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Tarceva 25mg, 100mg and 150mg Film-Coated Tablets

Last Updated on eMC 27-Jan-2014 View changes  | Roche Products Limited Contact details

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Tarceva (erlotinib): Dosing Guidelines & Side-effect management Strategy

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1. Name of the medicinal product

Tarceva 25 mg, 100 mg and 150 mg film coated tablets

2. Qualitative and quantitative composition

Tarceva 25 mg

One film coated tablet contains 25 mg erlotinib (as erlotinib hydrochloride).

Excipients with known effect: Each film-coated tablet contains 27.43 mg Lactose monohydrate.

Tarceva 100 mg

One film coated tablet contains 100 mg erlotinib (as erlotinib hydrochloride).

Excipients with known effect: Each film-coated tablet contains 69.21 mg Lactose monohydrate.

Tarceva 150 mg

One film coated tablet contains 150 mg erlotinib (as erlotinib hydrochloride).

Excipients with known effect: Each film-coated tablet contains 103.82 mg Lactose monohydrate.

For the full list of excipients, see section 6.1.

3. Pharmaceutical form

Film-coated tablet.

White to yellowish, round, biconvex tablets with 'T 25' engraved on one side.

White to yellowish, round, biconvex tablets with 'T 100' engraved on one side.

White to yellowish, round, biconvex tablets with 'T 150' engraved on one side.

4. Clinical particulars
4.1 Therapeutic indications

Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC):

Tarceva is indicated for the first-line treatment of patients with locally advanced or metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with EGFR activating mutations.

Tarceva is also indicated as monotherapy for maintenance treatment in patients with locally advanced or metastatic NSCLC with stable disease after 4 cycles of standard platinum-based first-line chemotherapy.

Tarceva is also indicated for the treatment of patients with locally advanced or metastatic NSCLC after failure of at least one prior chemotherapy regimen.

When prescribing Tarceva, factors associated with prolonged survival should be taken into account.

No survival benefit or other clinically relevant effects of the treatment have been demonstrated in patients with Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR)-IHC negative tumours (see section 5.1).

Pancreatic cancer:

Tarceva in combination with gemcitabine is indicated for the treatment of patients with metastatic pancreatic cancer.

When prescribing Tarceva, factors associated with prolonged survival should be taken into account (see sections 4.2 and 5.1).

No survival advantage could be shown for patients with locally advanced disease.

4.2 Posology and method of administration

Tarceva treatment should be supervised by a physician experienced in the use of anti-cancer therapies.

Patients with Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer:

EGFR mutation testing should be performed prior to initiation of Tarceva therapy in chemo-naïve patients with advanced or metastatic NSCLC.

The recommended daily dose of Tarceva is 150 mg taken at least one hour before or two hours after the ingestion of food.

Patients with pancreatic cancer:

The recommended daily dose of Tarceva is 100 mg taken at least one hour before or two hours after the ingestion of food, in combination with gemcitabine (see the summary of product characteristics of gemcitabine for the pancreatic cancer indication). In patients who do not develop rash within the first 4 – 8 weeks of treatment, further Tarceva treatment should be re-assessed (see section 5.1).

When dose adjustment is necessary, the dose should be reduced in 50 mg steps (see section 4.4).

Tarceva is available in strengths of 25 mg, 100 mg and 150 mg.

Concomitant use of CYP3A4 substrates and modulators may require dose adjustment (see section 4.5).

Patients with hepatic impairment: Erlotinib is eliminated by hepatic metabolism and biliary excretion. Although erlotinib exposure was similar in patients with moderately impaired hepatic function (Child-Pugh score 7-9) compared with patients with adequate hepatic function, caution should be used when administering Tarceva to patients with hepatic impairment. Dose reduction or interruption of Tarceva should be considered if severe adverse reactions occur. The safety and efficacy of erlotinib has not been studied in patients with severe hepatic dysfunction (AST/SGOT and ALT/SGPT> 5 x ULN). Use of Tarceva in patients with severe hepatic dysfunction is not recommended (see section 5.2).

Patients with renal impairment: The safety and efficacy of erlotinib has not been studied in patients with renal impairment (serum creatinine concentration >1.5 times the upper normal limit). Based on pharmacokinetic data no dose adjustments appear necessary in patients with mild or moderate renal impairment (see section 5.2). Use of Tarceva in patients with severe renal impairment is not recommended.

Paediatric population: The safety and efficacy of erlotinib in patients under the age of 18 years has not been established. Use of Tarceva in paediatric patients is not recommended.

Smokers: Cigarette smoking has been shown to reduce erlotinib exposure by 50-60%. The maximum tolerated dose of Tarceva in NSCLC patients who currently smoke cigarettes was 300 mg. Efficacy and long term safety of a dose higher than the recommended starting doses have not been established in patients who continue to smoke cigarettes (see sections 4.5 and 5.2). Therefore, current smokers should be advised to stop smoking, as plasma concentrations of erlotinib in smokers as compared to non-smokers are reduced.

4.3 Contraindications

Hypersensitivity to erlotinib or to any of the excipients listed in section 6.1.

4.4 Special warnings and precautions for use

Assessment of EGFR mutation status

When assessing the EGFR mutation status of a patient, it is important that a well-validated and robust methodology is chosen to avoid false negative or false positive determinations.

Smokers

Current smokers should be advised to stop smoking, as plasma concentrations of erlotinib in smokers as compared to non-smokers are reduced. The degree of reduction is likely to be clinically significant (see section 4.5).

Interstitial Lung Disease

Cases of interstitial lung disease (ILD)-like events, including fatalities, have been reported uncommonly in patients receiving Tarceva for treatment of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), pancreatic cancer or other advanced solid tumours. In the pivotal study BR.21 in NSCLC, the incidence of ILD (0.8%) was the same in both the placebo and Tarceva groups. In the pancreatic cancer study in combination with gemcitabine, the incidence of ILD-like events was 2.5% in the Tarceva plus gemcitabine group versus 0.4% in the placebo plus gemcitabine treated group. The overall incidence in Tarceva-treated patients from all studies (including uncontrolled studies and studies with concurrent chemotherapy) is approximately 0.6% compared to 0.2% in patients on placebo. Reported diagnoses in patients suspected of having ILD-like events included pneumonitis, radiation pneumonitis, hypersensitivity pneumonitis, interstitial pneumonia, interstitial lung disease, obliterative bronchiolitis, pulmonary fibrosis, Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS), alveolitis, and lung infiltration. Symptoms started from a few days to several months after initiating Tarceva therapy. Confounding or contributing factors such as concomitant or prior chemotherapy, prior radiotherapy, pre-existing parenchymal lung disease, metastatic lung disease, or pulmonary infections were frequent. A higher incidence of ILD (approximately 5% with a mortality rate of 1.5%) is seen among patients with Japanese origin.

In patients who develop acute onset of new and/or progressive unexplained pulmonary symptoms such as dyspnoea, cough and fever, Tarceva therapy should be interrupted pending diagnostic evaluation. Patients treated concurrently with erlotinib and gemcitabine should be monitored carefully for the possibility to develop ILD-like toxicity. If ILD is diagnosed, Tarceva should be discontinued and appropriate treatment initiated as necessary (see section 4.8).

Diarrhoea, dehydration, electrolyte imbalance and renal failure

Diarrhoea (including very rare cases with a fatal outcome) has occurred in approximately 50% of patients on Tarceva and moderate or severe diarrhoea should be treated with e.g. loperamide. In some cases dose reduction may be necessary. In the clinical studies doses were reduced by 50 mg steps. Dose reductions by 25 mg steps have not been investigated. In the event of severe or persistent diarrhoea, nausea, anorexia, or vomiting associated with dehydration, Tarceva therapy should be interrupted and appropriate measures should be taken to treat the dehydration (see section 4.8). There have been rare reports of hypokalaemia and renal failure (including fatalities). Some cases were secondary to severe dehydration due to diarrhoea, vomiting and/or anorexia, while others were confounded by concomitant chemotherapy. In more severe or persistent cases of diarrhoea, or cases leading to dehydration, particularly in groups of patients with aggravating risk factors (especially concomitant chemotherapy and other medications, symptoms or diseases or other predisposing conditions including advanced age), Tarceva therapy should be interrupted and appropriate measures should be taken to intensively rehydrate the patients intravenously. In addition, renal function and serum electrolytes including potassium should be monitored in patients at risk of dehydration.

Hepatitis, hepatic failure

Rare cases of hepatic failure (including fatalities) have been reported during use of Tarceva. Confounding factors have included pre-existing liver disease or concomitant hepatotoxic medications. Therefore, in such patients, periodic liver function testing should be considered. Tarceva dosing should be interrupted if changes in liver function are severe (see section 4.8). Tarceva is not recommended for use in patients with severe hepatic dysfunction.

Gastrointestinal perforation

Patients receiving Tarceva are at increased risk of developing gastrointestinal perforation, which was observed uncommonly (including some cases with a fatal outcome). Patients receiving concomitant anti-angiogenic agents, corticosteroids, NSAIDs, and/or taxane based chemotherapy, or who have prior history of peptic ulceration or diverticular disease are at increased risk. Tarceva should be permanently discontinued in patients who develop gastrointestinal perforation (see section 4.8).

Bullous and exfoliative skin disorders

Bullous, blistering and exfoliative skin conditions have been reported, including very rare cases suggestive of Stevens-Johnson syndrome/Toxic epidermal necrolysis, which in some cases were fatal (see section 4.8). Tarceva treatment should be interrupted or discontinued if the patient develops severe bullous, blistering or exfoliating conditions. Patients with bullous and exfoliative skin disorders should be tested for skin infection and treated according to local management guidelines.

Ocular disorders

Patients presenting with signs and symptoms suggestive of keratitis such as acute or worsening: eye inflammation, lacrimation, light sensitivity, blurred vision, eye pain and/or red eye should be referred promptly to an ophthalmology specialist. If a diagnosis of ulcerative keratitis is confirmed, treatment with Tarceva should be interrupted or discontinued. If keratitis is diagnosed, the benefits and risks of continuing treatment should be carefully considered. Tarceva should be used with caution in patients with a history of keratitis, ulcerative keratitis or severe dry eye. Contact lens use is also a risk factor for keratitis and ulceration.Very rare cases of corneal perforation or ulceration have been reported during use of Tarceva (see section 4.8).

Interactions with other medicinal products

Potent inducers of CYP3A4 may reduce the efficacy of erlotinib whereas potent inhibitors of CYP3A4 may lead to increased toxicity. Concomitant treatment with these types of agents should be avoided (see section 4.5).

Other forms of interactions

Erlotinib is characterised by a decrease in solubility at pH above 5. Medicinal products that alter the pH of the upper Gastro-Intestinal (GI) tract, like proton pump inhibitors, H2 antagonists and antacids, may alter the solubility of erlotinib and hence its bioavailability. Increasing the dose of Tarceva when co-administered with such agents is not likely to compensate for the loss of exposure. Combination of erlotinib with proton pump inhibitors should be avoided. The effects of concomitant administration of erlotinib with H2 antagonists and antacids are unknown; however, reduced bioavailability is likely. Therefore, concomitant administration of these combinations should be avoided (see section 4.5). If the use of antacids is considered necessary during treatment with Tarceva, they should be taken at least 4 hours before or 2 hours after the daily dose of Tarceva.

The tablets contain lactose and should not be administered to patients with rare hereditary problems of galactose intolerance, Lapp lactase deficiency or glucose-galactose malabsorption.

4.5 Interaction with other medicinal products and other forms of interaction

Interaction studies have only been performed in adults.

Erlotinib and other CYP substrates

Erlotinib is a potent inhibitor of CYP1A1, and a moderate inhibitor of CYP3A4 and CYP2C8, as well as a strong inhibitor of glucuronidation by UGT1A1 in vitro.

The physiological relevance of the strong inhibition of CYP1A1 is unknown due to the very limited expression of CYP1A1 in human tissues.

When erlotinib was co-administered with ciprofloxacin, a moderate CYP1A2 inhibitor, the erlotinib exposure [AUC] increased significantly by 39%, while no statistically significant change in Cmax was found. Similarly, the exposure to the active metabolite increased by about 60% and 48% for AUC and Cmax, respectively. The clinical relevance of this increase has not been established. Caution should be exercised when ciprofloxacin or potent CYP1A2 inhibitors (e.g. fluvoxamine) are combined with erlotinib. If adverse reactions related to erlotinib are observed, the dose of erlotinib may be reduced.

Pre-treatment or co-administration of Tarceva did not alter the clearance of the prototypical CYP3A4 substrates, midazolam and erythromycin, but did appear to decrease the oral bioavailability of midazolam by up to 24%. In another clinical study, erlotinib was shown not to affect pharmacokinetics of the concomitantly administered CYP3A4/2C8 substrate paclitaxel. Significant interactions with the clearance of other CYP3A4 substrates are therefore unlikely.

The inhibition of glucuronidation may cause interactions with medicinal products which are substrates of UGT1A1 and exclusively cleared by this pathway. Patients with low expression levels of UGT1A1 or genetic glucuronidation disorders (e.g. Gilbert's disease) may exhibit increased serum concentrations of bilirubin and must be treated with caution.

Erlotinib is metabolised in the liver by the hepatic cytochromes in humans, primarily CYP3A4 and to a lesser extent by CYP1A2. Extrahepatic metabolism by CYP3A4 in intestine, CYP1A1 in lung, and CYP1B1 in tumour tissue also potentially contribute to the metabolic clearance of erlotinib. Potential interactions may occur with active substances which are metabolised by, or are inhibitors or inducers of, these enzymes.

Potent inhibitors of CYP3A4 activity decrease erlotinib metabolism and increase erlotinib plasma concentrations. In a clinical study, the concomitant use of erlotinib with ketoconazole (200 mg orally twice daily for 5 days), a potent CYP3A4 inhibitor, resulted in an increase of erlotinib exposure (86% of AUC and 69% of Cmax). Therefore, caution should be used when erlotinib is combined with a potent CYP3A4 inhibitor, e.g. azole antifungals (i.e. ketoconazole, itraconazole, voriconazole), protease inhibitors, erythromycin or clarithromycin. If necessary the dose of erlotinib should be reduced, particularly if toxicity is observed.

Potent inducers of CYP3A4 activity increase erlotinib metabolism and significantly decrease erlotinib plasma concentrations. In a clinical study, the concomitant use of erlotinib and rifampicin (600 mg orally once daily for 7 days), a potent CYP3A4 inducer, resulted in a 69% decrease in the median erlotinib AUC. Co-administration of rifampicin with a single 450 mg dose of Tarceva resulted in a mean erlotinib exposure (AUC) of 57.5% of that after a single 150 mg Tarceva dose in the absence of rifampicin treatment. Co-administration of Tarceva with CYP3A4 inducers should therefore be avoided. For patients who require concomitant treatment with Tarceva and a potent CYP3A4 inducer such as rifampicin an increase in dose to 300 mg should be considered while their safety (including renal and liver functions and serum electrolytes) is closely monitored, and if well tolerated for more than 2 weeks, further increase to 450 mg could be considered with close safety monitoring. Reduced exposure may also occur with other inducers e.g. phenytoin, carbamazepine, barbiturates or St. John's Wort (hypericum perforatum). Caution should be observed when these active substances are combined with erlotinib. Alternate treatments lacking potent CYP3A4 inducing activity should be considered when possible.

Erlotinib and coumarin-derived anticoagulants

Interaction with coumarin-derived anticoagulants including warfarin leading to increased International Normalized Ratio (INR) and bleeding events, which in some cases were fatal, have been reported in patients receiving Tarceva. Patients taking coumarin-derived anticoagulants should be monitored regularly for any changes in prothrombin time or INR.

Erlotinib and statins

The combination of Tarceva and a statin may increase the potential for statin-induced myopathy, including rhabdomyolysis, which was observed rarely.

Erlotinib and smokers

Results of a pharmacokinetic interaction study indicated a significant 2.8-, 1.5- and 9-fold reduced AUCinf, Cmax and plasma concentration at 24 hours, respectively, after administration of Tarceva in smokers as compared to non-smokers (see section 5.2). Therefore, patients who are still smoking should be encouraged to stop smoking as early as possible before initiation of treatment with Tarceva, as plasma erlotinib concentrations are reduced otherwise. The clinical effect of the decreased exposure has not been formally assessed but it is likely to be clinically significant.

Erlotinib and P-glycoprotein inhibitors

Erlotinib is a substrate for the P-glycoprotein active substance transporter. Concomitant administration of inhibitors of Pgp, e.g. cyclosporine and verapamil, may lead to altered distribution and/or altered elimination of erlotinib. The consequences of this interaction for e.g. CNS toxicity have not been established. Caution should be exercised in such situations.

Erlotinib and medicinal products altering pH

Erlotinib is characterised by a decrease in solubility at pH above 5. Medicinal products that alter the pH of the upper Gastro-Intestinal (GI) tract may alter the solubility of erlotinib and hence its bioavailability. Co-administration of erlotinib with omeprazole, a proton pump inhibitor (PPI), decreased the erlotinib exposure [AUC] and maximum concentration [Cmax] by 46% and 61%, respectively. There was no change to Tmax or half-life. Concomitant administration of Tarceva with 300 mg ranitidine, an H2-receptor antagonist, decreased erlotinib exposure [AUC] and maximum concentrations [Cmax] by 33% and 54%, respectively. Increasing the dose of Tarceva when co-administered with such agents is not likely to compensate for this loss of exposure. However, when Tarceva was dosed in a staggered manner 2 hours before or 10 hours after ranitidine 150 mg b.i.d., erlotinib exposure [AUC] and maximum concentrations [Cmax] decreased only by 15% and 17%, respectively. The effect of antacids on the absorption of erlotinib has not been investigated but absorption may be impaired, leading to lower plasma levels. In summary, the combination of erlotinib with proton pump inhibitors should be avoided. If the use of antacids is considered necessary during treatment with Tarceva, they should be taken at least 4 hours before or 2 hours after the daily dose of Tarceva. If the use of ranitidine is considered, it should be used in a staggered manner; i.e. Tarceva must be taken at least 2 hours before or 10 hours after ranitidine dosing.

Erlotinib and Gemcitabine

In a Phase Ib study, there were no significant effects of gemcitabine on the pharmacokinetics of erlotinib nor were there significant effects of erlotinib on the pharmacokinetics of gemcitabine.

Erlotinib and Carboplatin/Paclitaxel

Erlotinib increases platinum concentrations. In a clinical study, the concomitant use of erlotinib with carboplatin and paclitaxel led to an increase of total platinum AUC0-48 of 10.6%. Although statistically significant, the magnitude of this difference is not considered to be clinically relevant. In clinical practice, there may be other co-factors leading to an increased exposure to carboplatin like renal impairment. There were no significant effects of carboplatin or paclitaxel on the pharmacokinetics of erlotinib.

Erlotinib and Capecitabine

Capecitabine may increase erlotinib concentrations. When erlotinib was given in combination with capecitabine, there was a statistically significant increase in erlotinib AUC and a borderline increase in Cmax when compared with values observed in another study in which erlotinib was given as single agent. There were no significant effects of erlotinib on the pharmacokinetics of capecitabine.

Erlotinib and proteasome inhibitors

Due to the working mechanism, proteasome inhibitors including bortezomib may be expected to influence the effect of EGFR inhibitors including erlotinib. Such influence is supported by limited clinical data and preclinical studies showing EGFR degradation through the proteasome.

4.6 Fertility, pregnancy and lactation

Pregnancy

There are no adequate data for the use of erlotinib in pregnant women. Studies in animals have shown no evidence of teratogenicity or abnormal parturition. However, an adverse effect on the pregnancy can not be excluded as rat and rabbit studies have shown increased embryo/foetal lethality, (see section 5.3). The potential risk for humans is unknown.

Women of childbearing potential

Women of childbearing potential must be advised to avoid pregnancy while on Tarceva. Adequate contraceptive methods should be used during therapy, and for at least 2 weeks after completing therapy. Treatment should only be continued in pregnant women if the potential benefit to the mother outweighs the risk to the foetus.

Breast-feeding

It is not known whether erlotinib is excreted in human milk. Because of the potential harm to the infant, mothers should be advised against breast-feeding while receiving Tarceva.

Fertility

Studies in animals have shown no evidence of impaired fertility. However, an adverse effect on the fertility can not be excluded as animal studies have shown effects on reproductive parameters (see section 5.3).The potential risk for humans is unknown.

4.7 Effects on ability to drive and use machines

No studies on the effects on the ability to drive and use machines have been performed; however erlotinib is not associated with impairment of mental ability.

4.8 Undesirable effects

Non-small cell lung cancer (Tarceva administered as monotherapy):

In a randomized double-blind study (BR.21; Tarceva administered as second line therapy), rash (75%) and diarrhoea (54%) were the most commonly reported adverse drug reactions (ADRs). Most were Grade 1/2 in severity and manageable without intervention. Grade 3/4 rash and diarrhoea occurred in 9% and 6%, respectively in Tarceva-treated patients and each resulted in study discontinuation in 1% of patients. Dose reduction for rash and diarrhoea was needed in 6% and 1% of patients, respectively. In study BR.21, the median time to onset of rash was 8 days, and the median time to onset of diarrhoea was 12 days.

In general, rash manifests as a mild or moderate erythematous and papulopustular rash, which may occur or worsen in sun exposed areas. For patients who are exposed to sun, protective clothing, and/or use of sun screen (e.g. mineral-containing) may be advisable.

Adverse reactions occurring more frequently (≥3%) in Tarceva-treated patients than in the placebo group in the pivotal study BR.21, and in at least 10% of patients in the Tarceva group, are summarised by National Cancer Institute-Common Toxicity Criteria (NCI-CTC) Grade in Table 1.

The following terms are used to rank the undesirable effects by frequency: very common (≥1/10); common (≥1/100 to <1/10); uncommon (≥1/1,000 to <1/100); rare (≥1/10,000 to <1/1,000); very rare (<1/10,000) including isolated reports.

Within each frequency grouping, adverse reactions are presented in order of decreasing seriousness.

Table 1: Very common ADRs in study BR.21

 

Erlotinib

N = 485

Placebo

N = 242

NCI-CTC Grade

Any Grade

3

4

Any Grade

3

4

MedDRA Preferred Term

%

%

%

%

%

%

Total patients with any AE

99

40

22

96

36

22

Infections and infestations

Infection*

 

24

 

4

 

0

 

15

 

2

 

0

Metabolism and nutrition disorders

Anorexia

 

52

 

8

 

1

 

38

 

5

 

<1

Eye disorders

Keratoconjunctivitis sicca

Conjunctivitis

 

12

12

 

0

<1

 

0

0

 

3

2

 

0

<1

 

0

0

Respiratory, thoracic and mediastinal disorders

Dyspnoea

Cough

 

41

33

 

17

4

 

11

0

 

35

29

 

15

2

 

11

0

Gastrointestinal disorders

Diarrhoea**

Nausea

Vomiting

Stomatitis

Abdominal pain

 

54

33

23

17

11

 

6

3

2

<1

2

 

<1

0

<1

0

<1

 

18

24

19

3

7

 

<1

2

2

0

1

 

0

0

0

0

<1

Skin and subcutaneous tissue disorders

Rash***

Pruritus

Dry skin

 

75

13

12

 

8

<1

0

 

<1

0

0

 

17

5

4

 

0

0

0

 

0

0

0

General disorders and administration site conditions

Fatigue

 

52

 

14

 

4

 

45

 

16

 

4

* Severe infections, with or without neutropenia, have included pneumonia, sepsis, and cellulitis.

** Can lead to dehydration, hypokalemia and renal failure.

*** Rash included dermatitis acneiform.

In another double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled Phase III study BO18192 (SATURN); Tarceva was administered as maintenance after first-line chemotherapy. SATURN was conducted in 889 patients with advanced, recurrent or metastatic NSCLC following first-line standard platinum-based chemotherapy, no new safety signals were identified.

The most frequent ADRs seen in patients treated with Tarceva in study BO18192 were rash and diarrhoea (any Grade 49% and 20%, respectively), most were Grade 1/2 in severity and manageable without intervention. Grade 3 rash and diarrhoea occurred in 6% and 2% of patients, respectively. No Grade 4 rash or diarrhoea was observed. Rash and diarrhoea resulted in discontinuation of Tarceva in 1% and <1% of patients, respectively. Dose modifications (interruptions or reductions) for rash and diarrhoea were needed in 8.3% and 3% of patients, respectively.

In an open-label, randomized phase III study, ML20650 conducted in 154 patients, the safety of Tarceva for first-line treatment of NSCLC patients with EGFR activating mutations was assessed in 75 patients; no new safety signals were observed in these patients.

The most frequent ADRs seen in patients treated with Tarceva in study ML20650 were rash and diarrhoea (any Grade 80% and 57%, respectively), most were Grade 1/2 in severity and manageable without intervention. Grade 3 rash and diarrhoea occurred in 9% and 4% of patients, respectively. No Grade 4 rash or diarrhoea was observed. Both rash and diarrhoea resulted in discontinuation of Tarceva in 1% of patients. Dose modifications (interruptions or reductions) for rash and diarrhoea were needed in 11% and 7% of patients, respectively.

Pancreatic cancer (Tarceva administered concurrently with gemcitabine):

The most common adverse reactions in pivotal study PA.3 in pancreatic cancer patients receiving Tarceva 100 mg plus gemcitabine were fatigue, rash and diarrhoea. In the Tarceva plus gemcitabine arm, Grade 3/4 rash and diarrhoea were each reported in 5% of patients. The median time to onset of rash and diarrhoea was 10 days and 15 days, respectively. Rash and diarrhoea each resulted in dose reductions in 2% of patients, and resulted in study discontinuation in up to 1% of patients receiving Tarceva plus gemcitabine.

Adverse reactions occurring more frequently (≥3%) in Tarceva 100 mg plus gemcitabine-treated patients than in the placebo plus gemcitabine group in the pivotal study PA.3, and in at least 10% of patients in the Tarceva 100 mg plus gemcitabine group, are summarised by National Cancer Institute-Common Toxicity Criteria (NCI-CTC) Grade in Table 2.

The following terms are used to rank the undesirable effects by frequency: very common (≥1/10); common (≥1/100 to <1/10); uncommon (≥1/1,000 to <1/100); rare (≥1/10,000 to <1/1,000); very rare (<1/10,000) including isolated reports.

Within each frequency grouping, adverse reactions are presented in order of decreasing seriousness.

Table 2: Very common ADRs in study PA.3 (100 mg cohort)

 

Erlotinib

N = 259

Placebo

N = 256

NCI-CTC Grade

Any Grade

3

4

Any Grade

3

4

MedDRA Preferred Term

%

%

%

%

%

%

Total patients with any AE

99

48

22

97

48

16

Infections and infestations

Infection*

 

31

 

3

 

<1

 

24

 

6

 

<1

Metabolism and nutrition disorders

Weight decreased

 

39

 

2

 

0

 

29

 

<1

 

0

Psychiatric disorders

Depression

 

19

 

2

 

0

 

14

 

<1

 

0

Nervous system disorders

Neuropathy

Headache

 

13

15

 

1

<1

 

<1

0

 

10

10

 

<1

0

 

0

0

Respiratory ,thoracic and mediastinal disorders

Cough

 

16

 

0

 

0

 

11

 

0

 

0

Gastrointestinal disorders

Diarrhoea**

Stomatitis

Dyspepsia

Flatulence

 

48

22

17

13

 

5

<1

<1

0

 

<1

0

0

0

 

36

12

13

9

 

2

0

<1

<1

 

0

0

0

0

Skin and subcutaneous tissue disorders

Rash***

Alopecia

 

69

14

 

5

0

 

0

0

 

30

11

 

1

0

 

0

0

General disorders and administration site conditions

Fatigue

Pyrexia

Rigors

 

73

36

12

 

14

3

0

 

2

0

0

 

70

30

9

 

13

4

0

 

2

0

0

* Severe infections, with or without neutropenia, have included pneumonia, sepsis, and cellulitis.

** Can lead to dehydration, hypokalemia and renal failure.

*** Rash included dermatitis acneiform.

Other Observations:

Safety evaluation of Tarceva is based on the data from more than 1200 patients treated with at least one 150 mg dose of Tarceva monotherapy and more than 300 patients who received Tarceva 100 or 150 mg in combination with gemcitabine.

The following adverse reactions have been observed in patients who received Tarceva administered as single agent and patients who received Tarceva concurrently with chemotherapy.

Very common ADRs from the BR 21 and PA 3 studies are presented in Tables 1 and 2, other ADRs including those from other studies are summarized in Table 3.

Within each frequency grouping, adverse reactions are presented in order of decreasing seriousness

Table 3: Summary of ADRs per frequency category:

Body System

Very common (≥1/10)

Common (≥1/100 to <1/10)

Uncommon (≥1/1,000 to <1/100)

Rare (≥1/10,000 to <1/1,000)

Very rare (<1/10,000)

Eye disorders

 

-Keratitis

-Conjunctivitis1

-Eyelash changes 2

 

-Corneal perforations

-Corneal ulcerations

-Uveitis

Respiratory, thoracic and mediastinal disorders

 

-Epistaxis

-Serious interstitial lung disease (ILD)3

 

  

Gastro-intestinal disorders

-Diarrhoea7

-Gastro-intestinal bleeding4, 7

-Gastrointestinal perforations7

  

Hepato biliary disorders

-Liver function test abnormalities 5

  

-Hepatic failure 6

 

Skin and subcutaneous tissue disorders

 

-Alopecia

-Dry skin1

-Paronychia

-Folliculitis

-Acne/ Dermatitis acneiform

-Skin fissures

-Hirsutism

-Eyebrow changes

-Brittle and Loose nails

-Mild skin reactions such as hyperpigmentation

-Palmar plantar erythrodys-aesthesia syndrome

-Stevens-Johnson syndrome/Toxic epidermal necrolysis7

Renal and urinary disorders

 

-Renal insufficiency1

-Nephritis1

-Proteinuria1

 

 

1 In clinical study PA.3.

2 Including in-growing eyelashes, excessive growth and thickening of the eyelashes.

3 Including fatalities, in patients receiving Tarceva for treatment of NSCLC or other advanced solid tumours (see section 4.4). A higher incidence has been observed in patients of Japanese origin (see section 4.4).

4 In clinical studies, some cases have been associated with concomitant warfarin administration and some with concomitant NSAID administration (see section 4.5).

5 Including increased alanine aminotransferase [ALT], aspartate aminotransferase [AST] and bilirubin. These were very common in clinical study PA.3 and common in clinical study BR.21. Cases were mainly mild to moderate in severity, transient in nature or associated with liver metastases.

6 Including fatalities. Confounding factors included pre-existing liver disease or concomitant hepatotoxic medications (see section 4.4).

7 Including fatalities (see section 4.4).

Reporting of suspected adverse reactions

Reporting suspected adverse reactions after authorisation of the medicinal product is important. It allows continued monitoring of the benefit/risk balance of the medicinal product. Healthcare professionals are asked to report any suspected adverse reactions via (see details below).

Ireland

IMB Pharmacovigilance

Earlsfort Terrace

IRL - Dublin 2

Tel: +353 1 6764971

Fax: +353 1 6762517

Website: www.imb.ie

e-mail: imbpharmacovigilance@imb.ie

Malta

ADR Reporting

The Medicines Authority

Post-Licensing Directorate

203 Level 3, Rue D'Argens

GZR-1368 Gzira

Website: www.medicinesauthority.gov.mt

e-mail: postlicensing.medicinesauthority@gov.mt

United Kingdom

Yellow Card Scheme

Website: www.mhra.gov.uk/yellowcard

4.9 Overdose

Symptoms

Single oral doses of Tarceva up to 1000 mg erlotinib in healthy subjects, and up to 1600 mg in cancer patients have been tolerated. Repeated twice daily doses of 200 mg in healthy subjects were poorly tolerated after only a few days of dosing. Based on the data from these studies, severe adverse reactions such as diarrhoea, rash and possibly increased activity of liver aminotransferases may occur above the recommended dose.

Management

In case of suspected overdose, Tarceva should be withheld and symptomatic treatment initiated.

5. Pharmacological properties
5.1 Pharmacodynamic properties

Pharmacotherapeutic group: antineoplastic agent protein kinase inhibitor, ATC code: L01XE03

Mechanism of action

Erlotinib is an epidermal growth factor receptor/human epidermal growth factor receptor type 1 (EGFR also known as HER1) tyrosine kinase inhibitor. Erlotinib potently inhibits the intracellular phosphorylation of EGFR. EGFR is expressed on the cell surface of normal cells and cancer cells. In non-clinical models, inhibition of EGFR phosphotyrosine results in cell stasis and/or death.

EGFR mutations may lead to constitutive activation of anti-apoptotic and proliferation signaling pathways. The potent effectiveness of erlotinib in blocking EGFR-mediated signalling in these EGFR mutation positive tumours is attributed to the tight binding of erlotinib to the ATP-binding site in the mutated kinase domain of the EGFR. Due to the blocking of downstream-signaling, the proliferation of cells is stopped, and cell death is induced through the intrinsic apoptotic pathway. Tumour regression is observed in mouse models of enforced expression of these EGFR activating mutations.

Clinical efficacy

- First-line Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC) therapy for patients with EGFR activating mutations (Tarceva administered as monotherapy):

The efficacy of Tarceva in first-line treatment of patients with EGFR activating mutations in NSCLC was demonstrated in a phase III, randomized, open-label trial (ML20650, EURTAC). This study was conducted in Caucasian patients with metastatic or locally advanced NSCLC (stage IIIB and IV) who have not received previous chemotherapy or any systemic antitumour therapy for their advanced disease and who present mutations in the tyrosine kinase domain of the EGFR (exon 19 deletion or exon 21 mutation). Patients were randomized 1:1 to receive Tarceva 150 mg daily or up to 4 cycles of platinum based doublet chemotherapy.

The primary endpoint was investigator assessed PFS. The efficacy results are summarized in Table 4.

Figure 1: Kaplan-Meier curve for investigator assessed PFS in trial ML20650 (EURTAC) (April 2012 cut-off)

Table 4: Efficacy results of Tarceva versus chemotherapy in trial ML20650 (EURTAC)

  

Tarceva

Chemo-therapy

Hazard Ratio (95% CI)

p-value

Pre-planned Interim Analysis

(35% OS maturity)

(n=153)

Cut-off date: Aug 2010

 

n=77

n=76

  

Primary endpoint:
Progression Free Survival (PFS, median in months)*

Investigator Assessed **

 

Independent Review **

 

 

9.4

 

10.4

 

 

5.2

 

5.4

 

 

0.42

[0.27-0.64]

0.47

[0.27-0.78]

 

 

p<0.0001

 

p=0.003

Best Overall Response Rate (CR/PR)

54.5%

10.5%

 

p<0.0001

Overall Survival (OS) (months)

22.9

18.8

0.80

[0.47-1.37]

p=0.4170

Exploratory Analysis

(40% OS maturity)

(n=173)

Cut-off date: Jan 2011

 

n=86

n=87

  

PFS (median in months), Investigator assessed

9.7

5.2

0.37

[0.27-0.54]

p<0.0001

Best Overall Response Rate (CR/PR)

58.1%

14.9%

 

p<0.0001

OS (months)

19.3

19.5

1.04

[0.65-1.68]

p=0.8702

Updated Analysis

(62% OS maturity)

(n=173)

Cut-off date: April 2012

 

n=86

n=87

  

PFS (median in months)

10.4

5.1

0.34

[0.23-0.49]

p<0.0001

OS*** (months)

22.9

20.8

0.93

[0.64-1.36]

p=0.7149

CR=complete response; PR=partial response

* A 58% reduction in the risk of disease progression or death was observed

** Overall concordance rate between investigator and IRC assessment was 70%

*** A high crossover was observed with 82% of the patients in the chemotherapy arm receiving subsequent therapy with an EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor and all but 2 of those patients had subsequent Tarceva.

- Maintenance NSCLC therapy after first-line chemotherapy (Tarceva administered as monotherapy):

The efficacy and safety of Tarceva as maintenance after first-line chemotherapy for NSCLC was demonstrated in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial (BO18192, SATURN). This study was conducted in 889 patients with locally advanced or metastatic NSCLC who did not progress after 4 cycles of platinum-based doublet chemotherapy. Patients were randomized 1:1 to receive Tarceva 150 mg or placebo orally once daily until disease progression. The primary endpoint of the study was progression free survival (PFS) in all patients and in patients with an EGFR IHC positive tumour. Baseline demographic and disease characteristics were well balanced between the two treatment arms. Patients with ECOG PS>1, significant hepatic or renal co-morbidities were not included in the study.

- ITT population results:

The primary PFS analysis in all patients (n=889) showed a PFS hazard ratio (HR) of 0.71 (95% CI, 0.62 to 0.82; p<0.0001) for the Tarceva group relative to the placebo group. The mean PFS was 22.4 weeks in the Tarceva group compared with 16.0 weeks in the placebo group. PFS results were confirmed by an independent review of the scans. Quality of life data did not suggest a detrimental effect from erlotinib compared with placebo.

A PFS HR of 0.69 (95% CI, 0.58 to 0.82; p < 0.0001) was observed in the coprimary patient population with EGFR IHC positive tumours (n=621). The mean PFS was 22.8 weeks in the Tarceva group (range 0.1 to 78.9 weeks) compared with 16.2 weeks in the placebo group (range 0.1 to 88.1 weeks). The progression free survival rate at 6 months was 27% and 16%, respectively for Tarceva and placebo.

Concerning the secondary endpoint of overall survival, the HR was 0.81 (95% CI, 0.70 to 0.95; p=0.0088). The median overall survival was 12.0 months in the Tarceva group versus 11.0 months in the placebo group.

Patients with EGFR activating mutations had the largest benefit (n= 49, PFS HR=0.10, 95% CI, 0.04 to 0.25; p<0.0001). In patients with EGFR wild type tumours (n=388), the PFS HR was 0.78 (95% CI, 0.63 to 0.96; p=0.0185) and the overall survival HR was 0.77 (95% CI, 0.61 to 0.97; p=0.0243).

- Patients with Stable Disease after chemotherapy:

Patients with stable disease (SD) (n= 487) had a PFS HR of 0.68 (95% CI, 0.56 to 0.83; p<0.0001; median 12.1 weeks in the Tarceva group and 11.3 weeks in the placebo group) and an overall survival HR of 0.72 (95% CI, 0.59 to 0.89; p= 0.0019; median 11.9 months in the Tarceva group and 9.6 months in the placebo group).

The effect on overall survival was explored across different subsets of patients with SD receiving Tarceva. This did not show major qualitative differences between patients with squamous cell carcinoma (HR 0.67, 95% CI, 0.48-0.92) and non-squamous cell carcinoma (HR 0.76, 95% CI 0.59-1.00) and between patients with EGFR activating mutations (HR 0.48, 95% 0.14-1.62) and without EGFR activating mutations (HR 0.65, 95% CI 0.48-0.87).

- NSCLC treatment after failure of at least one prior chemotherapy regimen (Tarceva administered as monotherapy):

The efficacy and safety of Tarceva as second/third-line therapy was demonstrated in a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial (BR.21), in 731 patients with locally advanced or metastatic NSCLC after failure of at least one chemotherapy regimen. Patients were randomised 2:1 to receive Tarceva 150 mg or placebo orally once daily. Study endpoints included overall survival, progression-free survival (PFS), response rate, duration of response, time to deterioration of lung cancer-related symptoms (cough, dyspnoea and pain), and safety. The primary endpoint was survival.

Demographic characteristics were well balanced between the two treatment groups. About two-thirds of the patients were male and approximately one-third had a baseline ECOG performance status (PS) of 2, and 9% had a baseline ECOG PS of 3. Ninety-three percent and 92% of all patients in the Tarceva and placebo groups, respectively, had received a prior platinum-containing regimen and 36% and 37% of all patients, respectively, had received a prior taxane therapy.

The adjusted hazard ratio (HR) for death in the Tarceva group relative to the placebo group was 0.73 (95% CI, 0.60 to 0.87) (p = 0.001). The percent of patients alive at 12 months was 31.2% and 21.5%, for the Tarceva and placebo groups, respectively. The median overall survival was 6.7 months in the Tarceva group (95% CI, 5.5 to 7.8 months) compared with 4.7 months in the placebo group (95% CI, 4.1 to 6.3 months).

The effect on overall survival was explored across different patient subsets. The effect of Tarceva on overall survival was similar in patients with a baseline performance status (ECOG) of 2-3 (HR = 0.77, 95% CI 0.6-1.0) or 0-1 (HR = 0.73, 95% CI 0.6-0.9), male (HR = 0.76, 95% CI 0.6-0.9) or female patients (HR = 0.80, 95% CI 0.6-1.1), patients < 65 years of age (HR = 0.75, 95% CI 0.6-0.9) or older patients (HR = 0.79, 95% CI 0.6-1.0), patients with one prior regimen (HR = 0.76, 95% CI 0.6-1.0) or more than one prior regimen (HR = 0.75, 95% CI 0.6-1.0), Caucasian (HR = 0.79, 95% CI 0.6-1.0) or Asian patients (HR = 0.61, 95% CI 0.4-1.0), patients with adenocarcinoma (HR = 0.71, 95% CI 0.6-0.9) or squamous cell carcinoma (HR = 0.67, 95% CI 0.5-0.9), but not in patients with other histologies (HR 1.04, 95% CI 0.7-1.5), patients with stage IV disease at diagnosis (HR = 0.92, 95% CI 0.7-1.2) or < stage IV disease at diagnosis (HR = 0.65, 95% CI 0.5-0.8). Patients who never smoked had a much greater benefit from erlotinib (survival HR = 0.42, 95% CI 0.28-0.64) compared with current or ex-smokers (HR = 0.87, 95% CI 0.71-1.05).

In the 45% of patients with known EGFR-expression status, the hazard ratio was 0.68 (95% CI 0.49-0.94) for patients with EGFR-positive tumours and 0.93 (95% CI 0.63-1.36) for patients with EGFR-negative tumours (defined by IHC using EGFR pharmDx kit and defining EGFR-negative as less than 10% tumour cells staining). In the remaining 55% of patients with unknown EGFR-expression status, the hazard ratio was 0.77 (95% CI 0.61-0.98).

The median PFS was 9.7 weeks in the Tarceva group (95% CI, 8.4 to 12.4 weeks) compared with 8.0 weeks in the placebo group (95% CI, 7.9 to 8.1 weeks).

The objective response rate by RECIST in the Tarceva group was 8.9% (95% CI, 6.4 to 12.0).

The first 330 patients were centrally assessed (response rate 6.2%); 401 patients were investigator-assessed (response rate 11.2%).

The median duration of response was 34.3 weeks, ranging from 9.7 to 57.6+ weeks. The proportion of patients who experienced complete response, partial response or stable disease was 44.0% and 27.5%, respectively, for the Tarceva and placebo groups (p = 0.004).

A survival benefit of Tarceva was also observed in patients who did not achieve an objective tumour response (by RECIST). This was evidenced by a hazard ratio for death of 0.82 (95% CI, 0.68 to 0.99) among patients whose best response was stable disease or progressive disease.

Tarceva resulted in symptom benefits by significantly prolonging time to deterioration in cough, dyspnoea and pain, versus placebo.

-Pancreatic cancer (Tarceva administered concurrently with gemcitabine in study PA.3):

The efficacy and safety of Tarceva in combination with gemcitabine as a first-line treatment was assessed in a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in patients with locally advanced, unresectable or metastatic pancreatic cancer. Patients were randomised to receive Tarceva or placebo once daily on a continuous schedule plus gemcitabine IV (1000 mg/m2, Cycle 1 - Days 1, 8, 15, 22, 29, 36 and 43 of an 8 week cycle; Cycle 2 and subsequent cycles - Days 1, 8 and 15 of a 4 week cycle [approved dose and schedule for pancreatic cancer, see the gemcitabine SPC]). Tarceva or placebo was taken orally once daily until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity. The primary endpoint was overall survival.

Baseline demographic and disease characteristics of the patients were similar between the 2 treatment groups, 100 mg Tarceva plus gemcitabine or placebo plus gemcitabine, except for a slightly larger proportion of females in the erlotinib/gemcitabine arm compared with the placebo/gemcitabine arm:

Baseline

Tarceva

Placebo

Females

51%

44%

Baseline ECOG performance status (PS) = 0

31%

32%

Baseline ECOG performance status (PS) = 1

51%

51%

Baseline ECOG performance status (PS) = 2

17%

17%

Metastatic disease at baseline

77%

76%

Survival was evaluated in the intent-to-treat population based on follow-up survival data. Results are shown in the table below (results for the group of metastatic and locally advanced patients are derived from exploratory subgroup analysis).

Outcome

Tarceva

(months)

Placebo

(months)

Δ

(months)

CI of Δ

HR

CI of HR

P- value

Overall Population

Median overall survival

6.4

6.0

0.41

-0.54-1.64

0.82

0.69-0.98

0.028

Mean overall survival

8.8

7.6

1.16

-0.05-2.34

Metastatic Population

Median overall survival

5.9

5.1

0.87

-0.26-1.56

0.80

0.66-0.98

0.029

Mean overall survival

8.1

6.7

1.43

0.17-2.66

Locally Advanced Population

Median overall survival

8.5

8.2

0.36

-2.43-2.96

0.93

0.65-1.35

0.713

Mean overall survival

10.7

10.5

0.19

-2.43-2.69

In a post-hoc analysis, patients with favourable clinical status at baseline (low pain intensity, good QoL and good PS) may derive more benefit from Tarceva. The benefit is mostly driven by the presence of a low pain intensity score.

In a post-hoc analysis, patients on Tarceva who developed a rash had a longer overall survival compared to patients who did not develop rash (median OS 7.2 months vs 5 months, HR:0.61).

90% of patients on Tarceva developed rash within the first 44 days. The median time to onset of rash was 10 days.

Paediatric population

The European Medicines Agency has waived the obligation to submit the results of studies with Tarceva in all subsets of the paediatric population in Non Small Cell Lung Cancer and Pancreatic cancer indications (see section 4.2 for information on paediatric use).

5.2 Pharmacokinetic properties

Absorption: After oral administration, erlotinib peak plasma levels are obtained in approximately 4 hours after oral dosing. A study in normal healthy volunteers provided an estimate of the absolute bioavailability of 59%. The exposure after an oral dose may be increased by food.

Distribution: Erlotinib has a mean apparent volume of distribution of 232 l and distributes into tumour tissue of humans. In a study of 4 patients (3 with non-small cell lung cancer [NSCLC], and 1 with laryngeal cancer) receiving 150 mg daily oral doses of Tarceva, tumour samples from surgical excisions on Day 9 of treatment revealed tumour concentrations of erlotinib that averaged 1185 ng/g of tissue. This corresponded to an overall average of 63% (range 5-161%) of the steady state observed peak plasma concentrations. The primary active metabolites were present in tumour at concentrations averaging 160 ng/g tissue, which corresponded to an overall average of 113% (range 88-130%) of the observed steady state peak plasma concentrations. Plasma protein binding is approximately 95%. Erlotinib binds to serum albumin and alpha-1 acid glycoprotein (AAG).

Biotransformation: Erlotinib is metabolised in the liver by the hepatic cytochromes in humans, primarily CYP3A4 and to a lesser extent by CYP1A2. Extrahepatic metabolism by CYP3A4 in intestine, CYP1A1 in lung, and 1B1 in tumour tissue potentially contribute to the metabolic clearance of erlotinib.

There are three main metabolic pathways identified: 1) O-demethylation of either side chain or both, followed by oxidation to the carboxylic acids; 2) oxidation of the acetylene moiety followed by hydrolysis to the aryl carboxylic acid; and 3) aromatic hydroxylation of the phenyl-acetylene moiety. The primary metabolites OSI-420 and OSI-413 of erlotinib produced by O-demethylation of either side chain have comparable potency to erlotinib in non-clinical in vitro assays and in vivo tumour models. They are present in plasma at levels that are <10% of erlotinib and display similar pharmacokinetics as erlotinib.

Elimination: Erlotinib is excreted predominantly as metabolites via the faeces (>90%) with renal elimination accounting for only a small amount (approximately 9%) of an oral dose. Less than 2% of the orally administered dose is excreted as parent substance. A population pharmacokinetic analysis in 591 patients receiving single agent Tarceva shows a mean apparent clearance of 4.47 l/hour with a median half-life of 36.2 hours. Therefore, the time to reach steady state plasma concentration would be expected to occur in approximately 7-8 days.

Pharmacokinetics in special populations:

Based on population pharmacokinetic analysis, no clinically significant relationship between predicted apparent clearance and patient age, bodyweight, gender and ethnicity were observed. Patient factors, which correlated with erlotinib pharmacokinetics, were serum total bilirubin, AAG and current smoking. Increased serum concentrations of total bilirubin and AAG concentrations were associated with a reduced erlotinib clearance. The clinical relevance of these differences is unclear. However, smokers had an increased rate of erlotinib clearance. This was confirmed in a pharmacokinetic study in non-smoking and currently cigarette smoking healthy subjects receiving a single oral dose of 150 mg erlotinib. The geometric mean of the Cmax was 1056 ng/mL in the non-smokers and 689 ng/mL in the smokers with a mean ratio for smokers to non-smokers of 65.2% (95% CI: 44.3 to 95.9, p = 0.031). The geometric mean of the AUC0-inf was 18726 ng•h/mL in the non-smokers and 6718 ng•h/mL in the smokers with a mean ratio of 35.9% (95% CI: 23.7 to 54.3, p < 0.0001). The geometric mean of the C24h was 288 ng/mL in the non-smokers and 34.8 ng/mL in the smokers with a mean ratio of 12.1% (95% CI: 4.82 to 30.2, p = 0.0001).

In the pivotal Phase III NSCLC trial, current smokers achieved erlotinib steady state trough plasma concentration of 0.65 µg/mL (n=16) which was approximately 2-fold less than the former smokers or patients who had never smoked (1.28 µg/mL, n=108). This effect was accompanied by a 24% increase in apparent erlotinib plasma clearance. In a phase I dose escalation study in NSCLC patients who were current smokers, pharmacokinetic analyses at steady-state indicated a dose proportional increase in erlotinib exposure when the Tarceva dose was increased from 150 mg to the maximum tolerated dose of 300 mg. Steady-state trough plasma concentrations at a 300 mg dose in current smokers in this study was 1.22 µg/mL (n=17).

Based on the results of pharmacokinetic studies, current smokers should be advised to stop smoking while taking Tarceva, as plasma concentrations could be reduced otherwise.

Based on population pharmacokinetic analysis, the presence of an opioid appeared to increase exposure by about 11%.

A second population pharmacokinetic analysis was conducted that incorporated erlotinib data from 204 pancreatic cancer patients who received erlotinib plus gemcitabine. This analysis demonstrated that covariants affecting erlotinib clearance in patients from the pancreatic study were very similar to those seen in the prior single agent pharmacokinetic analysis. No new covariate effects were identified. Co-administration of gemcitabine had no effect on erlotinib plasma clearance.

Paediatric population: There have been no specific studies in paediatric patients.

Elderly population: There have been no specific studies in elderly patients.

Hepatic impairment: Erlotinib is primarily cleared by the liver. In patients with solid tumours and with moderately impaired hepatic function (Child-Pugh score 7-9), geometric mean erlotinib AUC0-t and Cmax was 27000 ng•h/mL and 805 ng/mL, respectively, as compared to 29300 ng•h/mL and 1090 ng/mL in patients with adequate hepatic function including patients with primary liver cancer or hepatic metastases. Although the Cmax was statistically significant lower in moderately hepatic impaired patients, this difference is not considered clinically relevant. No data are available regarding the influence of severe hepatic dysfunction on the pharmacokinetics of erlotinib. In population pharmacokinetic analysis, increased serum concentrations of total bilirubin were associated with a slower rate of erlotinib clearance.

Renal impairment: Erlotinib and its metabolites are not significantly excreted by the kidney, as less than 9% of a single dose is excreted in the urine. In population pharmacokinetic analysis, no clinically significant relationship was observed between erlotinib clearance and creatinine clearance, but there are no data available for patients with creatinine clearance <15 ml/min.

5.3 Preclinical safety data

Chronic dosing effects observed in at least one animal species or study included effects on the cornea (atrophy, ulceration), skin (follicular degeneration and inflammation, redness, and alopecia), ovary (atrophy), liver (liver necrosis), kidney (renal papillary necrosis and tubular dilatation), and gastrointestinal tract (delayed gastric emptying and diarrhoea). Red blood cell parameters were decreased and white blood cells, primarily neutrophils, were increased. There were treatment-related increases in ALT, AST and bilirubin. These findings were observed at exposures well below clinically relevant exposures.

Based on the mode of action, erlotinib has the potential to be a teratogen. Data from reproductive toxicology tests in rats and rabbits at doses near the maximum tolerated dose and/or maternally toxic doses showed reproductive (embryotoxicity in rats, embryo resorption and foetotoxicity in rabbits) and developmental (decrease in pup growth and survival in rats) toxicity, but was not teratogenic and did not impair fertility. These findings were observed at clinically relevant exposures.

Erlotinib tested negative in conventional genotoxicity studies. Two-year carcinogenicity studies with erlotinib conducted in rats and mice were negative up to exposures exceeding human therapeutic exposure (up to 2-fold and 10-fold higher, respectively, based on Cmax and/or AUC).

A mild phototoxic skin reaction was observed in rats after UV irradiation.

6. Pharmaceutical particulars
6.1 List of excipients

Tablet core:

Lactose monohydrate

Cellulose, microcrystalline (E460)

Sodium starch glycolate Type A

Sodium laurilsulfate

Magnesium stearate (E470 b)

Tablet coat:

Hydroxypropyl cellulose (E463)

Titanium dioxide (E171)

Macrogol

Hypromellose (E464)

6.2 Incompatibilities

Not applicable.

6.3 Shelf life

4 years.

6.4 Special precautions for storage

This medicinal product does not require any special storage conditions.

6.5 Nature and contents of container

PVC blister sealed with aluminium foil containing 30 tablets.

6.6 Special precautions for disposal and other handling

No special requirements for disposal.

Any unused medicinal product or waste material should be disposed of in accordance with local requirements.

7. Marketing authorisation holder

Roche Registration Limited

6 Falcon Way

Shire Park

Welwyn Garden City

AL7 1TW

United Kingdom

8. Marketing authorisation number(s)

EU/1/05/311/001 – 25 mg film-coated tablet

EU/1/05/311/002 – 100 mg film-coated tablet

EU/1/05/311/003 – 150 mg film-coated tablet

9. Date of first authorisation/renewal of the authorisation

Date of first authorization: 19 September 2005

Date of latest renewal: 19 September 2010

10. Date of revision of the text

18 December 2013

Detailed information on this medicinal product is available on the website of the European Medicines Agency http://www.ema.europa.eu

Company contact details

Roche Products Limited

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Address

Hexagon Place, 6 Falcon Way, Shire Park, Welwyn Garden City, Hertfordshire, AL7 1TW

Fax

+44 (0)1707 338 297

Medical Information e-mail
Medical Information Fax

+44 (0)1707 384555

Telephone

+44 (0)1707 366 000

Medical Information Direct Line

+44 (0)800 328 1629

Customer Care direct line

+44 (0)800 731 5711

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Active ingredients

erlotinib hydrochloride

Legal categories

POM - Prescription Only Medicine

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