusion 26 Mean± SD|
|Cmax (U/ml)||0.197 ± 0.052||0.210 ± 0.079||0.302 ± 0.089|
|AUC ∞ (hU/ml)||0.930 ± 0.214||0.913 ± 0.445||1.191 ± 0.451|
|CL (ml/min/kg)||1.96 ± 0.495||2.31 ± 1.13||1.68 ± 0.763|
|Vz (l/kg)||0.604 ± 0.172||0.307 ± 0.143||0.239 ± 0.128|
|Vss (l/kg)||0.440 ± 0.125||0.252 ± 0.079||0.217 ± 0.081|
|t1/2 (h)||3.61 ± 0.894||2.02 ± 1.26||1.94 ± 1.09|
Preparation of the Aldurazyme Infusion (Use Aseptic Technique)• Determine the number of vials to be diluted based on the individual patient's weight. Remove the required vials from the refrigerator approximately 20 minutes in advance in order to allow them to reach room temperature (below 30°C).• Before dilution, visually inspect each vial for particulate matter and discoloration. The clear to slightly opalescent and colourless to pale yellow solution should be free of visible particles. Do not use vials exhibiting particles or discoloration. • Determine the total volume of infusion based on the individual patient's weight, either 100 ml (if body weight is less or equal than 20 kg) or 250 ml (if body weight is more than 20 kg) of sodium chloride 9 mg/ml (0.9%) solution for infusion. • Withdraw and discard a volume of the sodium chloride 9 mg/ml (0.9%) solution for infusion from the infusion bag equal to the total volume of Aldurazyme to be added.• Withdraw the required volume from the Aldurazyme vials and combine the withdrawn volumes. • Add the combined volumes of Aldurazyme to the sodium chloride 9 mg/ml (0.9%) solution for infusion.• Mix the solution for infusion gently.• Prior to use visually inspect the solution for particulate matter. Only clear and colourless solutions without visible particles should be used.Any unused medicinal product or waste material should be disposed of in accordance with local requirements.
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