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Adartrel 0.25, 0.5, and 2.0 mg film-coated Tablets

Last Updated on eMC 06-Oct-2017 View changes  | GlaxoSmithKline UK Contact details

1. Name of the medicinal product

ADARTREL 0.25, 0.5 or 2.0 mg film-coated tablets.

2. Qualitative and quantitative composition

Each film-coated tablet contains 0.25 / 0.5 / 2.0 mg of ropinirole (as hydrochloride).

Excipient: 45.3 / 45.0 / 44.6mg lactose (as monohydrate)

Excipient(s) with known effect:

Lactose monohydrate

Forthe full list of excipients, see section 6.1.

3. Pharmaceutical form

Film-coated tablet.

0.25 mg:

White pentagonal-shaped, bevelled edge tablets, marked "SB" on one side and "4890" on the other.

0.5 mg:

Yellow pentagonal-shaped, bevelled edge tablets, marked "SB" on one side and "4891" on the other.

2.0 mg:

Pink pentagonal-shaped, bevelled edge tablets, marked "SB" on one side and "4893" on the other.

4. Clinical particulars
4.1 Therapeutic indications

ADARTREL is indicated for the symptomatic treatment of moderate to severe idiopathic Restless Legs Syndrome (see section 5.1).

4.2 Posology and method of administration

Oral use.

Adults

Individual dose titration against efficacy and tolerability is recommended. Ropinirole should be taken just before bedtime, however the dose can be taken up to 3 hours before retiring. Ropinirole may be taken with food, to improve gastrointestinal tolerance.

Treatment initiation (week 1)

The recommended initial dose is 0.25 mg once daily (administered as above) for 2 days. If this dose is well tolerated the dose should be increased to 0.5 mg once daily for the remainder of week 1.

Therapeutic regimen (week 2 onwards)

Following treatment initiation, the daily dose should be increased until optimal therapeutic response is achieved. The average dose in clinical trials, in patients with moderate to severe Restless Legs Syndrome, was 2 mg once a day.

The dose may be increased to 1 mg once a day at week 2. The dose may then be increased by 0.5 mg per week over the next two weeks to a dose of 2 mg once a day. In some patients, to achieve optimal improvement, the dose may be increased gradually up to a maximum of 4 mg once a day. In clinical trials the dose was increased by 0.5 mg each week to 3 mg once a day and then by 1 mg up to the maximum recommended dose of 4 mg once a day as shown in table 1.

Doses above 4 mg once daily have not been investigated in Restless Legs Syndrome patients.

Table 1 Dose titration

Week

2

3

4

5*

6*

7*

Dose (mg)/once daily

1

1.5

2

2.5

3

4

* To achieve optimal improvement in some patients.

The efficacy of ropinirole treatment has not been shown beyond 12 weeks (see Section 5.1). Patient response should be evaluated after 12 weeks treatment and the need for treatment continuation reconsidered. If treatment is interrupted for more than a few days it should be re-initiated by dose titration as noted above.

As with other dopamine agonists, it is necessary to discontinue ropinirole treatment gradually by reducing the daily dose over the period of one week (see section 4.4).

Children and adolescents

ADARTREL is not recommended for use in children below 18 years of age due to a lack of data on safety and efficacy.

Elderly

The clearance of ropinirole is decreased by approximately 15% in patients aged 65 years or above. Although a dose adjustment is not required, ropinirole dose should be individually titrated, with careful monitoring of tolerability, to the optimal clinical response.

Renal impairment

No dosage adjustment is necessary in patients with mild to moderate renal impairment (creatinine clearance between 30 and 50 ml/min).

A study into the use of ropinirole in patients with end stage renal disease (patients on haemodialysis) has shown that a dose adjustment in these patients is required as follows: the recommended initial dose of ADARTREL is 0.25 mg once daily. Further dose escalations should be based on tolerability and efficacy. The recommended maximum dose of ADARTREL is 3 mg/day in patients receiving regular haemodialysis. Supplemental doses after haemodialysis are not required (see section 5.2).

The use of ropinirole in patients with severe renal impairment (creatinine clearance less than 30 ml/min) without regular haemodialysis has not been studied.

4.3 Contraindications

Hypersensitivity to the active substance or to any of the excipients listed in section 6.1.

Severe renal impairment (creatinine clearance <30 ml/min) without regular haemodialysis.

Severe hepatic impairment.

4.4 Special warnings and precautions for use

Ropinirole should not be used to treat neuroleptic akathisia, tasikinesia (neuroleptic-induced compulsive tendency to walk), or secondary Restless Legs Syndrome (e.g. caused by renal failure, iron deficiency anaemia or pregnancy).

Paradoxical worsening of Restless Legs Syndrome symptoms described as augmentation (either earlier onset, increased intensity, or spread of symptoms to previously unaffected limbs), or early morning rebound (reoccurrence of symptoms in the early morning hours), have been observed during treatment with ropinirole. If this occurs, the adequacy of ropinirole treatment should be reviewed and dosage adjustment or discontinuation of treatment may be considered (see section 4.8).

In Parkinson's disease, ropinirole has been associated uncommonly with somnolence and episodes of sudden sleep onset (see section 4.8) however, in Restless Legs Syndrome, this phenomenon is very rare. Nevertheless, patients must be informed of this phenomenon and advised to exercise caution while driving or operating machines during treatment with ropinirole. Patients who have experienced somnolence and/or an episode of sudden sleep onset must refrain from driving or operating machines. A reduction of dosage or termination of therapy may be considered.

Patients with major psychotic disorders should not be treated with dopamine agonists unless the potential benefits outweigh the risks.

Impulse control disorders

Patients should be regularly monitored for the development of impulse control disorders. Patients and carers should be made aware that behavioural symptoms of impulse control disorders including pathological gambling, increased libido, hypersexuality, compulsive spending or buying, binge eating and compulsive eating can occur in patients treated with dopamine agonists including Adartrel. Dose reduction/tapered discontinuation should be considered if such symptoms develop.

Neuroleptic malignant syndrome

Symptoms suggestive of neuroleptic malignant syndrome have been reported with abrupt withdrawal of dopaminergic therapy. Therefore it is recommended to taper treatment (see section 4.2).

Dopamine agonist withdrawal syndrome

Non-motor adverse effects may occur when tapering or discontinuing dopamine agonists including ropinirole. Symptoms include apathy, anxiety, depression, fatigue, sweating and pain which may be severe. Patients should be informed about this before tapering the dopamine agonist, and monitored regularly thereafter. In case of persistent symptoms, it may be necessary to increase the ropinirole dose temporarily (see section 4.8).

Hallucinations

Hallucinations are known as a side effect of treatment with dopamine agonists and levodopa. Patients should be informed that hallucinations can occur.

Ropinirole should be administered with caution to patients with moderate hepatic impairment. Undesirable effects should be closely monitored.

Patients with rare hereditary problems of galactose intolerance, the Lapp lactase deficiency or glucose-galactose malabsorption should not take this medicine.

Due to the risk of hypotension, patients with severe cardiovascular disease (in particular coronary insufficiency) should be treated with caution.

4.5 Interaction with other medicinal products and other forms of interaction

Ropinirole is principally metabolised by the cytochrome P450 isoenzyme CYP1A2. A pharmacokinetic study (with a ropinirole dose of 2 mg, three times a day) revealed that ciprofloxacin increased the Cmax and AUC of ropinirole by 60% and 84% respectively, with a potential risk of adverse events. Hence, in patients already receiving ropinirole, the dose of ropinirole may need to be adjusted when medicinal products known to inhibit CYP1A2, e.g. ciprofloxacin, enoxacin or fluvoxamine, are introduced or withdrawn.

A pharmacokinetic interaction study between ropinirole (at a dose of 2 mg, three times a day) and theophylline, a substrate of CYP1A2, revealed no change in the pharmacokinetics of either ropinirole or theophylline. Therefore, it is not expected that ropinirole will compete with the metabolism of other medicinal products which are metabolised by CYP1A2.

Based on in-vitro data, ropinirole has little potential to inhibit cytochrome P450 at therapeutic doses. Hence, ropinirole is unlikely to affect the pharmacokinetics of other medicinal products, via a cytochrome P450 mechanism.

Smoking is known to induce CYP1A2 metabolism, therefore if patients stop or start smoking during treatment with ropinirole, dose adjustment maybe required.

Increased plasma concentrations of ropinirole have been observed in patients treated with hormone replacement therapy. In patients already receiving hormone replacement therapy, ropinirole treatment may be initiated in the usual manner. However, it may be necessary to adjust the ropinirole dose, in accordance with clinical response, if hormone replacement therapy is stopped or introduced during treatment with ropinirole.

No pharmacokinetic interaction has been seen between ropinirole and domperidone (a medicinal product used to treat nausea and vomiting) that would necessitate dosage adjustment of either medicinal product. Domperidone antagonises the dopaminergic actions of ropinirole peripherally and does not cross the blood-brain barrier. It may therefore have value as an anti-emetic in patients treated with centrally acting dopamine agonists.

Neuroleptics and other centrally active dopamine antagonists, such as sulpiride or metoclopramide, may diminish the effectiveness of ropinirole and, therefore, concomitant use of these medicinal products with ropinirole should be avoided.

In patients receiving the combination of vitamin K antagonists and ropinirole, cases of unbalanced INR have been reported. Increased clinical and biological surveillance (INR) is warranted.

4.6 Fertility, pregnancy and lactation

Pregnancy

There are no adequate data from the use of ropinirole in pregnant women.

Studies in animals have shown reproductive toxicity (see section 5.3). As the potential risk for humans is unknown, it is recommended that ropinirole is not used during pregnancy unless the potential benefit to the patient outweighs the potential risk to the foetus.

Breastfeeding

Ropinirole should not be used in nursing mothers as it may inhibit lactation.

4.7 Effects on ability to drive and use machines

Patients being treated with ropinirole and presenting with somnolence and/or sudden sleep episodes must be informed to refrain from driving or engaging in activities where impaired alertness may put themselves or others at risk of serious injury or death (e.g. operating machines) until such effects have resolved (see section 4.4).

4.8 Undesirable effects

Adverse drug reactions are listed below by system organ class and frequency. Frequencies from clinical trials are determined as excess incidence over placebo and are classed as very common (≥1/10); common (≥1/100 to <1/10); uncommon (≥1/1,000 to <1/100); rare (≥1/10,000 to <1/1,000); very rare (<1/10,000); not known (cannot be estimated from the available data).

Within each frequency grouping, undesirable effects are presented in order of decreasing seriousness.

Use of ropinirole in Restless Legs Syndrome

In Restless Legs Syndrome clinical trials the most common adverse drug reaction was nausea (approximately 30% of patients). Undesirable effects were normally mild to moderate and experienced at the start of therapy or on increase of dose and few patients withdrew from the clinical studies due to undesirable effects.

Table 2 lists the adverse drug reactions reported for ropinirole in the 12-week clinical trials at ≥1.0% above the placebo rate or those reported uncommonly but known to be associated with ropinirole.

Table 2 Adverse drug reactions reported in 12-week Restless Legs Syndrome clinical trials (ropinirole n=309, placebo n=307)

Psychiatric disorders

Common

Nervousness

Uncommon

Confusion

Nervous system disorders

Common

Syncope, somnolence, dizziness (including vertigo)

Vascular disorders

Uncommon

Postural hypotension, hypotension

Gastrointestinal disorders

Very common

Vomiting, nausea

Common

Abdominal pain

General disorders and administration site conditions

Common

Fatigue

Table 3 Adverse drug reactions reported in other Restless Legs Syndrome clinical trials

Psychiatric Disorders

Uncommon

Hallucinations

Nervous system disorders

Common

Augmentation, Early morning rebound (see section 4.4)

Management of undesirable effects

Dose reduction should be considered if patients experience significant undesirable effects. If the undesirable effect abates, gradual up-titration can be re-instituted. Anti-nausea medicinal products that are not centrally active dopamine antagonists, such as domperidone, may be used, if required.

Other experience with ropinirole

Ropinirole is also indicated for the treatment of Parkinson's disease. The adverse drug reactions reported in patients with Parkinson's disease on ropinirole monotherapy and adjunct therapy at doses up to 24 mg/day at an excess incidence over placebo are described below.

Table 4 Adverse drug reactions reported in Parkinson's disease clinical trials at doses up to 24 mg/day

Psychiatric disorders

Common

Hallucinations, confusion

Uncommon

Increased libido

Nervous system disorders

Very common

Syncope, dyskinesia, somnolence

Gastrointestinal disorders

Very common

Nausea

Common

Vomiting, abdominal pain, heartburn

General disorders and administration site conditions

Common

Oedema peripheral (including leg oedema)

Post marketing reports

Hypersensitivity reactions (including urticaria, angioedema, rash, pruritus)

Psychotic reactions (other than hallucinations) including delirium, delusion and paranoia have been reported.

Aggression* (frequency not known)

*Aggression has been associated with psychotic reactions as well as compulsive symptoms.

Psychiatric disorders: Dopamine dysregulation syndrome (frequency not known).

Impulse control disorders (frequency not known)

Pathological gambling, increased libido, hypersexuality, compulsive spending or buying, binge eating and compulsive eating can occur in patients treated with dopamine agonists including ADARTREL. (see section 4.4. 'Special warnings and precautions for use').

Dopamine agonist withdrawal syndrome (frequency not known)

Including apathy, anxiety, depression, fatigue, sweating and pain. Non-motor adverse effects may occur when tapering or discontinuing dopamine agonists including ropinirole (see section 4.4).

In Parkinson's disease, ropinirole is associated with somnolence and has been associated uncommonly (≥1/1,000 to <1/100) with excessive daytime somnolence and sudden sleep onset episodes, however, in Restless Legs Syndrome, this phenomenon is very rare (<1/10,000).

Following ropinirole therapy, postural hypotension or hypotension has been reported uncommonly (≥1/1,000 to <1/100), rarely severe.

Very rare cases of hepatic reactions (<1/10,000), mainly increase of liver enzymes, have been reported.

Reporting of suspected adverse reactions

Reporting suspected adverse reactions after authorisation of the medicinal product is important. It allows continued monitoring of the benefit/risk balance of the medicinal product. Healthcare professionals are asked to report any suspected adverse reactions via the Yellow Card Scheme at: www.mhra.gov.uk/yellowcard.

4.9 Overdose

The symptoms of ropinirole overdose are related to its dopaminergic activity. These symptoms may be alleviated by appropriate treatment with dopamine antagonists such as neuroleptics or metoclopramide.

5. Pharmacological properties
5.1 Pharmacodynamic properties

Pharmacotherapeutic group: Dopamine agonist, ATC code: N04BC04.

Mechanism of action

Ropinirole is a non ergoline D2/D3 dopamine agonist which stimulates striatal dopamine receptors.

Clinical efficacy

ADARTREL should only be prescribed to patients with moderate to severe idiopathic Restless Legs Syndrome. Moderate to severe idiopathic Restless Legs Syndrome is typically represented by patients who suffer with insomnia or severe discomfort in the limbs.

In the four 12-week efficacy studies, patients with Restless Legs Syndrome were randomised to ropinirole or placebo, and the effects on the IRLS scale scores at week 12 were compared to baseline. The mean dose of ropinirole for the moderate to severe patients was 2.0 mg/day. In a combined analysis of moderate to severe Restless Legs Syndrome patients from the four 12-week studies, the adjusted treatment difference for the change from baseline in IRLS scale total score at week 12 Last Observation Carried Forward (LOCF) Intention To Treat population was -4.0 points (95% CI -5.6, -2.4, p<0.0001; baseline and week 12 LOCF mean IRLS points: ropinirole 28.4 and 13.5; placebo 28.2 and 17.4).

A 12-week placebo-controlled polysomnography study in Restless Legs Syndrome patients examined the effect of treatment with ropinirole on periodic leg movements of sleep. A statistically significant difference in the periodic leg movements of sleep was seen between ropinirole and placebo from baseline to week 12.

A combined analysis of data from moderate to severe Restless Legs Syndrome patients, in the four 12-week placebo-controlled studies, indicated that ropinirole-treated patients reported significant improvements over placebo on the parameters of the Medical Outcome Study Sleep Scale (scores on 0-100 range except sleep quantity). The adjusted treatment differences between ropinirole and placebo were: sleep disturbance (-15.2, 95% CI -19.37, -10.94; p<0.0001), sleep quantity (0.7 hours, 95% CI 0.49, 0.94); p<0.0001), sleep adequacy (18.6, 95% CI 13.77, 23.45; p<0.0001) and daytime somnolence (-7.5, 95% CI -10.86, -4.23; p<0.0001).

Long term efficacy was evaluated in a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial of 26 weeks. Overall results were difficult to interpret due to significant centre treatment interaction and the high proportion of missing data. No maintenance of efficacy at 26 weeks compared to placebo could be shown.

Study of the effect of ropinirole on cardiac repolarisation

A thorough QT study conducted in male and female healthy volunteers who received doses of 0.5, 1, 2 and 4 mg of ropinirole film-coated (immediate release) tablets once daily showed a maximum increase of the QT interval duration at the 1mg dose of 3.46 milliseconds (point estimate) as compared to placebo. The upper bound of the one sided 95% confidence interval for the largest mean effect was less than 7.5 milliseconds. The effect of ropinirole at higher doses has not been systematically evaluated.

The available clinical data from a thorough QT study do not indicate a risk of QT prolongation at doses of ropinirole up to 4 mg /day.

In clinical studies most patients were of Caucasian origin.

5.2 Pharmacokinetic properties

Absorption

The bioavailability of ropinirole is about 50% (36% to 57%), with Cmax reached on average 1.5 hours after the dose. A high fat meal decreases the rate of absorption of ropinirole, as shown by a delay in median Tmax by 2.6 hours and an average 25% decrease in Cmax

Distribution

Plasma protein binding of ropinirole is low (10 – 40%). Consistent with its high lipophilicity, ropinirole exhibits a large volume of distribution (approx. 7 l/kg).

Biotransformation

Ropinirole is primarily cleared by the cytochrome P450 enzyme, CYP1A2, and its metabolites are mainly excreted in the urine. The major metabolite is at least 100 times less potent than ropinirole in animal models of dopaminergic function.

Elimination

Ropinirole is cleared from the systemic circulation with an average elimination half-life of approximately 6 hours. No change in the oral clearance of ropinirole is observed following single and repeated oral administration. Wide inter-individual variability in the pharmacokinetic parameters has been observed.

Linearity/non-linearity

The pharmacokinetics of ropinirole are linear overall (Cmax and AUC) in the therapeutic range between 0.25 mg and 4 mg, after a single dose and after repeated dosing.

Population-related characteristics

Oral clearance of ropinirole is reduced by approximately 15% in elderly patients (65 years or above) compared to younger patients. Dosage adjustment is not necessary in the elderly.

Renal Impairment

In patients with mild to moderate renal impairment (creatinine clearance between 30 and 50 ml/min), no change in the pharmacokinetics of ropinirole is observed.

In patients with end stage renal disease receiving regular haemodialysis, oral clearance of ropinirole is reduced by approximately 30%. Oral clearance of the metabolites SKF-104557 and SKF-89124 were also reduced by approximately 80% and 60%, respectively. Therefore, the recommended maximum dose is limited to 3 mg/day in these patients with RLS (see section 4.2).

Paediatric population

Limited pharmacokinetic data obtained in adolescents (12-17 years, n=9) showed that the systemic exposure following single doses of 0.125 mg and 0.25 mg was similar to that observed in adults (see also section 4.2; subparagraph "Children and adolescents")

5.3 Preclinical safety data

Toxicology

The toxicology profile is principally determined by the pharmacological activity of ropinirole: behavioural changes, hypoprolactinaemia, decrease in blood pressure and heart rate, ptosis and salivation. In the albino rat only, retinal degeneration was observed in a long term study at the highest dose (50 mg/kg/day), and was probably associated with an increased exposure to light.

Genotoxicity

Genotoxicity was not observed in the usual battery of in vitro and in vivo tests.

Carcinogenicity

From two-year studies conducted in the mouse and rat at dosages up to 50 mg/kg/day there was no evidence of any carcinogenic effect in the mouse. In the rat, the only ropinirole-related lesions were Leydig cell hyperplasia and testicular adenoma resulting from the hypoprolactinaemic effect of ropinirole. These lesions are considered to be a species specific phenomenon and do not constitute a hazard with regard to the clinical use of ropinirole.

Reproductive Toxicity

Administration of ropinirole to pregnant rats at maternally toxic doses resulted in decreased foetal body weight at 60 mg/kg/day (approximately 15 times the AUC at the maximum dose in humans), increased foetal death at 90 mg/kg/day (approximately 25 times the AUC at the maximum dose in humans) and digit malformations at 150 mg/kg/day (approximately 40 times the AUC at the maximum dose in humans). There were no teratogenic effects in the rat at 120 mg/kg/day (approximately 30 times the AUC at the maximum dose in humans) and no indication of an effect on development in the rabbit.

Safety Pharmacology

In vitro studies have shown that ropinirole inhibits hERG-mediated currents. The IC50 is at least 30-fold higher than the expected maximum plasma concentration in patients treated at the highest recommended dose (4 mg/day) (see section 5.1).

6. Pharmaceutical particulars
6.1 List of excipients

Tablet cores:

Lactose monohydrate

Microcrystalline cellulose

Croscarmellose sodium

Magnesium stearate.

Film coating:

0.25mg (white): Hypromellose, Macrogol 400, Titanium dioxide (E171), Polysorbate 80 (E433).

0.5mg (yellow): Hypromellose, Macrogol 400, Titanium dioxide (E171), iron oxide yellow (E172), iron oxide red (E172), indigo carmine aluminium lake (E132).

2.0 mg (pink): Hypromellose, Macrogol 400, Titanium dioxide (E171), iron oxide yellow (E172), iron oxide red (E172).

6.2 Incompatibilities

Not applicable.

6.3 Shelf life

2 years.

6.4 Special precautions for storage

Do not store above 25 °C.

Store in the original package.

For storage conditions after first opening of the medicinal product, see section 6.3.

6.5 Nature and contents of container

0.25mg:

PVC/PE/PVdC-Aluminium /paper child-resistant blister in cartons of 2 or 12 tablets

0.5mg :

PVC/PE/PVdC-Aluminium/paper child-resistant blister in cartons of 28 or 84 tablets

2.0 mg:

PVC/PE/PVdC-Aluminium/paper child-resistant blister in cartons of 28 or 84 tablets

Not all pack sizes may be marketed.

6.6 Special precautions for disposal and other handling

No special requirements for disposal.

7. Marketing authorisation holder

GlaxoSmithKline UK Limited

980 Great West Road

Brentford

Middlesex

TW8 9GS

Trading as:

GlaxoSmithKline UK

Stockley Park West

Uxbridge

Middlesex

UB11 1BT

8. Marketing authorisation number(s)

Adartrel 0.25 mg film coated tablets

PL 19494/0033

Adartrel 0.5 mg film coated tablets

PL 19494/0034

Adartrel 2.0 mg film coated tablets

PL 19494/0036

9. Date of first authorisation/renewal of the authorisation

10 May 2006 / 27 July 2009

10. Date of revision of the text

25th September 2017

Company contact details

GlaxoSmithKline UK

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Address

Stockley Park West, Uxbridge, Middlesex, UB11 1BT

Fax

+44 (0)208 990 4328

Medical Information e-mail
Telephone

0800 221 441

E-mail
Customer Care direct line

0800 221 441

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Active ingredients

ropinirole hydrochloride

Legal categories

POM - Prescription Only Medicine

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