- 1. Name of the medicinal product
- 2. Qualitative and quantitative composition
- 3. Pharmaceutical form
- 4. Clinical particulars
- 4.1 Therapeutic indications
- 4.2 Posology and method of administration
- 4.3 Contraindications
- 4.4 Special warnings and precautions for use
- 4.5 Interaction with other medicinal products and other forms of interaction
- 4.6 Pregnancy and lactation
- 4.7 Effects on ability to drive and use machines
- 4.8 Undesirable effects
- 4.9 Overdose
- 5. Pharmacological properties
- 5.1 Pharmacodynamic properties
- 5.2 Pharmacokinetic properties
- 5.3 Preclinical safety data
- 6. Pharmaceutical particulars
- 6.1 List of excipients
- 6.2 Incompatibilities
- 6.3 Shelf life
- 6.4 Special precautions for storage
- 6.5 Nature and contents of container
- 6.6 Special precautions for disposal and other handling
- Administrative data
- 7. Marketing authorisation holder
- 8. Marketing authorisation number(s)
- 9. Date of first authorisation/renewal of the authorisation
- 10. Date of revision of the text
- Legal category
1. Name of the medicinal product
Dalacin C Capsules 75 mg or Clindamycin Hydrochloride Capsules 75 mg
2. Qualitative and quantitative composition
Each capsule contains clindamycin hydrochloride equivalent to 75 mg Clindamycin.For excipients, see section 6.1
3. Pharmaceutical form
CapsuleHard capsule (Green/White) with markings of 'CLIN 75 & Pfizer'on cap and body.
4. Clinical particulars
4.1 Therapeutic indications
Antibacterial. Serious infections caused by susceptible Gram-positive organisms, staphylococci (both penicillinase- and non-penicillinase-producing), streptococci (except Streptococcus faecalis) and pneumococci. It is also indicated in serious infections caused by susceptible anaerobic pathogens.Clindamycin does not penetrate the blood/brain barrier in therapeutically effective quantities.
4.2 Posology and method of administration
Oral. Dalacin C Capsules should always be taken with a full glass of water. Absorption of Dalacin C is not appreciably modified by the presence of food.Adults: Moderately severe infection, 150 - 300 mg every six hours; severe infection, 300 - 450 mg every six hours.Elderly patients: The half-life, volume of distribution and clearance, and extent of absorption after administration of clindamycin hydrochloride are not altered by increased age. Analysis of data from clinical studies has not revealed any age-related increase in toxicity. Dosage requirements in elderly patients, therefore, should not be influenced by age alone. Children: 3 - 6 mg/kg every six hours depending on the severity of the infectionDosage in Renal /Hepatic Impairment: Clindamycin dosage modification is not necessary in patients with renal or hepatic insufficiency.Note: In cases of beta-haemolytic streptococcal infection, treatment with Dalacin C should continue for at least 10 days to diminish the likelihood of subsequent rheumatic fever or glomerulonephritis.
Dalacin C is contra-indicated in patients previously found to be sensitive to clindamycin, lincomycin or to any component of the formulation.
4.4 Special warnings and precautions for use
Warnings: Dalacin C should only be used in the treatment of serious infections. In considering the use of the product, the practitioner should bear in mind the type of infection and the potential hazard of the diarrhoea which may develop, since cases of colitis have been reported during, or even two or three weeks following, the administration of clindamycin.Studies indicate a toxin(s) produced by clostridia (especially Clostridium difficile) is the principal direct cause of antibiotic-associated colitis. These studies also indicate that this toxigenic clostridium is usually sensitive in vitro to vancomycin. When 125 mg to 500 mg of vancomycin are administered orally four times a day for 7 - 10 days, there is a rapid observed disappearance of the toxin from faecal samples and a coincident clinical recovery from the diarrhoea. (Where the patient is receiving cholestyramine in addition to vancomycin, consideration should be given to separating the times of administration).Colitis is a disease which has a clinical spectrum from mild, watery diarrhoea to severe, persistent diarrhoea, leucocytosis, fever, severe abdominal cramps, which may be associated with the passage of blood and mucus. If allowed to progress, it may produce peritonitis, shock and toxic megacolon. This may be fatal.The appearance of marked diarrhoea should be regarded as an indication that the product should be discontinued immediately. The disease is likely to follow a more severe course in older patients or patients who are debilitated. Diagnosis is usually made by the recognition of the clinical symptoms, but can be substantiated by endoscopic demonstration of pseudomembranous colitis. The presence of the disease may be further confirmed by culture of the stool for Clostridium difficile on selective media and assay of the stool specimen for the toxin(s) of C. difficile.Clostridium difficile associated diarrhea (CDAD) has been reported with use of nearly all antibacterial agents, including clindamycin, and may range in severity from mild diarrhea to fatal colitis. Treatment with antibacterial agents alters the normal flora of the colon leading to overgrowth of C difficile. C. difficile produces toxins A and B which contribute to the development of CDAD.Hypertoxin producing strains of C. difficile cause increased morbidity and mortality, as these infections can be refractory to antimicrobial therapy and may require colectomy. CDAD must be considered in all patients who present with diarrhea following antibiotic use. Careful medical history is necessary since CDAD has been reported to occur over two months after the administration of antibacterial agents. Precautions: Caution should be used when prescribing Dalacin C to individuals with a history of gastro-intestinal disease, especially colitis.Periodic liver and kidney function tests should be carried out during prolonged therapy. Such monitoring is also recommended in neonates and infants.Prolonged administration of Dalacin C, as with any anti-infective, may result in super-infection due to organisms resistant to clindamycin.Care should be observed in the use of Dalacin C in atopic individuals.
4.5 Interaction with other medicinal products and other forms of interaction
Clindamycin has been shown to have neuromuscular blocking properties that may enhance the action of other neuromuscular blocking agents. It should be used with caution, therefore, in patients receiving such agents.Antagonism has been demonstrated between clindamycin and erythromycin in vitro. Because of possible clinical significance the two drugs should not be administered concurrently.Vitamin K antagonists Increased coagulation tests (PT/INR) and/or bleeding, have been reported in patients treated with clindamycin in combination with a vitamin K antagonist (e.g. warfarin, acenocoumarol and fluindione). Coagulation tests, therefore, should be frequently monitored in patients treated with vitamin K antagonists.
4.6 Pregnancy and lactation
Safety for use in pregnancy has not yet been established.Clindamycin is excreted in human milk. Caution should be exercised when Dalacin C is administered to a nursing mother. It is unlikely that a nursing infant can absorb a significant amount of clindamycin from its gastro-intestinal tract.
4.7 Effects on ability to drive and use machines
The effect of clindamycin on the ability to drive or operate machinery has not been systemically evaluated.
4.8 Undesirable effects
Blood and the Lymphatic System Disorders: Transient neutropenia (leucopenia), eosinophilia, agranulocytosis and thrombocytopenia have been reported. No direct aetiologic relationship to concurrent clindamycin therapy could be made in any of the foregoing.Immune System Disorders: A few cases of anaphylactoid reactions have been reported.Gastro-intestinal Disorders: Oesophageal ulcers have been reported as serious adverse events; oesophagitis with oral preparations, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, and diarrhoea (see Section 4.4 Special Warnings and Special Precautions for Use, Warnings).Hepatobiliary Disorders: Jaundice and abnormalities in liver function tests have been observed during clindamycin therapy.Skin and Subcutaneous Tissue Disorders: Maculopapular rash and urticaria have been observed during drug therapy. Generalised mild to moderate morbilliform-like skin rashes are the most frequently reported reactions. Rare instances of erythema multiforme, some resembling Stevens-Johnson syndrome, have been associated with clindamycin. Pruritus, vaginitis and rare instances of exfoliative and vesiculobullous dermatitis have been reported. Serious cutaneous adverse reaction (SCAR) and rare cases of toxic epidermal necrolysis have been reported during post-marketing surveillance.Nervous System Disorders: Frequent cases of Dysgeusia have been observed upon systemic administration of clindamycin using injectables (IM or IV), capsules, or oral granulate solutions, which include a few (non-frequent) serious adverse events.Reporting of suspected adverse reactionsReporting suspected adverse reactions after authorisation of the medicinal product is important. It allows continued monitoring of the benefit/risk balance of the medicinal product. Healthcare professionals are asked to report any suspected adverse reactions via the Yellow Card Scheme at: www.mhra.gov.uk/yellowcard
In cases of overdosage no specific treatment is indicated.The serum biological half-life of clindamycin is 2.4 hours. Clindamycin cannot readily be removed from the blood by dialysis or peritoneal dialysis.If an allergic adverse reaction occurs, therapy should be with the usual emergency treatments, including corticosteroids, adrenaline and antihistamines.
5. Pharmacological properties
5.1 Pharmacodynamic properties
Clindamycin is a lincosamide antibiotic with a primarily bacteriostatic action against Gram-positive aerobes and a wide range of anaerobic bacteria. Most Gram-negative aerobic bacteria, including the Enterobacteriaceae, are resistant to clindamycin. Lincosamides such as clindamycin bind to the 50S subunit of the bacterial ribosome similarly to macrolides such as erythromycin and inhibit the early stages of protein synthesis. The action of clindamycin is predominantly bacteriostatic although high concentrations may be slowly bactericidal against sensitive strains.
5.2 Pharmacokinetic properties
General characteristics of active substanceAbout 90% of a dose of clindamycin hydrochloride is absorbed from the gastro-intestinal tract; concentrations of 2 to 3 micrograms per ml occur within one hour after a 150 mg dose of clindamycin, with average concentrations of about 0.7 micrograms per ml after 6 hours. After doses of 300 and 600 mg peak plasma concentrations of 4 and 8 micrograms per ml, respectively, have been reported. Absorption is not significantly diminished by food in the stomach but the rate of absorption may be reduced.Clindamycin is widely distributed in body fluids and tissues including bone, but it does not reach the csf in significant concentrations. It diffuses across the placenta into the fetal circulation and has been reported to appear in breast milk. High concentrations occur in bile. It accumulates in leucocytes and macrophages. Over 90% of clindamycin in the circulation is bound to plasma proteins. The half-life is 2 to 3 hours, although this may be prolonged in pre-term neonates and patients with severe renal impairment.Clindamycin undergoes metabolism, presumably in the liver, to the active N-demethyl and sulphoxide metabolites, and also some inactive metabolites. About 10% of a dose is excreted in the urine as active drug or metabolites and about 4% in the faeces; the remainder is excreted as inactive metabolites. Excretion is slow, and takes place over several days. It is not effectively removed from the blood by dialysis.
Characteristics in patientsNo special characteristics. See section 4.4 "Special warnings and special precautions for use" for further information.
5.3 Preclinical safety data
6. Pharmaceutical particulars
6.1 List of excipients
LactoseMaize starchTalcMagnesium stearate
Capsule shell:GelatinIndigo carmine (E132)Quinoline yellow (E104)Titanium dioxide (E171)
Printing ink:Shellac Soya lecithinDimeticone (Antifoam DC 1510)Black Iron Oxide (E172)
6.3 Shelf life
Bottles: 60 monthsBlisters: 60 months
6.4 Special precautions for storage
Do not store above 25°C.
6.5 Nature and contents of container
Dalacin C Capsules 75 mg are available in blister packs (aluminium foil/PVC) of 24 capsules and bottle packs (high density polyethylene or amber glass) of 24, 100 or 500 capsules.Not all pack sizes may be marketed.
6.6 Special precautions for disposal and other handling
7. Marketing authorisation holder
Pfizer Limited Ramsgate RoadSandwich, KentCT13 9NJUK
8. Marketing authorisation number(s)
9. Date of first authorisation/renewal of the authorisation
20 February 1989/22nd May 2001
10. Date of revision of the text
POMRef: DA 8_2
Ramsgate Road, Sandwich, Kent, CT13 9NJ
+44 (0)1304 656 221
+44 (0)1304 616 161