|Cytostatic topoisomerase I inhibitor. ATC Code : L01XX19|
Experimental data:Irinotecan is a semi-synthetic derivative of camptothecin. It is an antineoplastic agent which acts as a specific inhibitor of DNA topoisomerase I. It is metabolised by carboxylesterase in most tissues to SN-38, which was found to be more active than irinotecan in purified topoisomerase I and more cytotoxic than irinotecan against several murine and human tumour cell lines. The inhibition of DNA topoisomerase I by irinotecan or SN-38 induces single-strand DNA lesions which blocks the DNA replication fork and are responsible for the cytotoxicity. This cytotoxic activity was found time-dependent and was specific to the S phase.In vitro, irinotecan and SN-38 were not found to be significantly recognised by the P -glycoprotein MDR, and displays cytotoxic activities against doxorubicin and vinblastine resistant cell lines.Furthermore, irinotecan has a broad antitumor activity in vivo against murine tumour models (P03 pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, MA16/C mammary adenocarcinoma, C38 and C51 colon adenocarcinomas) and against human xenografts (Co-4 colon adenocarcinoma, Mx-1 mammary adenocarcinoma, ST-15 and SC-16 gastric adenocarcinomas). Irinotecan is also active against tumors expressing the P-glycoprotein MDR (vincristine- and doxorubicin-resistant P388 leukaemia's).Beside the antitumor activity of CAMPTO, the most relevant pharmacological effect of irinotecan is the inhibition of acetylcholinesterase.
In combination therapy for the first-line treatment of metastatic colorectal carcinoma
In combination therapy with Folinic Acid and 5-FluorouracilA phase III study was performed in 385 previously untreated metastatic colorectal cancer patients treated with either every 2 weeks schedule (see « Posology and method of administration ») or weekly schedule regimens. In the every 2 weeks schedule, on day 1, the administration of CAMPTO at 180 mg/m² once every 2 weeks is followed by infusion with folinic acid (200 mg/m² over a 2-hour intravenous infusion) and 5-fluorouracil (400 mg/m² as an intravenous bolus, followed by 600 mg/m² over a 22-hour intravenous infusion). On day 2, folinic acid and 5-fluorouracil are administered at the same doses and schedules. In the weekly schedule, the administration of CAMPTO at 80 mg/m² is followed by infusion with folinic acid (500 mg/m² over a 2-hour intravenous infusion) and then by 5-fluorouracil (2300 mg/m² over a 24-hour intravenous infusion) over 6 weeks. In the combination therapy trial with the 2 regimens described above, the efficacy of CAMPTO was evaluated in 198 treated patients:
5FU : 5-fluorouracilFA : folinic acidNS : Non Significant*: As per protocol population analysisIn the weekly schedule, the incidence of severe diarrhoea was 44.4% in patients treated by CAMPTO in combination with 5FU/FA and 25.6% in patients treated by 5FU/FA alone. The incidence of severe neutropenia (neutrophil count < 500 cells/mm3) was 5.8% in patients treated by CAMPTO in combination with 5FU/FA and in 2.4% in patients treated by 5FU/FA alone.Additionally, median time to definitive performance status deterioration was significantly longer in CAMPTO combination group than in 5FU/FA alone group (p=0.046).Quality of life was assessed in this phase III study using the EORTC QLQ-C30 questionnaire. Time to definitive deterioration constantly occurred later in the CAMPTO groups. The evolution of the Global Health Status/Quality of life was slightly better in CAMPTO combination group although not significant, showing that efficacy of CAMPTO in combination could be reached without affecting the quality of life.
| ||Combined regimens
||Every 2 weeks schedule
|Response rate (%)
|Median time to progression (months)
|Median duration of response (months)
|Median duration of response and stabilisation (months)
|Median time to treatment failure (months)
|Median survival (months)
In combination therapy with bevazicumab A phase III randomised, double-blind, active-controlled clinical trial evaluated bevacizumab in combination with CAMPTO/5FU/FA as first-line treatment for metastatic carcinoma of the colon or rectum (Study AVF2107g). The addition of bevacizumab to the combination of CAMPTO/5FU/FA resulted in a statistically significant increase in overall survival. The clinical benefit, as measured by overall survival, was seen in all pre-specified patient subgroups, including those defined by age, sex, performance status, location of primary tumour, number of organs involved, and duration of metastatic disease. Refer also to the bevacizumab summary of product characteristics. The efficacy results of Study AVF2107g are summarized in the table below.
a5 mg/kg every 2 weeks. bRelative to control arm.
|Arm 1CAMPTO/5FU/FA + Placebo||Arm 2CAMPTO/5FU/FA + Avastina|
|Number of Patients ||411 ||402 |
|Overall survival || || |
| Median time (months) ||15.6||20.3 |
| 95% Confidence Interval ||14.29 16.99 ||18.46 24.18 |
| Hazard ratiob|| ||0.660 |
| p-value || ||0.00004 |
|Progression-free survival || || |
| Median time (months) ||6.2 ||10.6 |
| Hazard ratio || ||0.54 |
| p-value || ||< 0.0001 |
|Overall response rate || || |
| Rate (%) ||34.8 ||44.8 |
| 95% CI ||30.2 39.6 ||39.9 49.8 |
| p-value || ||0.0036 |
|Duration of response || || |
| Median time (months) ||7.1 ||10.4 |
| 2575 percentile (months) ||4.7 11.8 ||6.7 15.0 |
In combination therapy with cetuximab EMR 62 202-013: This randomised study in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer who had not received prior treatment for metastatic disease compared the combination of cetuximab and irinotecan plus infusional 5-fluorouracil/folinic acid (5-FU/FA) (599 patients) to the same chemotherapy alone (599 patients). The proportion of patients with KRAS wild-type tumours from the patient population evaluable for KRAS status comprised 64%.The efficacy data generated in this study are summarised in the table below:
CI = confidence interval, FOLFIRI = irinotecan plus infusional 5-FU/FA, ORR = objective response rate (patients with complete response or partial response), PFS = progression-free survival time
| ||Overall population||KRAS wild-type population|
|Variable/statistic||Cetuximab plus FOLFIRI(N=599)||FOLFIRI(N=599)||Cetuximab plus FOLFIRI(N=172)||FOLFIRI(N=176)|
|ORR|| || || || |
||46.9 (42.9, 51.0)
||38.7 (34.8, 42.8)
||59.3 (51.6, 66.7)
||43.2 (35.8, 50.9)
|PFS|| || || || |
|Hazard Ratio (95% CI)
|| 0.85 (0.726, 0.998)
|| 0.68 (0.501, 0.934)
In combination therapy with capecitabineData from a randomised, controlled phase III study (CAIRO) support the use of capecitabine at a starting dose of 1000 mg/m2 for 2 weeks every 3 weeks in combination with irinotecan for the first-line treatment of patients with metastatic colorectal cancer. 820 Patients were randomized to receive either sequential treatment (n=410) or combination treatment (n=410). Sequential treatment consisted of first-line treatment with capecitabine (1250 mg/m2 twice daily for 14 days), second-line irinotecan (350 mg/m2 on day 1), and third-line combination of capecitabine (1000 mg/m2 twice daily for 14 days) with oxaliplatin (130 mg/m2 on day 1). Combination treatment consisted of first-line treatment of capecitabine (1000 mg/m2 twice daily for 14 days) combined with irinotecan (250 mg /m2 on day 1) (XELIRI) and second-line capecitabine (1000 mg/m2 twice daily for 14 days) plus oxaliplatin (130 mg/m2 on day 1). All treatment cycles were administered at intervals of 3 weeks. In first-line treatment the median progression-free survival in the intent-to-treat population was 5.8 months (95%CI, 5.1 -6.2 months) for capecitabine monotherapy and 7.8 months (95%CI, 7.0-8.3 months) for XELIRI (p=0.0002).Data from an interim analysis of a multicentre, randomised, controlled phase II study (AIO KRK 0604) support the use of capecitabine at a starting dose of 800 mg/m2 for 2 weeks every 3 weeks in combination with irinotecan and bevacizumab for the first-line treatment of patients with metastatic colorectal cancer. 115 patients were randomised to treatment with capecitabine combined with irinotecan (XELIRI) and bevacizumab: capecitabine (800 mg/m2 twice daily for two weeks followed by a 7-day rest period), irinotecan (200 mg/m2 as a 30 minute infusion on day 1 every 3 weeks), and bevacizumab (7.5 mg/kg as a 30 to 90 minute infusion on day 1 every 3 weeks); a total of 118 patients were randomised to treatment with capecitabine combined with oxaliplatin plus bevacizumab: capecitabine (1000 mg/m2 twice daily for two weeks followed by a 7-day rest period), oxaliplatin (130 mg/m2 as a 2 hour infusion on day 1 every 3 weeks), and bevacizumab (7.5 mg/kg as a 30 to 90 minute infusion on day 1 every 3 weeks). Progression-free survival at 6 months in the intent-to-treat population was 80% (XELIRI plus bevacizumab) versus 74% (XELOX plus bevacizumab). Overall response rate (complete response plus partial response) was 45% (XELOX plus bevacizumab) versus 47% (XELIRI plus bevacizumab).
In monotherapy for the second-line treatment of metastatic colorectal carcinoma:Clinical phase II/III studies were performed in more than 980 patients in the every 3 week dosage schedule with metastatic colorectal cancer who failed a previous 5-FU regimen. The efficacy of CAMPTO was evaluated in 765 patients with documented progression on 5-FU at study entry.
NA : Non Applicable* : Statistically significant differenceIn phase II studies, performed on 455 patients in the every 3-week dosage schedule, the progression free survival at 6 months was 30 % and the median survival was 9 months. The median time to progression was 18 weeks.Additionally, non-comparative phase II studies were performed in 304 patients treated with a weekly schedule regimen, at a dose of 125 mg/m² administered as an intravenous infusion over 90 minutes for 4 consecutive weeks followed by 2 weeks rest. In these studies, the median time to progression was 17 weeks and median survival was 10 months. A similar safety profile has been observed in the weekly-dosage schedule in 193 patients at the starting dose of 125 mg/m², compared to the every 3-week-dosage schedule. The median time of onset of the first liquid stool was on day 11.
| ||Phases III
| ||CAMPTO versus supportive care
||CAMPTO versus 5FU
|Progression Free Survival
at 6 months (%)
|| ||33.5 *
at 12 months (%)
In combination with cetuximab after failure of irinotecan-including cytotoxic therapyThe efficacy of the combination of cetuximab with irinotecan was investigated in two clinical studies. A total of 356 patients with EGFR-expressing metastatic colorectal cancer who had recently failed irinotecan-including cytotoxic therapy and who had a minimum Karnofsky performance status of 60, but the majority of whom had a Karnofsky performance status of ≥ 80 received the combination treatment.EMR 62 202-007: This randomised study compared the combination of cetuximab and irinotecan (218 patients) with cetuximab monotherapy (111 patients).IMCL CP02-9923: This single arm open-label study investigated the combination therapy in 138 patients.The efficacy data from these studies are summarised in the table below:
CI= confidence interval, DCR= disease control rate (patients with complete response, partial response, or stable disease for at least 6 weeks), ORR= objective response rate (patients with complete response or partial response), OS= overall survival time, PFS= progression-free survivalThe efficacy of the combination of cetuximab with irinotecan was superior to that of cetuximab monotherapy, in terms of objective response rate (ORR), disease control rate (DCR) and progression-free survival (PFS). In the randomised trial, no effects on overall survival were demonstrated (hazard ratio 0.91, p=0.48).
|Study||N||ORR||DCR||PFS (months)||OS (months)|
| || ||n (%)||95% CI||n (%)||95% CI||Median||95% CI||Median||95% CI|
|EMR 62 202-007||218||50 (22.9)||17.5, 29.1||121(55.5)||48.6, 62.2||4.1||2.8, 4.3||8.6||7.6, 9.6|
|IMCLCP02-9923||138||21 (15.2)||9.7, 22.3||84 (60.9)||52.2, 69.1||2.9||2.6, 4.1||8.4||7.2, 10.3|
|EMR 62 202-007||111||12 (10.8)||5.7, 18.1||36(32.4)||23.9, 42.0||1.5||1.4, 2.0||6.9||5.6, 9.1|
Pharmacokinetic/Pharmacodynamic dataThe intensity of the major toxicities encountered with CAMPTO (e.g., leukoneutropenia and diarrhoea) are related to the exposure (AUC) to parent drug and metabolite SN-38. Significant correlations were observed between haematological toxicity (decrease in white blood cells and neutrophils at nadir) or diarrhoea intensity and both irinotecan and metabolite SN-38 AUC values in monotherapy.Patients with Reduced UGT1A1 ActivityUridine diphosphate-glucuronosyl transferase 1A1 (UGT1A1) is involved in the metabolic deactivation of SN-38, the active metabolite of irinotecan to inactive SN-38 glucuronide (SN-38G). The UGT1A1 gene is highly polymorphic, resulting in variable metabolic capacities among individuals. One specific variation of the UGT1A1 gene includes a polymorphism in the promoter region known as the UGT1A1*28 variant. This variant and other congenital deficiencies in UGT1A1 expression (such as Crigler-Najjar and Gilbert's syndrome) are associated with reduced activity of this enzyme. Data from a meta analysis indicate that individuals with Crigler-Najjar syndrome (types 1 and 2) or those who are homozygous for the UGT1A1*28 allele (Gilbert's syndrome) are at increased risk of haematological toxicity (grades 3 and 4) following administration of irinotecan at moderate or high doses (>150 mg/m2). A relationship between UGT1A1 genotype and the occurrence of irinotecan induced diarrhea was not established. Patients known to be homozygous for UGT1A1*28 should be administered the normally indicated irinotecan starting dose. However, these patients should be monitored for haematologic toxicities. A reduced irinotecan starting dose should be considered for patients who have experienced prior haematologic toxicity with previous treatment. The exact reduction in starting dose in this patient population has not been established and any subsequent dose modifications should be based on a patient's tolerance of the treatment. (see sections 4.2 and 4.4)There is at present insufficient data to conclude on clinical utility of UGT1A1 genotyping.