- 1. Name of the medicinal product
- 2. Qualitative and quantitative composition
- 3. Pharmaceutical form
- 4. Clinical particulars
- 4.1 Therapeutic indications
- 4.2 Posology and method of administration
- 4.3 Contraindications
- 4.4 Special warnings and precautions for use
- 4.5 Interaction with other medicinal products and other forms of interaction
- 4.6 Fertility, pregnancy and lactation
- 4.7 Effects on ability to drive and use machines
- 4.8 Undesirable effects
- 4.9 Overdose
- 5. Pharmacological properties
- 5.1 Pharmacodynamic properties
- 5.2 Pharmacokinetic properties
- 5.3 Preclinical safety data
- 6. Pharmaceutical particulars
- 6.1 List of excipients
- 6.2 Incompatibilities
- 6.3 Shelf life
- 6.4 Special precautions for storage
- 6.5 Nature and contents of container
- 6.6 Special precautions for disposal and other handling
- 7. Marketing authorisation holder
- 8. Marketing authorisation number(s)
- 9. Date of first authorisation/renewal of the authorisation
- 10. Date of revision of the text
- Legal category
This medicinal product is subject to additional monitoring. This will allow quick identification of new safety information. Healthcare professionals are asked to report any suspected adverse reactions. See section 4.8 for how to report adverse reactions.
Posology for CML in adult patientsThe recommended dosage of Glivec is 400 mg/day for adult patients in chronic phase CML. Chronic phase CML is defined when all of the following criteria are met: blasts < 15% in blood and bone marrow, peripheral blood basophils < 20%, platelets > 100 x 109/l.The recommended dosage of Glivec is 600 mg/day for adult patients in accelerated phase. Accelerated phase is defined by the presence of any of the following: blasts ≥ 15% but < 30% in blood or bone marrow, blasts plus promyelocytes ≥ 30% in blood or bone marrow (providing < 30% blasts), peripheral blood basophils ≥ 20%, platelets < 100 x 109/l unrelated to therapy.The recommended dose of Glivec is 600 mg/day for adult patients in blast crisis. Blast crisis is defined as blasts ≥ 30% in blood or bone marrow or extramedullary disease other than hepatosplenomegaly.Treatment duration: In clinical trials, treatment with Glivec was continued until disease progression. The effect of stopping treatment after the achievement of a complete cytogenetic response has not been investigated.Dose increases from 400 mg to 600 mg or 800 mg in patients with chronic phase disease, or from 600 mg to a maximum of 800 mg (given as 400 mg twice daily) in patients with accelerated phase or blast crisis may be considered in the absence of severe adverse drug reaction and severe non-leukaemia-related neutropenia or thrombocytopenia in the following circumstances: disease progression (at any time); failure to achieve a satisfactory haematological response after at least 3 months of treatment; failure to achieve a cytogenetic response after 12 months of treatment; or loss of a previously achieved haematological and/or cytogenetic response. Patients should be monitored closely following dose escalation given the potential for an increased incidence of adverse reactions at higher dosages.
Posology for CML in childrenDosing for children should be on the basis of body surface area (mg/m2). The dose of 340 mg/m2 daily is recommended for children with chronic phase CML and advanced phase CML (not to exceed the total dose of 800 mg). Treatment can be given as a once daily dose or alternatively the daily dose may be split into two administrations one in the morning and one in the evening. The dose recommendation is currently based on a small number of paediatric patients (see sections 5.1 and 5.2). There is no experience with the treatment of children below 2 years of age.Dose increases from 340 mg/m2 daily to 570 mg/m2 daily (not to exceed the total dose of 800 mg) may be considered in children in the absence of severe adverse drug reaction and severe non-leukaemia-related neutropenia or thrombocytopenia in the following circumstances: disease progression (at any time); failure to achieve a satisfactory haematological response after at least 3 months of treatment; failure to achieve a cytogenetic response after 12 months of treatment; or loss of a previously achieved haematological and/or cytogenetic response. Patients should be monitored closely following dose escalation given the potential for an increased incidence of adverse reactions at higher dosages.
Posology for Ph+ ALL in adult patientsThe recommended dose of Glivec is 600 mg/day for adult patients with Ph+ ALL. Haematological experts in the management of this disease should supervise the therapy throughout all phases of care.Treatment schedule: On the basis of the existing data, Glivec has been shown to be effective and safe when administered at 600 mg/day in combination with chemotherapy in the induction phase, the consolidation and maintenance phases of chemotherapy (see section 5.1) for adult patients with newly diagnosed Ph+ ALL. The duration of Glivec therapy can vary with the treatment programme selected, but generally longer exposures to Glivec have yielded better results.For adult patients with relapsed or refractory Ph+ALL Glivec monotherapy at 600 mg/day is safe, effective and can be given until disease progression occurs.
Posology for Ph+ ALL in childrenDosing for children should be on the basis of body surface area (mg/m2). The dose of 340 mg/m2 daily is recommended for children with Ph+ ALL (not to exceed the total dose of 600 mg).
Posology for MDS/MPDThe recommended dose of Glivec is 400 mg/day for adult patients with MDS/MPD.Treatment duration: In the only clinical trial performed up to now, treatment with Glivec was continued until disease progression (see section 5.1). At the time of analysis, the treatment duration was a median of 47 months (24 days - 60 months).
Posology for HES/CELThe recommended dose of Glivec is 100 mg/day for adult patients with HES/CEL.Dose increase from 100 mg to 400 mg may be considered in the absence of adverse drug reactions if assessments demonstrate an insufficient response to therapy.Treatment should be continued as long as the patient continues to benefit.
Posology for GISTThe recommended dose of Glivec is 400 mg/day for adult patients with unresectable and/or metastatic malignant GIST.Limited data exist on the effect of dose increases from 400 mg to 600 mg or 800 mg in patients progressing at the lower dose (see section 5.1).Treatment duration: In clinical trials in GIST patients, treatment with Glivec was continued until disease progression. At the time of analysis, the treatment duration was a median of 7 months (7 days to 13 months). The effect of stopping treatment after achieving a response has not been investigated.The recommended dose of Glivec is 400 mg/day for the adjuvant treatment of adult patients following resection of GIST. Optimal treatment duration is not yet established. Length of treatment in the clinical trial supporting this indication was 36 months (see section 5.1).
Posology for DFSPThe recommended dose of Glivec is 800 mg/day for adult patients with DFSP.
Dose adjustment for adverse reactions
Non-haematological adverse reactionsIf a severe non-haematological adverse reaction develops with Glivec use, treatment must be withheld until the event has resolved. Thereafter, treatment can be resumed as appropriate depending on the initial severity of the event.If elevations in bilirubin > 3 x institutional upper limit of normal (IULN) or in liver transaminases > 5 x IULN occur, Glivec should be withheld until bilirubin levels have returned to < 1.5 x IULN and transaminase levels to < 2.5 x IULN. Treatment with Glivec may then be continued at a reduced daily dose. In adults the dose should be reduced from 400 to 300 mg or from 600 to 400 mg, or from 800 mg to 600 mg, and in children from 340 to 260 mg/m2/day.
Haematological adverse reactionsDose reduction or treatment interruption for severe neutropenia and thrombocytopenia are recommended as indicated in the table below.
Dose adjustments for neutropenia and thrombocytopenia:
|HES/CEL (starting dose 100 mg)||ANC < 1.0 x 109/l and/or platelets < 50 x 109/l||1. Stop Glivec until ANC ≥ 1.5 x 109/l and platelets ≥ 75 x 109/l. 2. Resume treatment with Glivec at previous dose (i.e. before severe adverse reaction).|
|Chronic phase CML, MDS/MPD and GIST (starting dose 400 mg) HES/CEL (at dose 400 mg)||ANC < 1.0 x 109/l and/or platelets < 50 x 109/l||1. Stop Glivec until ANC ≥ 1.5 x 109/l and platelets ≥ 75 x 109/l. 2. Resume treatment with Glivec at previous dose (i.e. before severe adverse reaction). 3. In the event of recurrence of ANC < 1.0 x 109/l and/or platelets < 50 x 109/l, repeat step 1 and resume Glivec at reduced dose of 300 mg.|
|Paediatric chronic phase CML (at dose 340 mg/m2)||ANC < 1.0 x 109/l and/or platelets < 50 x 109/l||1. Stop Glivec until ANC ≥ 1.5 x 109/l and platelets ≥ 75 x 109/l. 2. Resume treatment with Glivec at previous dose (i.e. before severe adverse reaction). 3. In the event of recurrence of ANC < 1.0 x 109/l and/or platelets < 50 x 109/l, repeat step 1 and resume Glivec at reduced dose of 260 mg/m2.|
|Accelerated phase CML and blast crisis and Ph+ ALL (starting dose 600 mg)||aANC < 0.5 x 109/l and/or platelets < 10 x 109/l||1. Check whether cytopenia is related to leukaemia (marrow aspirate or biopsy). 2. If cytopenia is unrelated to leukaemia, reduce dose of Glivec to 400 mg. 3. If cytopenia persists for 2 weeks, reduce further to 300 mg. 4. If cytopenia persists for 4 weeks and is still unrelated to leukaemia, stop Glivec until ANC ≥ 1 x 109/l and platelets ≥ 20 x 109/l, then resume treatment at 300 mg.|
|Paediatric accelerated phase CML and blast crisis (starting dose 340 mg/m2)||aANC < 0.5 x 109/l and/or platelets < 10 x 109/l||1. Check whether cytopenia is related to leukaemia (marrow aspirate or biopsy). 2. If cytopenia is unrelated to leukaemia, reduce dose of Glivec to 260 mg/m2. 3. If cytopenia persists for 2 weeks, reduce further to 200 mg/m2. 4. If cytopenia persists for 4 weeks and is still unrelated to leukaemia, stop Glivec until ANC ≥ 1 x 109/l and platelets ≥ 20 x 109/l, then resume treatment at 200 mg/m2.|
|DFSP (at dose 800 mg)||ANC < 1.0 x 109/l and/or platelets < 50 x 109/l||1. Stop Glivec until ANC ≥ 1.5 x 109/l and platelets ≥ 75 x 109/l. 2. Resume treatment with Glivec at 600 mg. 3. In the event of recurrence of ANC < 1.0 x 109/l and/or platelets < 50 x 109/l, repeat step 1 and resume Glivec at reduced dose of 400 mg.|
|ANC = absolute neutrophil counta occurring after at least 1 month of treatment|
Special populationsPaediatric use: There is no experience in children with CML below 2 years of age and with Ph+ALL below 1 year of age (see section 5.1). There is very limited experience in children with MDS/MPD, DFSP, GIST and HES/CEL.The safety and efficacy of imatinib in children with MDS/MPD, DFSP, GIST and HES/CEL aged less than 18 years of age have not been established in clinical trials. Currently available published data are summarised in section 5.1 but no recommendation on a posology can be made.Hepatic insufficiency: Imatinib is mainly metabolised through the liver. Patients with mild, moderate or severe liver dysfunction should be given the minimum recommended dose of 400 mg daily. The dose can be reduced if not tolerated (see sections 4.4, 4.8 and 5.2).
Liver dysfunction classification:
|Liver dysfunction||Liver function tests|
|Mild||Total bilirubin: = 1.5 ULN AST: >ULN (can be normal or <ULN if total bilirubin is >ULN)|
|Moderate||Total bilirubin: >1.53.0 ULN AST: any|
|Severe||Total bilirubin: >310 ULN AST: any|
HypothyroidismClinical cases of hypothyroidism have been reported in thyroidectomy patients undergoing levothyroxine replacement during treatment with Glivec (see section 4.5). Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels should be closely monitored in such patients.
HepatotoxicityMetabolism of Glivec is mainly hepatic, and only 13% of excretion is through the kidneys. In patients with hepatic dysfunction (mild, moderate or severe), peripheral blood counts and liver enzymes should be carefully monitored (see sections 4.2, 4.8 and 5.2). It should be noted that GIST patients may have hepatic metastases which could lead to hepatic impairment.Cases of liver injury, including hepatic failure and hepatic necrosis, have been observed with imatinib. When imatinib is combined with high dose chemotherapy regimens, an increase in serious hepatic reactions has been detected. Hepatic function should be carefully monitored in circumstances where imatinib is combined with chemotherapy regimens also known to be associated with hepatic dysfunction (see section 4.5 and 4.8).
Fluid retentionOccurrences of severe fluid retention (pleural effusion, oedema, pulmonary oedema, ascites, superficial oedema) have been reported in approximately 2.5% of newly diagnosed CML patients taking Glivec. Therefore, it is highly recommended that patients be weighed regularly. An unexpected rapid weight gain should be carefully investigated and if necessary appropriate supportive care and therapeutic measures should be undertaken. In clinical trials, there was an increased incidence of these events in older people and those with a prior history of cardiac disease. Therefore, caution should be exercised in patients with cardiac dysfunction.
Patients with cardiac diseasePatients with cardiac disease, risk factors for cardiac failure or history of renal failure should be monitored carefully, and any patient with signs or symptoms consistent with cardiac or renal failure should be evaluated and treated.In patients with hypereosinophilic syndrome (HES) with occult infiltration of HES cells within the myocardium, isolated cases of cardiogenic shock/left ventricular dysfunction have been associated with HES cell degranulation upon the initiation of imatinib therapy. The condition was reported to be reversible with the administration of systemic steroids, circulatory support measures and temporarily withholding imatinib. As cardiac adverse events have been reported uncommonly with imatinib, a careful assessment of the benefit/risk of imatinib therapy should be considered in the HES/CEL population before treatment initiation. Myelodysplastic/myeloproliferative diseases with PDGFR gene re-arrangements could be associated with high eosinophil levels. Evaluation by a cardiology specialist, performance of an echocardiogram and determination of serum troponin should therefore be considered in patients with HES/CEL, and in patients with MDS/MPD associated with high eosinophil levels before imatinib is administered. If either is abnormal, follow-up with a cardiology specialist and the prophylactic use of systemic steroids (12 mg/kg) for one to two weeks concomitantly with imatinib should be considered at the initiation of therapy.
Gastrointestinal haemorrhageIn the study in patients with unresectable and/or metastatic GIST, both gastrointestinal and intra-tumoural haemorrhages were reported (see section 4.8). Based on the available data, no predisposing factors (e.g. tumour size, tumour location, coagulation disorders) have been identified that place patients with GIST at a higher risk of either type of haemorrhage. Since increased vascularity and propensity for bleeding is a part of the nature and clinical course of GIST, standard practices and procedures for the monitoring and management of haemorrhage in all patients should be applied. In addition, gastric antral vascular ectasia (GAVE), a rare cause of gastrointestinal haemorrhage, has been reported in post-marketing experience in patients with CML, ALL and other diseases (see section 4.8). When needed, discontinuation of Glivec treatment may be considered. Tumour lysis syndromeDue to the possible occurrence of tumour lysis syndrome (TLS), correction of clinically significant dehydration and treatment of high uric acid levels are recommended prior to initiation of Glivec (see section 4.8).
Laboratory testsComplete blood counts must be performed regularly during therapy with Glivec. Treatment of CML patients with Glivec has been associated with neutropenia or thrombocytopenia. However, the occurrence of these cytopenias is likely to be related to the stage of the disease being treated and they were more frequent in patients with accelerated phase CML or blast crisis as compared to patients with chronic phase CML. Treatment with Glivec may be interrupted or the dose may be reduced, as recommended in section 4.2.Liver function (transaminases, bilirubin, alkaline phosphatase) should be monitored regularly in patients receiving Glivec.In patients with impaired renal function, imatinib plasma exposure seems to be higher than that in patients with normal renal function, probably due to an elevated plasma level of alpha-acid glycoprotein (AGP), an imatinib-binding protein, in these patients. Patients with renal impairment should be given the minimum starting dose. Patients with severe renal impairment should be treated with caution. The dose can be reduced if not tolerated (see section 4.2 and 5.2).
Paediatric populationThere have been case reports of growth retardation occurring in children and pre-adolescents receiving imatinib. The long-term effects of prolonged treatment with imatinib on growth in children are unknown. Therefore, close monitoring of growth in children under imatinib treatment is recommended (see section 4.8).
Active substances that may have their plasma concentration altered by GlivecImatinib increases the mean Cmax and AUC of simvastatin (CYP3A4 substrate) 2- and 3.5-fold, respectively, indicating an inhibition of the CYP3A4 by imatinib. Therefore, caution is recommended when administering Glivec with CYP3A4 substrates with a narrow therapeutic window (e.g. cyclosporine, pimozide, tacrolimus, sirolimus, ergotamine, diergotamine, fentanyl, alfentanil, terfenadine, bortezomib, docetaxel and quinidine). Glivec may increase plasma concentration of other CYP3A4 metabolised drugs (e.g. triazolo-benzodiazepines, dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers, certain HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors, i.e. statins, etc.).Because of known increased risks of bleeding in conjunction with the use of imatinib (e.g. haemorrhage), patients who require anticoagulation should receive low-molecular-weight or standard heparin, instead of coumarin derivatives such as warfarin.In vitro Glivec inhibits the cytochrome P450 isoenzyme CYP2D6 activity at concentrations similar to those that affect CYP3A4 activity. Imatinib at 400 mg twice daily had an inhibitory effect on CYP2D6-mediated metoprolol metabolism, with metoprolol Cmax and AUC being increased by approximately 23% (90%CI [1.16-1.30]). Dose adjustments do not seem to be necessary when imatinib is co-administrated with CYP2D6 substrates, however caution is advised for CYP2D6 substrates with a narrow therapeutic window such as metoprolol. In patients treated with metoprolol clinical monitoring should be considered.In vitro, Glivec inhibits paracetamol O-glucuronidation with Ki value of 58.5 micromol/l. This inhibition has not been observed in vivo after the administration of Glivec 400 mg and paracetamol 1000 mg. Higher doses of Glivec and paracetamol have not been studied.Caution should therefore be exercised when using high doses of Glivec and paracetamol concomitantly.In thyroidectomy patients receiving levothyroxine, the plasma exposure to levothyroxine may be decreased when Glivec is co-administered (see section 4.4). Caution is therefore recommended. However, the mechanism of the observed interaction is presently unknown.In Ph+ ALL patients, there is clinical experience of co-administering Glivec with chemotherapy (see section 5.1), but drug-drug interactions between imatinib and chemotherapy regimens are not well characterised. Imatinib adverse events, i.e. hepatotoxicity, myelosuppression or others, may increase and it has been reported that concomitant use with L-asparaginase could be associated with increased hepatotoxicity (see section 4.8). Therefore, the use of Glivec in combination requires special precaution.
Women of childbearing potentialWomen of childbearing potential must be advised to use effective contraception during treatment.
PregnancyThere are limited data on the use of imatinib in pregnant women. Studies in animals have however shown reproductive toxicity (see section 5.3) and the potential risk for the foetus is unknown. Glivec should not be used during pregnancy unless clearly necessary. If it is used during pregnancy, the patient must be informed of the potential risk to the foetus.
Breast-feedingThere is limited information on imatinib distribution on human milk. Studies in two breast-feeding women revealed that both imatinib and its active metabolite can be distributed into human milk. The milk plasma ratio studied in a single patient was determined to be 0.5 for imatinib and 0.9 for the metabolite, suggesting greater distribution of the metabolite into the milk. Considering the combined concentration of imatinib and the metabolite and the maximum daily milk intake by infants, the total exposure would be expected to be low (~10% of a therapeutic dose). However, since the effects of low-dose exposure of the infant to imatinib are unknown, women taking imatinib should not breast-feed.
FertilityIn non-clinical studies, the fertility of male and female rats was not affected (see section 5.3). Studies on patients receiving Glivec and its effect on fertility and gametogenesis have not been performed. Patients concerned about their fertility on Glivec treatment should consult with their physician.
Adverse reactionsAdverse reactions reported as more than an isolated case are listed below, by system organ class and by frequency. Frequency categories are defined using the following convention: very common (≥1/10), common (≥1/100 to <1/10), uncommon (≥1/1,000 to <1/100), rare (≥1/10,000 to <1/1,000), very rare (<1/10,000), not known (cannot be estimated from the available data).Within each frequency grouping, undesirable effects are presented in order of frequency, the most frequent first. Adverse reactions and their frequencies are reported in Table 1.
Table 1 Tabulated summary of adverse reactions
|Infections and infestations|
|Uncommon:||Herpes zoster, herpes simplex, nasopharyngitis, pneumonia1, sinusitis, cellulitis, upper respiratory tract infection, influenza, urinary tract infection, gastroenteritis, sepsis|
|Neoplasm benign, malignant and unspecified (including cysts and polyps)|
|Rare:||Tumour lysis syndrome|
|Not known:||Tumour haemorrhage/tumour necrosis*|
|Immune system disorders|
|Not known:||Anaphylactic shock*|
|Blood and lymphatic system disorders|
|Very common:||Neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, anaemia|
|Common:||Pancytopenia, febrile neutropenia|
|Uncommon:||Thrombocythaemia, lymphopenia, bone marrow depression, eosinophilia, lymphadenopathy|
|Metabolism and nutrition disorders|
|Uncommon:||Hypokalaemia, increased appetite, hypophosphataemia, decreased appetite, dehydration, gout, hyperuricaemia, hypercalcaemia, hyperglycaemia, hyponatraemia|
|Uncommon:||Depression, libido decreased, anxiety|
|Nervous system disorders|
|Common:||Dizziness, paraesthesia, taste disturbance, hypoaesthesia|
|Uncommon:||Migraine, somnolence, syncope, peripheral neuropathy, memory impairment, sciatica, restless leg syndrome, tremor, cerebral haemorrhage|
|Rare:||Increased intracranial pressure, convulsions, optic neuritis|
|Not known:||Cerebral oedema*|
|Common:||Eyelid oedema, lacrimation increased, conjunctival haemorrhage, conjunctivitis, dry eye, blurred vision|
|Uncommon:||Eye irritation, eye pain, orbital oedema, scleral haemorrhage, retinal haemorrhage, blepharitis, macular oedema|
|Rare:||Cataract, glaucoma, papilloedema|
|Not known:||Vitreous haemorrhage*|
|Ear and labyrinth disorders|
|Uncommon:||Vertigo, tinnitus, hearing loss|
|Uncommon:||Palpitations, tachycardia, cardiac failure congestive3, pulmonary oedema|
|Rare:||Arrhythmia, atrial fibrillation, cardiac arrest, myocardial infarction, angina pectoris, pericardial effusion|
|Not known:||Pericarditis*, cardiac tamponade*|
|Uncommon:||Hypertension, haematoma, subdural haematoma, peripheral coldness, hypotension, Raynaud's phenomenon|
|Respiratory, thoracic and mediastinal disorders|
|Common:||Dyspnoea, epistaxis, cough|
|Uncommon:||Pleural effusion5, pharyngolaryngeal pain, pharyngitis|
|Rare:||Pleuritic pain, pulmonary fibrosis, pulmonary hypertension, pulmonary haemorrhage|
|Not known:||Acute respiratory failure10*, interstitial lung disease*|
|Very common:||Nausea, diarrhoea, vomiting, dyspepsia, abdominal pain6|
|Common:||Flatulence, abdominal distension, gastro-oesophageal reflux, constipation, dry mouth, gastritis|
|Uncommon:||Stomatitis, mouth ulceration, gastrointestinal haemorrhage7, eructation, melaena, oesophagitis, ascites, gastric ulcer, haematemesis, cheilitis, dysphagia, pancreatitis|
|Rare:||Colitis, ileus, inflammatory bowel disease|
|Not known:||Ileus/intestinal obstruction*, gastrointestinal perforation*, diverticulitis*, gastric antral vascular ectasia (GAVE)*|
|Common:||Increased hepatic enzymes|
|Uncommon:||Hyperbilirubinaemia, hepatitis, jaundice|
|Rare:||Hepatic failure8, hepatic necrosis|
|Skin and subcutaneous tissue disorders|
|Very common:||Periorbital oedema, dermatitis/eczema/rash|
|Common:||Pruritus, face oedema, dry skin, erythema, alopecia, night sweats, photosensitivity reaction|
|Uncommon:||Rash pustular, contusion, sweating increased, urticaria, ecchymosis, increased tendency to bruise, hypotrichosis, skin hypopigmentation, dermatitis exfoliative, onychoclasis, folliculitis, petechiae, psoriasis, purpura, skin hyperpigmentation, bullous eruptions|
|Rare:||Acute febrile neutrophilic dermatosis (Sweet's syndrome), nail discolouration, angioneurotic oedema, rash vesicular, erythema multiforme, leucocytoclastic vasculitis, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, acute generalised exanthematous pustulosis (AGEP)|
|Not known:||Palmoplantar erythrodysesthesia syndrome*, lichenoid keratosis*, lichen planus*, toxic epidermal necrolysis*, drug rash with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS)*|
|Musculoskeletal and connective tissue disorders|
|Very common:||Muscle spasm and cramps, musculoskeletal pain including myalgia, arthralgia, bone pain9|
|Uncommon:||Joint and muscle stiffness|
|Rare:||Muscular weakness, arthritis, rhabdomyolysis/myopathy|
|Not known:||Avascular necrosis/hip necrosis*, growth retardation in children*|
|Renal and urinary disorders|
|Uncommon:||Renal pain, haematuria, renal failure acute, urinary frequency increased|
|Reproductive system and breast disorders|
|Uncommon:||Gynaecomastia, erectile dysfunction, menorrhagia, menstruation irregular, sexual dysfunction, nipple pain, breast enlargement, scrotal oedema|
|Rare:||Haemorrhagic corpus luteum/haemorrhagic ovarian cyst|
|General disorders and administration site conditions|
|Very common:||Fluid retention and oedema, fatigue|
|Common:||Weakness, pyrexia, anasarca, chills, rigors|
|Uncommon:||Chest pain, malaise|
|Very common:||Weight increased|
|Uncommon:||Blood creatinine increased, blood creatine phosphokinase increased, blood lactate dehydrogenase increased, blood alkaline phosphatase increased|
|Rare:||Blood amylase increased|
Laboratory test abnormalities
HaematologyIn CML, cytopenias, particularly neutropenia and thrombocytopenia, have been a consistent finding in all studies, with the suggestion of a higher frequency at high doses ≥ 750 mg (phase I study). However, the occurrence of cytopenias was also clearly dependent on the stage of the disease, the frequency of grade 3 or 4 neutropenias (ANC < 1.0 x 109/l) and thrombocytopenias (platelet count < 50 x 109/l) being between 4 and 6 times higher in blast crisis and accelerated phase (5964% and 4463% for neutropenia and thrombocytopenia, respectively) as compared to newly diagnosed patients in chronic phase CML (16.7% neutropenia and 8.9% thrombocytopenia). In newly diagnosed chronic phase CML grade 4 neutropenia (ANC < 0.5 x 109/l) and thrombocytopenia (platelet count < 10 x 109/l) were observed in 3.6% and < 1% of patients, respectively. The median duration of the neutropenic and thrombocytopenic episodes usually ranged from 2 to 3 weeks, and from 3 to 4 weeks, respectively. These events can usually be managed with either a reduction of the dose or an interruption of treatment with Glivec, but can in rare cases lead to permanent discontinuation of treatment. In paediatric CML patients the most frequent toxicities observed were grade 3 or 4 cytopenias involving neutropenia, thrombocytopenia and anaemia. These generally occur within the first several months of therapy.In the study in patients with unresectable and/or metastatic GIST, grade 3 and 4 anaemia was reported in 5.4% and 0.7% of patients, respectively, and may have been related to gastrointestinal or intra-tumoural bleeding in at least some of these patients. Grade 3 and 4 neutropenia was seen in 7.5% and 2.7% of patients, respectively, and grade 3 thrombocytopenia in 0.7% of patients. No patient developed grade 4 thrombocytopenia. The decreases in white blood cell (WBC) and neutrophil counts occurred mainly during the first six weeks of therapy, with values remaining relatively stable thereafter.
BiochemistrySevere elevation of transaminases (<5%) or bilirubin (<1%) was seen in CML patients and was usually managed with dose reduction or interruption (the median duration of these episodes was approximately one week). Treatment was discontinued permanently because of liver laboratory abnormalities in less than 1% of CML patients. In GIST patients (study B2222), 6.8% of grade 3 or 4 ALT (alanine aminotransferase) elevations and 4.8% of grade 3 or 4 AST (aspartate aminotransferase) elevations were observed. Bilirubin elevation was below 3%.There have been cases of cytolytic and cholestatic hepatitis and hepatic failure; in some of them outcome was fatal, including one patient on high dose paracetamol.Reporting of suspected adverse reactionsReporting suspected adverse reactions after authorisation of the medicinal product is important. It allows continued monitoring of the benefit/risk balance of the medicinal product. Healthcare professionals are asked to report any suspected adverse reactions via the Yellow Card Scheme at: www.mhra.gov.uk/yellowcard.
Adult population1200 to 1600 mg (duration varying between 1 to 10 days): Nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea, rash, erythema, oedema, swelling, fatigue, muscle spasms, thrombocytopenia, pancytopenia, abdominal pain, headache, decreased appetite.1800 to 3200 mg (as high as 3200 mg daily for 6 days): Weakness, myalgia, increased creatine phosphokinase, increased bilirubin, gastrointestinal pain.6400 mg (single dose): One case reported in the literature of one patient who experienced nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, pyrexia, facial swelling, decreased neutrophil count, increased transaminases.8 to 10 g (single dose): Vomiting and gastrointestinal pain have been reported.
Paediatric populationOne 3-year-old male exposed to a single dose of 400 mg experienced vomiting, diarrhoea and anorexia and another 3-year-old male exposed to a single dose of 980 mg experienced decreased white blood cell count and diarrhoea.In the event of overdose, the patient should be observed and appropriate supportive treatment given.
Mechanism of actionImatinib is a small molecule protein-tyrosine kinase inhibitor that potently inhibits the activity of the Bcr-Abl tyrosine kinase (TK), as well as several receptor TKs: Kit, the receptor for stem cell factor (SCF) coded for by the c-Kit proto-oncogene, the discoidin domain receptors (DDR1 and DDR2), the colony stimulating factor receptor (CSF-1R) and the platelet-derived growth factor receptors alpha and beta (PDGFR-alpha and PDGFR-beta). Imatinib can also inhibit cellular events mediated by activation of these receptor kinases.Pharmacodynamic effectsImatinib is a protein-tyrosine kinase inhibitor which potently inhibits the Bcr-Abl tyrosine kinase at the in vitro, cellular and in vivo levels. The compound selectively inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis in Bcr-Abl positive cell lines as well as fresh leukaemic cells from Philadelphia chromosome positive CML and acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) patients.In vivo the compound shows anti-tumour activity as a single agent in animal models using Bcr-Abl positive tumour cells.Imatinib is also an inhibitor of the receptor tyrosine kinases for platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), PDGF-R, and stem cell factor (SCF), c-Kit, and inhibits PDGF- and SCF-mediated cellular events. In vitro, imatinib inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis in gastrointestinal stromal tumour (GIST) cells, which express an activating kit mutation. Constitutive activation of the PDGF receptor or the Abl protein tyrosine kinases as a consequence of fusion to diverse partner proteins or constitutive production of PDGF have been implicated in the pathogenesis of MDS/MPD, HES/CEL and DFSP. Imatinib inhibits signalling and proliferation of cells driven by dysregulated PDGFR and Abl kinase activity.
Clinical studies in chronic myeloid leukaemiaThe effectiveness of Glivec is based on overall haematological and cytogenetic response rates and progression-free survival. Except in newly diagnosed chronic phase CML, there are no controlled trials demonstrating a clinical benefit, such as improvement in disease-related symptoms or increased survival.Three large, international, open-label, non-controlled phase II studies were conducted in patients with Philadelphia chromosome positive (Ph+) CML in advanced, blast or accelerated phase disease, other Ph+ leukaemias or with CML in the chronic phase but failing prior interferon-alpha (IFN) therapy. One large, open-label, multicentre, international randomised phase III study has been conducted in patients with newly diagnosed Ph+ CML. In addition, children have been treated in two phase I studies and one phase II study.In all clinical studies 3840% of patients were ≥ 60 years of age and 1012% of patients were ≥ 70 years of age.Chronic phase, newly diagnosed: This phase III study in adult patients compared treatment with either single-agent Glivec or a combination of interferon-alpha (IFN) plus cytarabine (Ara-C). Patients showing lack of response (lack of complete haematological response (CHR) at 6 months, increasing WBC, no major cytogenetic response (MCyR) at 24 months), loss of response (loss of CHR or MCyR) or severe intolerance to treatment were allowed to cross over to the alternative treatment arm. In the Glivec arm, patients were treated with 400 mg daily. In the IFN arm, patients were treated with a target dose of IFN of 5 MIU/m2/day subcutaneously in combination with subcutaneous Ara-C 20 mg/m2/day for 10 days/month.A total of 1,106 patients were randomised, 553 to each arm. Baseline characteristics were well balanced between the two arms. Median age was 51 years (range 1870 years), with 21.9% of patients ≥ 60 years of age. There were 59% males and 41% females; 89.9% caucasian and 4.7% black patients. Seven years after the last patient had been recruited, the median duration of first-line treatment was 82 and 8 months in the Glivec and IFN arms, respectively. The median duration of second-line treatment with Glivec was 64 months. Overall, in patients receiving first-line Glivec, the average daily dose delivered was 406 ± 76 mg. The primary efficacy endpoint of the study is progression-free survival. Progression was defined as any of the following events: progression to accelerated phase or blast crisis, death, loss of CHR or MCyR, or in patients not achieving a CHR an increasing WBC despite appropriate therapeutic management. Major cytogenetic response, haematological response, molecular response (evaluation of minimal residual disease), time to accelerated phase or blast crisis and survival are main secondary endpoints. Response data are shown in Table 2.
Table 2 Response in newly diagnosed CML Study (84-month data)
|(Best response rates)||n=553||n=553|
|CHR rate n (%)||534 (96.6%)*||313 (56.6%)*|
|[95% CI]||[94.7%, 97.9%]||[52.4%, 60.8%]|
|Major response n (%)||490 (88.6%)*||129 (23.3%)*|
|[95% CI]||[85.7%, 91.1%]||[19.9%, 27.1%]|
|Complete CyR n (%)||456 (82.5%)*||64 (11.6%)*|
|Partial CyR n (%)||34 (6.1%)||65 (11.8%)|
|Major response at 12 months (%)||153/305=50.2%||8/83=9.6%|
|Major response at 24 months (%)||73/104=70.2%||3/12=25%|
|Major response at 84 months (%)||102/116=87.9%||3/4=75%|
|* p<0.001, Fischer's exact test ** molecular response percentages are based on available samples Haematological response criteria (all responses to be confirmed after ≥ 4 weeks):WBC < 10 x 109/l, platelet < 450 x 109/l, myelocyte+metamyelocyte < 5% in blood, no blasts and promyelocytes in blood, basophils < 20%, no extramedullary involvement Cytogenetic response criteria: complete (0% Ph+ metaphases), partial (135%), minor (3665%) or minimal (6695%). A major response (035%) combines both complete and partial responses. Major molecular response criteria: in the peripheral blood reduction of ≥ 3 logarithms in the amount of Bcr-Abl transcripts (measured by real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR assay) over a standardised baseline.|
Table 3 Response in adult CML studies
|Study 0110 37-month data Chronic phase, IFN failure (n=532)||Study 0109 40.5-month data Accelerated phase (n=235)||Study 0102 38-month data Myeloid blast crisis (n=260)|
|% of patients (CI95%)|
|Haematological response1||95% (92.3-96.3)||71% (65.3-77.2)||31% (25.2-36.8)|
|Complete haematological response (CHR)||95%||42%||8%|
|No evidence of leukaemia (NEL)||Not applicable||12%||5%|
|Return to chronic phase (RTC)||Not applicable||17%||18%|
|Major cytogenetic response2||65% (61.2-69.5)||28% (22.0-33.9)||15% (11.220.4)|
|(Confirmed3) [95% CI]||(43%) [38.6-47.2]||(16%) [11.3-21.0]||(2%) [0.6-4.4]|
|1 Haematological response criteria (all responses to be confirmed after ≥ 4 weeks):CHR: Study 0110 [WBC < 10 x 109/l, platelets < 450 x 109/l, myelocyte+metamyelocyte < 5% in blood, no blasts and promyelocytes in blood, basophils < 20%, no extramedullary involvement] and in studies 0102 and 0109 [ANC ≥ 1.5 x 109/l, platelets ≥ 100 x 109/l, no blood blasts, BM blasts < 5% and no extramedullary disease] NEL Same criteria as for CHR but ANC ≥ 1 x 109/l and platelets ≥ 20 x 109/l (0102 and 0109 only) RTC < 15% blasts BM and PB, < 30% blasts+promyelocytes in BM and PB, < 20% basophils in PB, no extramedullary disease other than spleen and liver (only for 0102 and 0109). BM = bone marrow, PB = peripheral blood 2 Cytogenetic response criteria:A major response combines both complete and partial responses: complete (0% Ph+ metaphases), partial (135%) 3 Complete cytogenetic response confirmed by a second bone marrow cytogenetic evaluation performed at least one month after the initial bone marrow study.|
Clinical studies in Ph+ ALLNewly diagnosed Ph+ ALL: In a controlled study (ADE10) of imatinib versus chemotherapy induction in 55 newly diagnosed patients aged 55 years and over, imatinib used as single agent induced a significantly higher rate of complete haematological response than chemotherapy (96.3% vs. 50%; p=0.0001). When salvage therapy with imatinib was administered in patients who did not respond or who responded poorly to chemotherapy, it resulted in 9 patients (81.8%) out of 11 achieving a complete haematological response. This clinical effect was associated with a higher reduction in bcr-abl transcripts in the imatinib-treated patients than in the chemotherapy arm after 2 weeks of therapy (p=0.02). All patients received imatinib and consolidation chemotherapy (see Table 4) after induction and the levels of bcr-abl transcripts were identical in the two arms at 8 weeks. As expected on the basis of the study design, no difference was observed in remission duration, disease-free survival or overall survival, although patients with complete molecular response and remaining in minimal residual disease had a better outcome in terms of both remission duration (p=0.01) and disease-free survival (p=0.02).The results observed in a population of 211 newly diagnosed Ph+ ALL patients in four uncontrolled clinical studies (AAU02, ADE04, AJP01 and AUS01) are consistent with the results described above. Imatinib in combination with chemotherapy induction (see Table 4) resulted in a complete haematological response rate of 93% (147 out of 158 evaluable patients) and in a major cytogenetic response rate of 90% (19 out of 21 evaluable patients). The complete molecular response rate was 48% (49 out of 102 evaluable patients). Disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) constantly exceeded 1 year and were superior to historical control (DFS p<0.001; OS p<0.0001) in two studies (AJP01 and AUS01).
Table 4 Chemotherapy regimen used in combination with imatinib
|Prephase||DEX 10 mg/m2 oral, days 1-5; CP 200 mg/m2 i.v., days 3, 4, 5; MTX 12 mg intrathecal, day 1|
|Remission induction||DEX 10 mg/m2 oral, days 6-7, 13-16; VCR 1 mg i.v., days 7, 14; IDA 8 mg/m2 i.v. (0.5 h), days 7, 8, 14, 15; CP 500 mg/m2 i.v.(1 h) day 1; Ara-C 60 mg/m2 i.v., days 22-25, 29-32|
|Consolidation therapy I, III, V||MTX 500 mg/m2 i.v. (24 h), days 1, 15; 6-MP 25 mg/m2 oral, days 1-20|
|Consolidation therapy II, IV||Ara-C 75 mg/m2 i.v. (1 h), days 1-5; VM26 60 mg/m2 i.v. (1 h), days 1-5|
|Induction therapy (de novo Ph+ ALL)||Daunorubicin 30 mg/m2 i.v., days 1-3, 15-16; VCR 2 mg total dose i.v., days 1, 8, 15, 22; CP 750 mg/m2 i.v., days 1, 8; Prednisone 60 mg/m2 oral, days 1-7, 15-21; IDA 9 mg/m2 oral, days 1-28; MTX 15 mg intrathecal, days 1, 8, 15, 22; Ara-C 40 mg intrathecal, days 1, 8, 15, 22; Methylprednisolone 40 mg intrathecal, days 1, 8, 15, 22|
|Consolidation (de novo Ph+ ALL)||Ara-C 1,000 mg/m2/12 h i.v.(3 h), days 1-4; Mitoxantrone 10 mg/m2 i.v. days 3-5; MTX 15 mg intrathecal, day 1; Methylprednisolone 40 mg intrathecal, day 1|
|Prephase||DEX 10 mg/m2 oral, days 1-5; CP 200 mg/m2 i.v., days 3-5; MTX 15 mg intrathecal, day 1|
|Induction therapy I||DEX 10 mg/m2 oral, days 1-5; VCR 2 mg i.v., days 6, 13, 20; Daunorubicin 45 mg/m2 i.v., days 6-7, 13-14|
|Induction therapy II||CP 1 g/m2 i.v. (1 h), days 26, 46; Ara-C 75 mg/m2 i.v. (1 h), days 28-31, 35-38, 42-45; 6-MP 60 mg/m2 oral, days 26-46|
|Consolidation therapy||DEX 10 mg/m2 oral, days 1-5; Vindesine 3 mg/m2 i.v., day 1; MTX 1.5 g/m2 i.v. (24 h), day 1; Etoposide 250 mg/m2 i.v. (1 h) days 4-5; Ara-C 2x 2 g/m2 i.v. (3 h, q 12 h), day 5|
|Induction therapy||CP 1.2 g/m2 i.v. (3 h), day 1; Daunorubicin 60 mg/m2 i.v. (1 h), days 1-3; Vincristine 1.3 mg/m2 i.v., days 1, 8, 15, 21; Prednisolone 60 mg/m2/day oral|
|Consolidation therapy||Alternating chemotherapy course: high dose chemotherapy with MTX 1 g/m2 i.v. (24 h), day 1, and Ara-C 2 g/m2 i.v. (q 12 h), days 2-3, for 4 cycles|
|Maintenance||VCR 1.3 g/m2 i.v., day 1; Prednisolone 60 mg/m2 oral, days 1-5|
|Induction-consolidation therapy||Hyper-CVAD regimen: CP 300 mg/m2 i.v. (3 h, q 12 h), days 1-3; Vincristine 2 mg i.v., days 4, 11; Doxorubicine 50 mg/m2 i.v. (24 h), day 4; DEX 40 mg/day on days 1-4 and 11-14, alternated with MTX 1 g/m2 i.v. (24 h), day 1, Ara-C 1 g/m2 i.v. (2 h, q 12 h), days 2-3 (total of 8 courses)|
|Maintenance||VCR 2 mg i.v. monthly for 13 months; Prednisolone 200 mg oral, 5 days per month for 13 months|
|All treatment regimens include administration of steroids for CNS prophylaxis.|
|Ara-C: cytosine arabinoside; CP: cyclophosphamide; DEX: dexamethasone; MTX: methotrexate; 6-MP: 6-mercaptopurine VM26: Teniposide; VCR: vincristine; IDA: idarubicine; i.v.: intravenous|
Table 5 Chemotherapy regimen used in combination with imatinib in study I2301
|Consolidation block 1 (3 weeks)||VP-16 (100 mg/m2/day, IV): days 1-5 Ifosfamide (1.8 g/m2/day, IV): days 1-5 MESNA (360 mg/m2/dose q3h, x 8 doses/day, IV): days 1-5 G-CSF (5 μg/kg, SC): days 6-15 or until ANC > 1500 post nadir IT Methotrexate (age-adjusted): day 1 ONLY Triple IT therapy (age-adjusted): day 8, 15|
|Consolidation block 2 (3 weeks)||Methotrexate (5 g/m2 over 24 hours, IV): day 1 Leucovorin (75 mg/m2 at hour 36, IV; 15 mg/m2 IV or PO q6h x 6 doses)iii: Days 2 and 3 Triple IT therapy (age-adjusted): day 1 ARA-C (3 g/m2/dose q 12 h x 4, IV): days 2 and 3 G-CSF (5 μg/kg, SC): days 4-13 or until ANC > 1500 post nadir|
|Reinduction block 1 (3 weeks)||VCR (1.5 mg/m2/day, IV): days 1, 8, and 15 DAUN (45 mg/m2/day bolus, IV): days 1 and 2 CPM (250 mg/m2/dose q12h x 4 doses, IV): days 3 and 4 PEG-ASP (2500 IUnits/m2, IM): day 4 G-CSF (5 μg/kg, SC): days 5-14 or until ANC > 1500 post nadir Triple IT therapy (age-adjusted): days 1 and 15 DEX (6 mg/m2/day, PO): days 1-7 and 15-21|
|Intensification block 1 (9 weeks)||Methotrexate (5 g/m2 over 24 hours, IV): days 1 and 15 Leucovorin (75 mg/m2 at hour 36, IV; 15 mg/m2 IV or PO q6h x 6 doses)iii: Days 2, 3, 16, and 17 Triple IT therapy (age-adjusted): days 1 and 22 VP-16 (100 mg/m2/day, IV): days 22-26 CPM (300 mg/m2/day, IV): days 22-26 MESNA (150 mg/m2/day, IV): days 22-26 G-CSF (5 μg/kg, SC): days 27-36 or until ANC > 1500 post nadir ARA-C (3 g/m2, q12h, IV): days 43, 44 L-ASP (6000 IUnits/m2, IM): day 44|
|Reinduction block 2 (3 weeks)||VCR (1.5 mg/m2/day, IV): days 1, 8 and 15 DAUN (45 mg/m2/day bolus, IV): days 1 and 2 CPM (250 mg/m2/dose q12h x 4 doses, iv): Days 3 and 4 PEG-ASP (2500 IUnits/m2, IM): day 4 G-CSF (5 μg/kg, SC): days 5-14 or until ANC > 1500 post nadir Triple IT therapy (age-adjusted): days 1 and 15 DEX (6 mg/m2/day, PO): days 1-7 and 15-21|
|Intensification block 2 (9 weeks)||Methotrexate (5 g/m2 over 24 hours, IV): days 1 and 15 Leucovorin (75 mg/m2 at hour 36, IV; 15 mg/m2 IV or PO q6h x 6 doses)iii: days 2, 3, 16, and 17 Triple IT therapy (age-adjusted): days 1 and 22 VP-16 (100 mg/m2/day, IV): days 22-26 CPM (300 mg/m2/day, IV): days 22-26 MESNA (150 mg/m2/day, IV): days 22-26 G-CSF (5 μg/kg, SC): days 27-36 or until ANC > 1500 post nadir ARA-C (3 g/m2, q12h, IV): days 43, 44 L-ASP (6000 IUnits/m2, IM): day 44|
|Maintenance (8-week cycles) Cycles 14||MTX (5 g/m2 over 24 hours, IV): day 1 Leucovorin (75 mg/m2 at hour 36, IV; 15 mg/m2 IV or PO q6h x 6 doses)iii: days 2 and 3 Triple IT therapy (age-adjusted): days 1, 29 VCR (1.5 mg/m2, IV): days 1, 29 DEX (6 mg/m2/day PO): days 1-5; 29-33 6-MP (75 mg/m2/day, PO): days 8-28 Methotrexate (20 mg/m2/week, PO): days 8, 15, 22 VP-16 (100 mg/m2, IV): days 29-33 CPM (300 mg/m2, IV): days 29-33 MESNA IV days 29-33 G-CSF (5 μg/kg, SC): days 34-43|
|Maintenance (8-week cycles) Cycle 5||Cranial irradiation (Block 5 only) 12 Gy in 8 fractions for all patients that are CNS1 and CNS2 at diagnosis 18 Gy in 10 fractions for patients that are CNS3 at diagnosis VCR (1.5 mg/m2/day, IV): days 1, 29 DEX (6 mg/m2/day, PO): days 1-5; 29-33 6-MP (75 mg/m2/day, PO): days 11-56 (Withhold 6-MP during the 6-10 days of cranial irradiation beginning on day 1 of Cycle 5. Start 6-MP the 1st day after cranial irradiation completion.) Methotrexate (20 mg/m2/week, PO): days 8, 15, 22, 29, 36, 43, 50|
|Maintenance (8-week cycles) Cycles 6-12||VCR (1.5 mg/m2/day, IV): days 1, 29 DEX (6 mg/m2/day, PO): days 1-5; 29-33 6-MP (75 mg/m2/day, PO): days 1-56 Methotrexate (20 mg/m2/week, PO): days 1, 8, 15, 22, 29, 36, 43, 50|
Clinical studies in MDS/MPDExperience with Glivec in this indication is very limited and is based on haematological and cytogenetic response rates. There are no controlled trials demonstrating a clinical benefit or increased survival. One open label, multicentre, phase II clinical trial (study B2225) was conducted testing Glivec in diverse populations of patients suffering from life-threatening diseases associated with Abl, Kit or PDGFR protein tyrosine kinases. This study included 7 patients with MDS/MPD who were treated with Glivec 400 mg daily. Three patients presented a complete haematological response (CHR) and one patient experienced a partial haematological response (PHR). At the time of the original analysis, three of the four patients with detected PDGFR gene rearrangements developed haematological response (2 CHR and 1 PHR). The age of these patients ranged from 20 to 72 years. In addition a further 24 patients with MDS/MPD were reported in 13 publications. 21 patients were treated with Glivec 400 mg daily, while the other 3 patients received lower doses. In eleven patients PDGFR gene rearrangements was detected, 9 of them achieved a CHR and 1 PHR. The age of these patients ranged from 2 to 79 years. In a recent publication updated information from 6 of these 11 patients revealed that all these patients remained in cytogenetic remission (range 32-38 months). The same publication reported long term follow-up data from 12 MDS/MPD patients with PDGFR gene rearrangements (5 patients from study B2225). These patients received Glivec for a median of 47 months (range 24 days 60 months). In 6 of these patients follow-up now exceeds 4 years. Eleven patients achieved rapid CHR; ten had complete resolution of cytogenetic abnormalities and a decrease or disappearance of fusion transcripts as measured by RT-PCR. Haematological and cytogenetic responses have been sustained for a median of 49 months (range 19-60) and 47 months (range 16-59), respectively. The overall survival is 65 months since diagnosis (range 25-234). Glivec administration to patients without the genetic translocation generally results in no improvement.There are no controlled trials in paediatric patients with MDS/MPD. Five (5) patients with MDS/MPD associated with PDGFR gene re-arrangements were reported in 4 publications. The age of these patients ranged from 3 months to 4 years and imatinib was given at dose 50 mg daily or doses ranging from 92.5 to 340 mg/m2 daily. All patients achieved complete haematological response, cytogenetic response and/or clinical response.
Clinical studies in HES/CELOne open-label, multicentre, phase II clinical trial (study B2225) was conducted testing Glivec in diverse populations of patients suffering from life-threatening diseases associated with Abl, Kit or PDGFR protein tyrosine kinases. In this study, 14 patients with HES/CEL were treated with 100 mg to 1,000 mg of Glivec daily. A further 162 patients with HES/CEL, reported in 35 published case reports and case series received Glivec at doses from 75 mg to 800 mg daily. Cytogenetic abnormalities were evaluated in 117 of the total population of 176 patients. In 61 of these 117 patients FIP1L1-PDGFRα fusion kinase was identified. An additional four HES patients were found to be FIP1L1-PDGFRα-positive in other 3 published reports. All 65 FIP1L1-PDGFRα fusion kinase positive patients achieved a CHR sustained for months (range from 1+ to 44+ months censored at the time of the reporting). As reported in a recent publication 21 of these 65 patients also achieved complete molecular remission with a median follow-up of 28 months (range 13-67 months). The age of these patients ranged from 25 to 72 years. Additionally, improvements in symptomatology and other organ dysfunction abnormalities were reported by the investigators in the case reports. Improvements were reported in cardiac, nervous, skin/subcutaneous tissue, respiratory/thoracic/mediastinal, musculoskeletal/connective tissue/vascular, and gastrointestinal organ systems.There are no controlled trials in paediatric patients with HES/CEL. Three (3) patients with HES and CEL associated with PDGFR gene re-arrangements were reported in 3 publications. The age of these patients ranged from 2 to 16 years and imatinib was given at dose 300 mg/m2 daily or doses ranging from 200 to 400 mg daily. All patients achieved complete haematological response, complete cytogenetic response and/or complete molecular response.
Clinical studies in unresectable and/or metastatic GISTOne phase II, open-label, randomised, uncontrolled multinational study was conducted in patients with unresectable or metastatic malignant gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GIST). In this study 147 patients were enrolled and randomised to receive either 400 mg or 600 mg orally once daily for up to 36 months. These patients ranged in age from 18 to 83 years old and had a pathologic diagnosis of Kit-positive malignant GIST that was unresectable and/or metastatic. Immunohistochemistry was routinely performed with Kit antibody (A-4502, rabbit polyclonal antiserum, 1:100; DAKO Corporation, Carpinteria, CA) according to analysis by an avidin-biotin-peroxidase complex method after antigen retrieval.The primary evidence of efficacy was based on objective response rates. Tumours were required to be measurable in at least one site of disease, and response characterisation based on Southwestern Oncology Group (SWOG) criteria. Results are provided in Table 6.
Table 6 Best tumour response in trial STIB2222 (GIST)
|Best response||All doses (n=147) 400 mg (n=73) 600 mg (n=74) n (%)|
|Partial response||98 (66.7)|
|Stable disease||23 (15.6)|
|Progressive disease||18 (12.2)|
|Not evaluable||5 (3.4)|
Clinical studies in adjuvant GISTIn the adjuvant setting, Glivec was investigated in a multicentre, double-blind, long-term, placebo-controlled phase III study (Z9001) involving 773 patients. The ages of these patients ranged from 18 to 91 years. Patients were included who had a histological diagnosis of primary GIST expressing Kit protein by immunochemistry and a tumour size ≥ 3 cm in maximum dimension, with complete gross resection of primary GIST within 14-70 days prior to registration. After resection of primary GIST, patients were randomised to one of the two arms: Glivec at 400 mg/day or matching placebo for one year.The primary endpoint of the study was recurrence-free survival (RFS), defined as the time from date of randomisation to the date of recurrence or death from any cause.Glivec significantly prolonged RFS, with 75% of patients being recurrence-free at 38 months in the Glivec group vs. 20 months in the placebo group (95% CIs, [30 - non-estimable]; [14 - non-estimable], respectively); (hazard ratio = 0.398 [0.259-0.610], p<0.0001). At one year the overall RFS was significantly better for Glivec (97.7%) vs. placebo (82.3%), (p<0.0001). The risk of recurrence was thus reduced by approximately 89% as compared with placebo (hazard ratio = 0.113 [0.049-0.264]).The risk of recurrence in patients after surgery of their primary GIST was retrospectively assessed based on the following prognostic factors: tumour size, mitotic index, tumour location. Mitotic index data were available for 556 of the 713 intention-to-treat (ITT) population. The results of subgroup analyses according to the United States National Institutes of Health (NIH) and the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology (AFIP) risk classifications are shown in Table 7. No benefit was observed in the low and very low risk groups. No overall survival benefit has been observed.
Table 7 Summary of Z9001 trial RFS analyses by NIH and AFIP risk classifications
|Risk criteria||Risk Level||% of patients||No. of events / No. of patients||Overall hazard ratio (95%CI)*||RFS rates (%)|
|12 month||24 month|
|Glivec vs placebo||Glivec vs placebo||Glivec vs placebo|
|NIH||Low||29.5||0/86 vs. 2/90||N.E.||100 vs. 98.7||100 vs. 95.5|
|Intermediate||25.7||4/75 vs. 6/78||0.59 (0.17; 2.10)||100 vs. 94.8||97.8 vs. 89.5|
|High||44.8||21/140 vs. 51/127||0.29 (0.18; 0.49)||94.8 vs. 64.0||80.7 vs. 46.6|
|AFIP||Very Low||20.7||0/52 vs. 2/63||N.E.||100 vs. 98.1||100 vs. 93.0|
|Low||25.0||2/70 vs. 0/69||N.E.||100 vs. 100||97.8 vs. 100|
|Moderate||24.6||2/70 vs. 11/67||0.16 (0.03; 0.70)||97.9 vs. 90.8||97.9 vs. 73.3|
|High||29.7||16/84 vs. 39/81||0.27 (0.15; 0.48)||98.7 vs. 56.1||79.9 vs. 41.5|
|12-month treatment arm||36-month treatment arm|
|12 months||93.7 (89.2-96.4)||95.9 (91.9-97.9)|
|24 months||75.4 (68.6-81.0)||90.7 (85.6-94.0)|
|36 months||60.1 (52.5-66.9)||86.6 (80.8-90.8)|
|48 months||52.3 (44.0-59.8)||78.3 (70.8-84.1)|
|60 months||47.9 (39.0-56.3)||65.6 (56.1-73.4)|
|36 months||94.0 (89.5-96.7)||96.3 (92.4-98.2)|
|48 months||87.9 (81.1-92.3)||95.6 (91.2-97.8)|
|60 months||81.7 (73.0-87.8)||92.0 (85.3-95.7)|
Figure 1 Kaplan-Meier estimates for primary recurrence-free survival endpoint (ITT population)Figure 2 Kaplan-Meier estimates for overall survival (ITT population)There are no controlled trials in paediatric patients with c-Kit positive GIST. Seventeen (17) patients with GIST (with or without Kit and PDGFR mutations) were reported in 7 publications. The age of these patients ranged from 8 to 18 years and imatinib was given in both adjuvant and metastatic settings at doses ranging from 300 to 800 mg daily. The majority of paediatric patients treated for GIST lacked data confirming c-kit or PDGFR mutations which may have led to mixed clinical outcomes.
Clinical studies in DFSPOne phase II, open label, multicentre clinical trial (study B2225) was conducted including 12 patients with DFSP treated with Glivec 800 mg daily. The age of the DFSP patients ranged from 23 to 75 years; DFSP was metastatic, locally recurrent following initial resective surgery and not considered amenable to further resective surgery at the time of study entry. The primary evidence of efficacy was based on objective response rates. Out of the 12 patients enrolled, 9 responded, one completely and 8 partially. Three of the partial responders were subsequently rendered disease free by surgery. The median duration of therapy in study B2225 was 6.2 months, with a maximum duration of 24.3 months. A further 6 DFSP patients treated with Glivec were reported in 5 published case reports, their ages ranging from 18 months to 49 years. The adult patients reported in the published literature were treated with either 400 mg (4 cases) or 800 mg (1 case) Glivec daily. Five (5) patients responded, 3 completely and 2 partially. The median duration of therapy in the published literature ranged between 4 weeks and more than 20 months. The translocation t(17:22)[(q22:q13)], or its gene product, was present in nearly all responders to Glivec treatment.There are no controlled trials in paediatric patients with DFSP. Five (5) patients with DFSP and PDGFR gene re-arrangements were reported in 3 publications. The age of these patients ranged from newborn to 14 years and imatinib was given at dose 50 mg daily or doses ranging from 400 to 520 mg/m2 daily. All patients achieved partial and/or complete response.
Pharmacokinetics of GlivecThe pharmacokinetics of Glivec have been evaluated over a dosage range of 25 to 1,000 mg. Plasma pharmacokinetic profiles were analysed on day 1 and on either day 7 or day 28, by which time plasma concentrations had reached steady state.
AbsorptionMean absolute bioavailability for imatinib is 98%. There was high between-patient variability in plasma imatinib AUC levels after an oral dose. When given with a high-fat meal, the rate of absorption of imatinib was minimally reduced (11% decrease in Cmax and prolongation of tmax by 1.5 h), with a small reduction in AUC (7.4%) compared to fasting conditions. The effect of prior gastrointestinal surgery on drug absorption has not been investigated.
DistributionAt clinically relevant concentrations of imatinib, binding to plasma proteins was approximately 95% on the basis of in vitro experiments, mostly to albumin and alpha-acid-glycoprotein, with little binding to lipoprotein.
BiotransformationThe main circulating metabolite in humans is the N-demethylated piperazine derivative, which shows similar in vitro potency to the parent. The plasma AUC for this metabolite was found to be only 16% of the AUC for imatinib. The plasma protein binding of the N-demethylated metabolite is similar to that of the parent compound.Imatinib and the N-demethyl metabolite together accounted for about 65% of the circulating radioactivity (AUC(0-48h)). The remaining circulating radioactivity consisted of a number of minor metabolites.The in vitro results showed that CYP3A4 was the major human P450 enzyme catalysing the biotransformation of imatinib. Of a panel of potential comedications (acetaminophen, aciclovir, allopurinol, amphotericin, cytarabine, erythromycin, fluconazole, hydroxyurea, norfloxacin, penicillin V) only erythromycin (IC50 50 µM) and fluconazole (IC50 118 µM) showed inhibition of imatinib metabolism which could have clinical relevance.Imatinib was shown in vitro to be a competitive inhibitor of marker substrates for CYP2C9, CYP2D6 and CYP3A4/5. Ki values in human liver microsomes were 27, 7.5 and 7.9 μmol/l, respectively. Maximal plasma concentrations of imatinib in patients are 24 μmol/l, consequently an inhibition of CYP2D6 and/or CYP3A4/5-mediated metabolism of co-administered drugs is possible. Imatinib did not interfere with the biotransformation of 5-fluorouracil, but it inhibited paclitaxel metabolism as a result of competitive inhibition of CYP2C8 (Ki = 34.7 µM). This Ki value is far higher than the expected plasma levels of imatinib in patients, consequently no interaction is expected upon co-administration of either 5-fluorouracil or paclitaxel and imatinib.
EliminationBased on the recovery of compound(s) after an oral 14C-labelled dose of imatinib, approximately 81% of the dose was recovered within 7 days in faeces (68% of dose) and urine (13% of dose). Unchanged imatinib accounted for 25% of the dose (5% urine, 20% faeces), the remainder being metabolites.
Plasma pharmacokineticsFollowing oral administration in healthy volunteers, the t½ was approximately 18 h, suggesting that once-daily dosing is appropriate. The increase in mean AUC with increasing dose was linear and dose proportional in the range of 251,000 mg imatinib after oral administration. There was no change in the kinetics of imatinib on repeated dosing, and accumulation was 1.52.5-fold at steady state when dosed once daily.
Pharmacokinetics in GIST patientsIn patients with GIST steady-state exposure was 1.5-fold higher than that observed for CML patients for the same dosage (400 mg daily). Based on preliminary population pharmacokinetic analysis in GIST patients, there were three variables (albumin, WBC and bilirubin) found to have a statistically significant relationship with imatinib pharmacokinetics. Decreased values of albumin caused a reduced clearance (CL/f); and higher levels of WBC led to a reduction of CL/f. However, these associations are not sufficiently pronounced to warrant dose adjustment. In this patient population, the presence of hepatic metastases could potentially lead to hepatic insufficiency and reduced metabolism.
Population pharmacokineticsBased on population pharmacokinetic analysis in CML patients, there was a small effect of age on the volume of distribution (12% increase in patients > 65 years old). This change is not thought to be clinically significant. The effect of bodyweight on the clearance of imatinib is such that for a patient weighing 50 kg the mean clearance is expected to be 8.5 l/h, while for a patient weighing 100 kg the clearance will rise to 11.8 l/h. These changes are not considered sufficient to warrant dose adjustment based on kg bodyweight. There is no effect of gender on the kinetics of imatinib.
Pharmacokinetics in childrenAs in adult patients, imatinib was rapidly absorbed after oral administration in paediatric patients in both phase I and phase II studies. Dosing in children at 260 and 340 mg/m2/day achieved the same exposure, respectively, as doses of 400 mg and 600 mg in adult patients. The comparison of AUC(0-24) on day 8 and day 1 at the 340 mg/m2/day dose level revealed a 1.7-fold drug accumulation after repeated once-daily dosing.Based on pooled population pharmacokinetic analysis in paediatric patients with haematological disorders (CML, Ph+ALL, or other haematological disorders treated with imatinib), clearance of imatinib increases with increasing body surface area (BSA). After correcting for the BSA effect, other demographics such as age, body weight and body mass index did not have clinically significant effects on the exposure of imatinib. The analysis confirmed that exposure of imatinib in paediatric patients receiving 260 mg/m2 once daily (not exceeding 400 mg once daily) or 340 mg/m2 once daily (not exceeding 600 mg once daily) were similar to those in adult patients who received imatinib 400 mg or 600 mg once daily.
Organ function impairmentImatinib and its metabolites are not excreted via the kidney to a significant extent. Patients with mild and moderate impairment of renal function appear to have a higher plasma exposure than patients with normal renal function. The increase is approximately 1.5- to 2-fold, corresponding to a 1.5-fold elevation of plasma AGP, to which imatinib binds strongly. The free drug clearance of imatinib is probably similar between patients with renal impairment and those with normal renal function, since renal excretion represents only a minor elimination pathway for imatinib (see sections 4.2 and 4.4).Although the results of pharmacokinetic analysis showed that there is considerable inter-subject variation, the mean exposure to imatinib did not increase in patients with varying degrees of liver dysfunction as compared to patients with normal liver function (see sections 4.2, 4.4 and 4.8).
|Date of first authorisation:||07 November 2001|
|Date of latest renewal:||07 November 2006|
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