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Prozac 20mg hard capsules, and 20mg per 5ml oral liquid

Last Updated on eMC 22-Feb-2016 View document  | Eli Lilly and Company Limited Contact details

When a pharmaceutical company changes an SPC or PIL, a new version is published on the eMC.  For each version, we show the dates it was published on the eMC and the reasons for change.

Updated on 22-Feb-2016 and displayed until Current

Reasons for adding or updating:

  • Change to section 4.6 - Fertility, pregnancy and lactation
  • Change to section 10 - Date of revision of the text

Date of revision of text on the SPC: 08-Feb-2016

Legal Category:POM

Black Triangle (CHM): NO

Free-text change information supplied by the pharmaceutical company:



New text bold.  Text struck-through removed.

 

4.6           Fertility, pregnancy and lactation

 

Pregnancy

Some epidemiological studies suggest an increased risk of cardiovascular defects associated with the use of fluoxetine during the first trimester. The mechanism is unknown. Overall the data suggest that the risk of having an infant with a cardiovascular defect following maternal fluoxetine exposure is in the region of 2/100 compared with an expected rate for such defects of approximately 1/100 in the general population.

 

Epidemiological data have suggested that the use of SSRIs in pregnancy, particularly in late pregnancy, may increase the risk of persistent pulmonary hypertension in the newborn (PPHN). The observed risk was approximately 5 cases per 1000 pregnancies. In the general population 1 to 2 cases of PPHN per 1000 pregnancies occur.

 

Furthermore, although fluoxetine can be used during pregnancy, Fluoxetine should not be used during pregnancy unless the clinical condition of the woman requires treatment with fluoxetine and justifies the potential risk to the foetus. Abrupt discontinuation of therapy should be avoided during pregnancy (see section 4.2 “Posology and method of administration”). If fluoxetine is used during pregnancy, caution should be exercised, especially during late pregnancy or just prior to the onset of labour since some other effects have been reported in neonates: irritability, tremor, hypotonia, persistent crying, difficulty in sucking or in sleeping.  These symptoms may indicate either serotonergic effects or a withdrawal syndrome.  The time to occur and the duration of these symptoms may be related to the long half-life of fluoxetine (4-6 days) and its active metabolite, norfluoxetine (4-16 days).

 

10.           DATE OF REVISION OF THE TEXT

 

30 October 201508 February 2016

 

 

                Detailed information on this medicinal product is available on the website of UK/MHRA.

 

 

 

 

 

*PROZAC (fluoxetine hydrochloride) is a trademark of Eli Lilly and Company.  PZ757M

Updated on 17-Nov-2015 and displayed until 22-Feb-2016

Reasons for adding or updating:

  • Change to section 4.3 - Contraindications
  • Change to section 4.4 - Special warnings and precautions for use
  • Change to section 4.5 - Interaction with other medicinal products and other forms of interaction
  • Change to section 4.8 - Undesirable effects
  • Change to section 4.9 - Overdose
  • Change to section 10 - Date of revision of the text

Date of revision of text on the SPC: 30-Oct-2015

Legal Category:POM

Black Triangle (CHM): NO

Free-text change information supplied by the pharmaceutical company:



New text bold.  Text struck-through removed.

 

 

4.3           Contraindications

 

Hypersensitivity to the active substance or to any of the excipients listed in section 6.1.

Fluoxetine is contra-indicated in combination with irreversible, non-selective monoamine oxidase inhibitors (e.g. iproniazid) (see sections 4.4 and 4.5).

Fluoxetine is contra-indicated in combination with metoprolol used in cardiac failure (see section 4.5).

 

Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors:  Cases of serious and sometimes fatal reactions have been reported in patients receiving an SSRI in combination with a monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI), and in patients who have recently discontinued an SSRI and have been started on a MAOI.  Treatment of fluoxetine should only be started 2 weeks after discontinuation of an irreversible MAOI and the following day after discontinuation of a reversible MAOI-A.

 

Some cases presented with features resembling serotonin syndrome (which may resemble and be diagnosed as neuroleptic malignant syndrome). Cyproheptadine or dantrolene may benefit patients experiencing such reactions.  Symptoms of a drug interaction with a MAOI include: hyperthermia, rigidity, myoclonus, autonomic instability with possible rapid fluctuations of vital signs, mental status changes that include confusion, irritability and extreme agitation progressing to delirium and coma.

 

Therefore, fluoxetine is contra-indicated in combination with a non-selective MAOI.  Similarly, at least 5 weeks should elapse after discontinuing fluoxetine treatment before starting a MAOI.  If fluoxetine has been prescribed chronically and/or at a high dose, a longer interval should be considered.

 

The combination of fluoxetine with a reversible MAOI (e.g. moclobemide, linezolid, methylthioninium chloride (also called methylene blue; a reversible non-selective MAOI indicated for <indication(s) authorised in member state>)) is not recommended.  Treatment with fluoxetine can be initiated the following day after discontinuation of a reversible MAOI.

 

In exceptional circumstances, linezolid (an antibiotic which is a reversible non‑selective MAOI) can be given in combination with fluoxetine provided that there are facilities for close observation of symptoms of serotonin syndrome and monitoring of blood pressure.

 

 

4.4           Special warnings and precautions for use

 

Paediatric population - Children and adolescents under 18 years of age

Suicide-related behaviours (suicide attempt and suicidal thoughts), and hostility (predominantly aggression, oppositional behaviour and anger) were more frequently observed in clinical trials among children and adolescents treated with antidepressants compared to those treated with placebo. Prozac should only be used in children and adolescents aged 8 to 18 years for the treatment of moderate to severe major depressive episodes and it should not be used in other indications. If, based on clinical need, a decision to treat is nevertheless taken, the patient should be carefully monitored for the appearance of suicidal symptoms. In addition, only limited evidence is available concerning long-term effect on safety in children and adolescents, including effects on growth, sexual maturation and cognitive, emotional and behavioural developments (see section 5.3).

 

In a 19-week clinical trial decreased height and weight gain was observed in children and adolescents treated with fluoxetine (see section 5.1). It has not been established whether there is an effect on achieving normal adult height. The possibility of a delay in puberty cannot be ruled out (see sections 5.3 and 4.8). Growth and pubertal development (height, weight and TANNER staging) should therefore be monitored during and after treatment with fluoxetine. If either is slowed, referral to a paediatrician should be considered.

 

In paediatric trials, mania and hypomania were commonly reported (see section 4.8). Therefore, regular monitoring for the occurrence of mania/hypomania is recommended. Fluoxetine should be discontinued in any patient entering a manic phase.

 

It is important that the prescriber discusses carefully the risks and benefits of treatment with the child/young person and/or their parents.

 

Suicide/suicidal thoughts or clinical worsening

Depression is associated with an increased risk of suicidal thoughts, self-harm and suicide (suicide-related events). This risk persists until significant remission occurs. As improvement may not occur during the first few weeks or more of treatment, patients should be closely monitored until such improvement occurs. It is general clinical experience that the risk of suicide may increase in the early stages of recovery.

Other psychiatric conditions for which Prozac is prescribed can also be associated with an increased risk of suicide-related events. In addition, these conditions may be co-morbid with major depressive disorder. The same precautions observed when treating patients with major depressive disorder should therefore be observed when treating patients with other psychiatric disorders.

Patients with a history of suicide-related events, those exhibiting a significant degree of suicidal ideation prior to commencement of treatment are known to be at greater risk of suicidal thoughts or suicide attempts, and should receive careful monitoring during treatment. A meta-analysis of placebo-controlled clinical trials of antidepressants drugs in adult patients with psychiatric disorders showed an increased risk of suicidal behaviour with antidepressants compared to placebo in patients less than 25 years old.

Close supervision of patients and in particular those at high risk should accompany drug therapy especially in early treatment and following dose changes. Patients (and caregivers of patients) should be alerted about the need to monitor for any clinical worsening, suicidal behaviour or thoughts and unusual changes in behaviour and to seek medical advice immediately if these symptoms present.

 

Cardiovascular Effects

Cases of QT interval prolongation and ventricular arrhythmia including torsade de pointes have been reported during the post-marketing period (see sections 4.5, 4.8 and 4.9).

Fluoxetine should be used with caution in patients with conditions such as congenital long QT syndrome, a family history of QT prolongation or other clinical conditions that predispose to arrhythmias (e.g., hypokalemia and hypomagnesemia, bradycardia, acute myocardial infarction or uncompensated heart failure) or increased exposure to fluoxetine (e.g., hepatic impairment) or concomitant use with medicinal products known to induce QT prolongation and/or torsade de pointes (see section 4.5).

If patients with stable cardiac disease are treated, an ECG review should be considered before treatment is started.

If signs of cardiac arrhythmia occur during treatment with fluoxetine, the treatment should be withdrawn and an ECG should be performed.

 

Serotonin syndrome or neuroleptic malignant syndrome-like events

On rare occasions development of a serotonin syndrome or neuroleptic malignant syndrome-like events have been reported in association with treatment of fluoxetine, particularly when given in combination with other serotonergic (among others L-tryptophan) and/or neuroleptic drugs. As these syndromes may result in potentially life-threatening conditions, treatment with fluoxetine should be discontinued if such events (characterised by clusters of symptoms such as hyperthermia, rigidity, myoclonus, autonomic instability with possible rapid fluctuations of vital signs, mental status changes including confusion, irritability, extreme agitation progressing to delirium and coma) occur and supportive symptomatic treatment should be initiated.

 

Mania

Antidepressants should be used with caution in patients with a history of mania/hypomania. As with all antidepressants, fluoxetine should be discontinued in any patient entering a manic phase.

 

Haemorrhage

There have been reports of cutaneous bleeding abnormalities such as ecchymosis and purpura with SSRI’s. Ecchymosis has been reported as an infrequent event during treatment with fluoxetine. Other haemorrhagic manifestations (e.g., gynaecological haemorrhages, gastrointestinal bleedings and other cutaneous or mucous bleedings) have been reported rarely. Caution is advised in patients taking SSRI’s, particularly in concomitant use with oral anticoagulants, drugs known to affect platelet function (e.g. atypical antipsychotics such as clozapine, phenothiazines, most TCA’s, aspirin, NSAID’s) or other drugs that may increase risk of bleeding as well as in patients with a history of bleeding disorders.

 

Seizures

Seizures are a potential risk with antidepressant drugs. Therefore, as with other antidepressants, fluoxetine should be introduced cautiously in patients who have a history of seizures. Treatment should be discontinued in any patient who develops seizures or where there is an increase in seizure frequency. Fluoxetine should be avoided in patients with unstable seizure disorders/epilepsy and patients with controlled epilepsy should be carefully monitored.

 

Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT)

There have been rare reports of prolonged seizures in patients on fluoxetine receiving ECT treatment, therefore caution is advisable.

 

Tamoxifen

Fluoxetine, a potent inhibitor of CYP2D6, may lead to reduced concentrations of endoxifen, one of the most important active metabolites of tamoxifen. Therefore, fluoxetine should whenever possible be avoided during tamoxifen treatment (see section 4.5).

 

Akathisia/psychomotor restlessness

The use of fluoxetine has been associated with the development of akathisia, characterised by a subjectively unpleasant or distressing restlessness and need to move often accompanied by an inability to sit or stand still. This is most likely to occur within the first few weeks of treatment. In patients who develop these symptoms, increasing the dose may be detrimental.

 

Diabetes

In patients with diabetes, treatment with an SSRI may alter glycaemic control. Hypoglycaemia has occurred during therapy with fluoxetine and hyperglycaemia has developed following discontinuation. Insulin and/or oral hypoglycaemic dosage may need to be adjusted.

 

Hepatic/Renal Function

Fluoxetine is extensively metabolised by the liver and excreted by the kidneys. A lower dose, e.g., alternate day dosing, is recommended in patients with significant hepatic dysfunction. When given fluoxetine 20 mg/day for 2 months, patients with severe renal failure (GFR <10 ml/min) requiring dialysis showed no difference in plasma levels of fluoxetine or norfluoxetine compared to controls with normal renal function.

 

Rash and allergic reactions

Rash, anaphylactoid events and progressive systemic events, sometimes serious (involving skin, kidney, liver or lung) have been reported. Upon the appearance of rash or of other allergic phenomena for which an alternative aetiology cannot be identified, fluoxetine should be discontinued.

 

Seizures

Seizures are a potential risk with antidepressant drugs. Therefore, as with other antidepressants, fluoxetine should be introduced cautiously in patients who have a history of seizures.  Treatment should be discontinued in any patient who develops seizures or where there is an increase in seizure frequency. Fluoxetine should be avoided in patients with unstable seizure disorders/epilepsy and patients with controlled epilepsy should be carefully monitored (see section 4.5).

 

Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT)

There have been rare reports of prolonged seizures in patients on fluoxetine receiving ECT treatment, therefore caution is advisable.

 

Mania

Antidepressants should be used with caution in patients with a history of mania/hypomania.  As with all antidepressants, fluoxetine should be discontinued in any patient entering a manic phase.

 

Hepatic/Renal Function

Fluoxetine is extensively metabolised by the liver and excreted by the kidneys.  A lower dose, e.g., alternate day dosing, is recommended in patients with significant hepatic dysfunction.  When given fluoxetine 20 mg/day for 2 months, patients with severe renal failure (GFR <10 ml/min) requiring dialysis showed no difference in plasma levels of fluoxetine or norfluoxetine compared to controls with normal renal function.

 

Tamoxifen

Fluoxetine, a potent inhibitor of CYP2D6, may lead to reduced concentrations of endoxifen, one of the most important active metabolites of tamoxifen. Therefore, fluoxetine should whenever possible be avoided during tamoxifen treatment (see section 4.5).

 

Cardiovascular Effects

Cases of QT interval prolongation and ventricular arrhythmia including torsades de pointes have been reported during the post-marketing period (see sections 4.5, 4.8 and 4.9).

Fluoxetine should be used with caution in patients with conditions such as congenital long QT syndrome, a family history of QT prolongation or other clinical conditions that predispose to arrhythmias (e.g., hypokalemia,  hypomagnesemia, bradycardia, acute myocardial infarction or uncompensated heart failure) or increased exposure to fluoxetine (e.g., hepatic impairment).

If patients with stable cardiac disease are treated, an ECG review should be considered before treatment is started.

If signs of cardiac arrhythmia occur during treatment with fluoxetine, the treatment should be withdrawn and an ECG should be performed.

 

Weight Loss

Weight loss may occur in patients taking fluoxetine but it is usually proportional to baseline body weight.

 

Diabetes

In patients with diabetes, treatment with an SSRI may alter glycaemic control.  Hypoglycaemia has occurred during therapy with fluoxetine and hyperglycaemia has developed following discontinuation.  Insulin and/or oral hypoglycaemic dosage may need to be adjusted.

 

Suicide/suicidal thoughts or clinical worsening

Depression is associated with an increased risk of suicidal thoughts, self harm and suicide (suicide-related events). This risk persists until significant remission occurs. As improvement may not occur during the first few weeks or more of treatment, patients should be closely monitored until such improvement occurs. It is general clinical experience that the risk of suicide may increase in the early stages of recovery.

Other psychiatric conditions for which Prozac is prescribed can also be associated with an increased risk of suicide-related events. In addition, these conditions may be co-morbid with major depressive disorder. The same precautions observed when treating patients with major depressive disorder should therefore be observed when treating patients with other psychiatric disorders.

Patients with a history of suicide-related events, those exhibiting a significant degree of suicidal ideation prior to commencement of treatment are known to be at greater risk of suicidal thoughts or suicide attempts, and should receive careful monitoring during treatment.  A meta-analysis of placebo-controlled clinical trials of antidepressants drugs in adult patients with psychiatric disorders showed an increased risk of suicidal behaviour with antidepressants compared to placebo in patients less than 25 years old.

Close supervision of patients and in particular those at high risk should accompany drug therapy especially in early treatment and following dose changes. Patients (and caregivers of patients) should be alerted about the need to monitor for any clinical worsening, suicidal behaviour or thoughts and unusual changes in behaviour and to seek medical advice immediately if these symptoms present.

 

Akathisia/psychomotor restlessness

The use of fluoxetine has been associated with the development of akathisia, characterised by a subjectively unpleasant or distressing restlessness and need to move often accompanied by an inability to sit or stand still. This is most likely to occur within the first few weeks of treatment. In patients who develop these symptoms, increasing the dose may be detrimental.

 

 

Withdrawal symptoms seen on discontinuation of SSRI treatment

Withdrawal symptoms when treatment is discontinued are common, particularly if discontinuation is abrupt (see section 4.8). In clinical trials adverse events seen on treatment discontinuation occurred in approximately 60% of patients in both the fluoxetine and placebo groups. Of these adverse events, 17% in the fluoxetine group and 12% in the placebo group were severe in nature.

The risk of withdrawal symptoms may be dependent on several factors including the duration and dose of therapy and the rate of dose reduction. Dizziness, sensory disturbances (including paraesthesia), sleep disturbances (including insomnia and intense dreams), asthenia, agitation or anxiety, nausea and/or vomiting, tremor and headache are the most commonly reported reactions. Generally these symptoms are mild to moderate however, in some patients they may be severe in intensity. They usually occur within the first few days of discontinuing treatment. Generally these symptoms are self-limiting and usually resolve within 2 weeks, though in some individuals they may be prolonged (2-3 months or more). It is therefore advised that Prozac should be gradually tapered when discontinuing treatment over a period of at least one to two weeks, according to the patient’s needs (see Withdrawal symptoms seen on discontinuation of Prozac, section 4.2).

 

Haemorrhage

There have been reports of cutaneous bleeding abnormalities such as ecchymosis and purpura with SSRI’s.  Ecchymosis has been reported as an infrequent event during treatment with fluoxetine. Other haemorrhagic manifestations (e.g., gynaecological haemorrhages, gastrointestinal bleedings and other cutaneous or mucous bleedings) have been reported rarely. Caution is advised in patients taking SSRI’s, particularly in concomitant use with oral anticoagulants, drugs known to affect platelet function (e.g. atypical antipsychotics such as clozapine, phenothiazines, most TCA’s, aspirin, NSAID’s) or other drugs that may increase risk of bleeding as well as in patients with a history of bleeding disorders (see section 4.5).

 

Mydriasis

Mydriasis has been reported in association with fluoxetine; therefore, caution should be used when prescribing fluoxetine in patients with raised intraocular pressure or those at risk of acute narrow-angle glaucoma.

 

St John’s Wort

An increase in serotonergic effects, such as serotonin syndrome, may occur when selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and herbal preparations containing St John’s Wort (Hypericum perforatum) are used together.

 

Serotonin syndrome or neuroleptic malignant syndrome-like events

On rare occasions development of a serotonin syndrome or neuroleptic malignant syndrome-like events have been reported in association with treatment of fluoxetine, particularly when given in combination with other serotonergic (among others L-tryptophan) and/or neuroleptic drugs (see section 4.5).  As these syndromes may result in potentially life-threatening conditions, treatment with fluoxetine should be discontinued if such events (characterised by clusters of symptoms such as hyperthermia, rigidity, myoclonus, autonomic instability with possible rapid fluctuations of vital signs, mental status changes including confusion, irritability, extreme agitation progressing to delirium and coma) occur and supportive symptomatic treatment should be initiated.

 

Irreversible, non-selective monoamine oxidase inhibitors (e.g. iproniazid)

Some cases of serious and sometimes fatal reactions have been reported in patients receiving an SSRI in combination with an irreversible, non-selective monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI).

These cases presented with features resembling serotonin syndrome (which may be confounded with (or diagnosed as) neuroleptic malignant syndrome). Cyproheptadine or dantrolene may benefit patients experiencing such reactions. Symptoms of a drug interaction with a MAOI include: hyperthermia, rigidity, myoclonus, autonomic instability with possible rapid fluctuations of vital signs, mental status changes that include confusion, irritability and extreme agitation progressing to delirium and coma.

Therefore, fluoxetine is contra-indicated in combination with an irreversible, non-selective MAOI (see section 4.3). Because of the two weeks-lasting effect of the latter, treatment of fluoxetine should only be started 2 weeks after discontinuation of an irreversible, non-selective MAOI. Similarly, at least 5 weeks should elapse after discontinuing fluoxetine treatment before starting an irreversible, non-selective MAOI.

 

PROZAC oral solution contains sucrose

Patients with rare hereditary problems of fructose intolerance, glucose-galactose malabsorption or sucrase-isomaltase insufficiency should not take this medicine.

 

4.5           Interaction with other medicinal products and other forms of interaction

 

Half-life: The long elimination half-lives of both fluoxetine and norfluoxetine should be borne in mind (see section 5.2) when considering pharmacodynamic or pharmacokinetic drug interactions (e.g., when switching from fluoxetine to other antidepressants).

 

Contra-indicated combinations

Monoamine oxidase inhibitors: See section 4.3.

 

Not recommended combinations: MAOI-A (see section 4.3).

Irreversible, non-selective monoamine oxidase inhibitors (e.g. iproniazid): Some cases of serious and sometimes fatal reactions have been reported in patients receiving an SSRI in combination with an irreversible, non-selective monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI).

These cases presented with features resembling serotonin syndrome (which may be confounded with [or diagnosed as] neuroleptic malignant syndrome). Cyproheptadine or dantrolene may benefit patients experiencing such reactions. Symptoms of a drug interaction with a MAOI include: hyperthermia, rigidity, myoclonus, autonomic instability with possible rapid fluctuations of vital signs, mental status changes that include confusion, irritability and extreme agitation progressing to delirium and coma.

Therefore, fluoxetine is contra-indicated in combination with an irreversible, non-selective MAOI (see section 4.3). Because of the two weeks-lasting effect of the latter, treatment of fluoxetine should only be started 2 weeks after discontinuation of an irreversible, non-selective MAOI. Similarly, at least 5 weeks should elapse after discontinuing fluoxetine treatment before starting an irreversible, non-selective MAOI.

 

Metoprolol used in cardiac failure: risk of metoprolol adverse events, including excessive bradycardia, may be increased because of an inhibition of its metabolism by fluoxetine (see section 4.3).

 

Combinations requiring precautions for use: MAOI-B (selegeline): Risk of serotonin syndrome.  Clinical monitoring is recommended.

Not recommended combinations

 

Tamoxifen: Pharmacokinetic interaction between CYP2D6 inhibitors and tamoxifen, showing a 65-75 % reduction in plasma levels of one of the more active forms of the tamoxifen, i.e. endoxifen, has been reported in the literature. Reduced efficacy of tamoxifen has been reported with concomitant usage of some SSRI antidepressants in some studies. As a reduced effect of tamoxifen cannot be excluded, co-administration with potent CYP2D6 inhibitors (including fluoxetine) should whenever possible be avoided (see section 4.4).

 

Alcohol: In formal testing, fluoxetine did not raise blood alcohol levels or enhance the effects of alcohol. However, the combination of SSRI treatment and alcohol is not advisable.

 

MAOI-A including linezolid and methylthioninium chloride (methylene blue): Risk of serotonin syndrome including diarrhoea, tachycardia, sweating, tremor, confusion or coma. If concomitant use of these active substances with fluoxetine cannot be avoided, close clinical monitoring should be undertaken and the concomitant agents should be initiated at the lower recommended doses (see section 4.4).

 

Mequitazine: risk of mequitazine adverse events (such as QT prolongation) may be increased because of an inhibition of its metabolism by fluoxetine.

 

Combinations requiring caution

 

Phenytoin: Changes in blood levels have been observed when combined with fluoxetine.  In some cases manifestations of toxicity have occurred.  Consideration should be given to using conservative titration schedules of the concomitant drug and to monitoring clinical status.

 

Serotoninergic drugs (lithium, tramadol, triptans, tryptophan, selegiline (MAOI-B), St. John’s Wort (Hypericum perforatum)): There have been reports of mild serotonin syndrome when SSRIs were given with drugs also having a serotoninergic effect. Therefore, the concomitant use of fluoxetine with these drugs should be undertaken with caution, with closer and more frequent clinical monitoring (see section 4.4).

Serotonergic drugs: Co-administration with serotonergic drugs (e.g., tramadol, triptans) may increase the risk of serotonin syndrome.  Use with triptans carries the additional risk of coronary vasoconstriction and hypertension.

 

Lithium and tryptophan: There have been reports of serotonin syndrome when SSRIs have been given with lithium or tryptophan and, therefore, the concomitant use of fluoxetine with these drugs should be undertaken with caution.  When fluoxetine is used in combination with lithium, closer and more frequent clinical monitoring is required.

 

QT interval prolongation: Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic studies between fluoxetine and other medicinal products that prolong the QT interval have not been performed. An additive effect of fluoxetine and these medicinal products cannot be excluded. Therefore, co-administration of fluoxetine with medicinal products that prolong the QT interval, such as Class IA and III antiarrhythmics, antipsychotics (e.g. phenothiazine derivatives, pimozide, haloperidol), tricyclic antidepressants, certain antimicrobial agents (e.g. sparfloxacin, moxifloxacin, erythromycin IV, pentamidine), anti-malaria treatment particularly halofantrine, certain antihistamines (astemizole, mizolastine), should be used with caution (see sections 4.4, 4.8 and 4.9).

 

Drugs affecting haemostasis (oral anticoagulants, whatever their mechanism, platelets antiaggregants including aspirin and NSAIDs): risk of increased bleeding. Clinical monitoring, and more frequent monitoring of INR with oral anticoagulants, should be made. A dose adjustment during the fluoxetine treatment and after its discontinuation may be suitable (see sections 4.4 and 4.8).

 

Cyproheptadine: There are individual case reports of reduced antidepressant activity of fluoxetine when used in combination with cyproheptadine.

 

Drugs inducing hyponatremia: Hyponatremia is an undesirable effect of fluoxetine. Use in combination with other agents associated with hyponatremia (e.g. diuretics, desmopressin, carbamazepine and oxcarbazepine) may lead to an increased risk (see section 4.8).

 

Drugs lowering the epileptogenic threshold: Seizures are an undesirable effect of fluoxetine. Use in combination with other agents which may lower the seizure threshold (for example, TCAs, other SSRIs, phenothiazines, butyrophenones, mefloquine, chloroquine, bupropion, tramadol) may lead to an increased risk.

 

Other drugs metabolised by CYP2D6: Fluoxetine is a strong inhibitor of CYP2D6 enzyme, therefore concomitant therapy with drugs also metabolised by this enzyme system may lead to drug interactions, notably those having a narrow therapeutic index (such as flecainide, propafenone and nebivolol) and those that are titrated, but also with atomoxetine, carbamazepine, tricyclic antidepressants and risperidone. They should be initiated at or adjusted to the low end of their dose range. This may also apply if fluoxetine has been taken in the previous 5 weeks.

 

CYP2D6 isoenzyme: Because fluoxetine’s metabolism (like tricyclic antidepressants and other selective serotonin antidepressants) involves the hepatic cytochrome CYP2D6 isoenzyme system, concomitant therapy with drugs also metabolised by this enzyme system may lead to drug interactions.  Concomitant therapy with drugs predominantly metabolised by this isoenzyme, and which have a narrow therapeutic index (such as flecainide, encainide, carbamazepine and tricyclic antidepressants), should be initiated at or adjusted to the low end of their dose range.  This will also apply if fluoxetine has been taken in the previous 5 weeks.

 

Pharmacokinetic interaction between CYP2D6 inhibitors and tamoxifen, showing a 65-75% reduction in plasma levels of one of the more active forms of the tamoxifen, i.e., endoxifen, has been reported in the literature. Reduced efficacy of tamoxifen has been reported with concomitant usage of some SSRI antidepressants in some studies. As a reduced effect of tamoxifen cannot be excluded, co-administration with potent CYP2D6 inhibitors (including fluoxetine) should whenever possible be avoided (see section 4.4).

 

Oral anticoagulants: Altered anticoagulant effects (laboratory values and/or clinical signs and symptoms), with no consistent pattern, but including increased bleeding, have been reported uncommonly when fluoxetine is co-administered with oral anticoagulants.  Patients receiving warfarin therapy should receive careful coagulation monitoring when fluoxetine is initiated or stopped (see section 4.4, ‘Haemorrhage’).

 

Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT): There have been rare reports of prolonged seizures in patients on fluoxetine receiving ECT treatment; therefore, caution is advisable.

 

QT interval prolongation: Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic studies between fluoxetine and other medicinal products that prolong the QT interval have not been performed. An additive effect of fluoxetine and these medicinal products cannot be excluded. Therefore, co-administration of fluoxetine with medicinal products that prolong the QT interval, such as Class IA and III antiarrhythmics, antipsychotic (e.g., phenothiazine derivatives, pimozide, haloperidol), tricyclic antidepressants, certain antimicrobial agents (e.g., sparfloxacin, moxifloxacin, erythromycin IV, pentamidine), anti-malaria treatment particularly halofantrine, certain antihistamines (astemizole, mizolastine), should be used with caution.

 

Alcohol: In formal testing, fluoxetine did not raise blood alcohol levels or enhance the effects of alcohol.  However, the combination of SSRI treatment and alcohol is not advisable.

 

St John’s Wort: In common with other SSRIs, pharmacodynamic interactions between fluoxetine and the herbal remedy St John’s Wort (Hypericum perforatum) may occur, which may result in an increase of undesirable effects.

 

Paediatric population: Interaction studies have only been performed in adults.

 

 

4.8           Undesirable effects

 

Very Common

Common

Uncommon

Rare

Blood and lymphatic system disorders

 

 

 

Thrombocytopenia

Neutropenia

Leucopenia

Immune system disorders

 

 

 

Anaphylactic reaction

Serum sickness

Endocrine disorders

 

 

 

Inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion

Metabolism and nutrition disorders

 

Decreased appetite1

 

Hyponatraemia

 

Psychiatric disorders

Insomnia2

Anxiety

Nervousness

Restlessness

Tension

Libido decreased3

Sleep disorder

Abnormal dreams4

Depersonalisation

Elevated mood

Euphoric mood

Thinking abnormal

Orgasm abnormal5

Bruxism

Suicidal thoughts and behaviour 6

 

 

Hypomania

Mania

Hallucinations

Agitation

Panic attacks

Confusion

Dysphemia

Aggression

 

 

Nervous system disorders

Headache

Disturbance in attention

Dizziness

Dysgeusia

Lethargy

Somnolence7

Tremor

 

Psychomotor hyperactivity

Dyskinesia

Ataxia

Balance disorder

Myoclonus

Memory impairment

 

Convulsion

Akathisia

Buccoglossal syndrome

Serotonin syndrome

 

 

Eye disorders

 

Vision blurred

Mydriasis

 

Ear and labyrinth disorders

 

 

Tinnitus

 

Cardiac disorders

 

Palpitations

Electrocardiogram QT prolonged (QTcF ≥450 msec)8

 

Ventricular arrhythmia including torsades de pointes

Electrocardiogram QT prolonged

Vascular disorders

 

Flushing89

Hypotension

Vasculitis

Vasodilatation

Respiratory, thoracic and mediastinal disorders

 

Yawning

Dyspnoea

Epistaxis

 

Pharyngitis

Pulmonary events (inflammatory processes of varying histopathology and/or fibrosis) 910

 

Gastrointestinal disorders

Diarrhoea

Nausea

Vomiting

Dyspepsia

Dry mouth

Dysphagia

Gastrointestinal haemorrhage1110

 

Oesophageal pain

Hepato-biliary disorders

 

 

 

Idiosyncratic hepatitis

Skin and subcutaneous tissue disorders

 

Rash1211

Urticaria

Pruritus

Hyperhidrosis

 

Alopecia

Increased tendency to bruise

Cold sweat

 

 

Angioedema

Ecchymosis

Photosensitivity reaction

Purpura

Erythema multiforme12

Stevens-Johnson syndrome

Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis (Lyell Syndrome)

 

Musculoskeletal and connective tissue disorders

 

Arthralgia

 

Muscle twitching

Myalgia

 

Renal and urinary disorders

 

Frequent urination1312

 

Dysuria

 

Urinary retention

Micturition disorder

 

Reproductive system and breast disorders

 

Gynaecological bleeding1413

Erectile dysfunction Ejaculation disorder1514

Sexual dysfunction

Galactorrhoea

Hyperprolactinemia

Priapism

 

General disorders and administration site conditions

Fatigue1615

Feeling jittery

Chills

 

Malaise

Feeling abnormal

Feeling cold

Feeling hot

 

Mucosal haemorrhage

Investigations

 

Weight decreased

Transaminases increased

Gamma-glutamyltransferase increased

 

 

1 Includes anorexia

2 Includes early morning awakening, initial insomnia, middle insomnia

3 Includes loss of libido

4 Includes nightmares

5 Includes anorgasmia

6 Includes completed suicide, depression suicidal, intentional self-injury, self-injurious ideation, suicidal behavior, suicidal ideation, suicide attempt, morbid thoughts, self injurious behaviour. These symptoms may be due to underlying disease

7 Includes hypersomnia, sedation

8 Based on ECG measurements from clinical trials

89 Includes hot flush

910 Includes atelectasis, interstitial lung disease, pneumonitis

1011 Includes most frequently gingival bleeding, haematemesis, haematochezia, rectal haemorrhage, diarrhoea haemorrhagic, melaena, and gastric ulcerhaemorrhage

12 Could progress to Stevens-Johnson syndrome or Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis (Lyell Syndrome)

1112 Includes erythema, exfoliative rash, heat rash, rash, rash erythematous, rash follicular, rash generalized, rash macular, rash macular-papular, rash morbilliform, rash papular, rash pruritic, rash vesicular, umbilical erythema rash

1213 Includes pollakiuria

1314 Includes cervix haemorrhage, uterine dysfunction, uterine bleeding, genital haemorrhage, menometrorhagia, menorrhagia, metrorrhagia, polymenorrhea, postmenopausal haemorrhage, uterine haemorrhage, vaginal haemorrhage

1415 Includes ejaculation failure, ejaculation dysfunction, premature ejaculation, ejaculation delayed, retrograde ejaculation

1516 Includes asthenia

 

4.9           Overdose

 

Symptoms

Cases of overdose of fluoxetine alone usually have a mild course. Symptoms of overdose have included nausea, vomiting, seizures, cardiovascular dysfunction ranging from asymptomatic arrhythmias (including nodal rhythm and ventricular arrhythmias) or ECG changes indicative of QTc prolongation to cardiac arrest  (including very rare cases of Torsades de Pointes), pulmonary dysfunction, and signs of altered CNS status ranging from excitation to coma. Fatality attributed to overdose of fluoxetine alone has been extremely rare.

 

 

                10.          DATE OF REVISION OF THE TEXT

 

                09 October 201430 October 2015

Updated on 16-Oct-2014 and displayed until 17-Nov-2015

Reasons for adding or updating:

  • Change to section 1 - Name of the medicinal product
  • Change to section 2 - Qualitative and quantitative composition
  • Change to section 3 - Pharmaceutical form
  • Change to section 4.2 - Posology and method of administration
  • Change to section 4.3 - Contraindications
  • Change to section 4.4 - Special warnings and precautions for use
  • Change to section 4.5 - Interaction with other medicinal products and other forms of interaction
  • Change to section 4.6 - Fertility, pregnancy and lactation
  • Change to section 4.7 - Effects on ability to drive and use machines
  • Change to section 4.8 - Undesirable effects
  • Change to section 4.9 - Overdose
  • Change to section 5.1 - Pharmacodynamic properties
  • Change to section 5.2 - Pharmacokinetic properties
  • Change to section 6.1 - List of excipients
  • Change to section 6.3 - Shelf life
  • Change to section 6.4 - Special precautions for storage
  • Change to section 6.5 - Nature and contents of container
  • Change to section 6.6 - Special precautions for disposal and other handling
  • Change to section 8 - Marketing authorisation number(s)
  • Change to section 9 - Date of first authorisation/renewal of the authorisation
  • Change to section 10 - Date of revision of the text

Date of revision of text on the SPC: 09-Oct-2014

Legal Category:POM

Black Triangle (CHM): NO

Free-text change information supplied by the pharmaceutical company:



 

 

 

Formatting changes made throughout the SPC

 

1.             NAME OF THE MEDICINAL PRODUCT

 

Added (underlined) deleted (strikethrough):

 

PROZAC* 20 mg hard capsules

 

PROZAC 20 mg per 5 ml oral liquid solution

 

 

 

2.             QUALITATIVE AND QUANTITATIVE COMPOSITION

 

Added (underlined) deleted (strikethrough):

 

Each capsule contains 20 mg of fluoxetine (as fluoxetine hydrochloride) equivalent to 20mg of fluoxetine.

 

Each 5 ml of oral liquid solution contains 20 mg of fluoxetine (as fluoxetine hydrochloride) fluoxetine hydrochloride equivalent to 20mg of fluoxetine.

 

Oral liquid solution excipients with known effect: contains 3 g of sucrose per 5 ml dose. This should be taken into account in patients with diabetes mellitus. Also contains small amounts of ethanol (alcohol), less than 100 mg per 5 ml dose.

 

For a  the full list of excipients, see section 6.1.

 

 

3.             PHARMACEUTICAL FORM

 

Added (underlined) deleted (strikethrough):

 

Hard capsules

The capsules are green and yellow, printed ‘Lilly 3105’.

 

Oral liquid solution (

The solution is clear, colourless, mint odoured).

 

4.2          Posology and method of administration

 

Added (bold) deleted (strikethrough):

 

For oral administration. Posology

Adults

 

Major depressive episodes

Adults and the elderly: The recommended dose is 20 mg daily.  Dosage should be reviewed and adjusted if necessary, within 3 to 4 weeks of initiation of therapy and thereafter as judged clinically appropriate.  Although there may be an increased potential for undesirable effects at higher doses, in some patients, with insufficient response to 20 mg, the dose may be increased gradually up to a maximum of 60 mg (see section 5.1).  Dosage adjustments should be made carefully on an individual patient basis, to maintain the patients at the lowest effective dose.

 

….

 

All indications: Adults:

The recommended dose may be increased or decreased.  Doses above 80 mg/day have not been systematically evaluated.

 

Fluoxetine may be administered as a single or divided dose, during or between meals.

 

When dosing is stopped, active drug substances will persist in the body for weeks.  This should be borne in mind when starting or stopping treatment.

 

The capsule and liquid dosage forms are bioequivalent.

Paediatric population - Children and adolescents aged 8 years and above (moderate to severe major depressive episode)

 

Treatment should be initiated and monitored under specialist supervision.  The starting dose is 10 mg/day given as 2.5 ml of the PROZAC liquid formulation oral solution. Dose adjustments should be made carefully, on an individual basis, to maintain the patient at the lowest effective dose.

 

After one to two weeks, the dose may be increased to 20 mg/day.  Clinical trial experience with daily doses greater than 20 mg is minimal.  There is only limited data on treatment beyond 9 weeks.

 

Lower-weight children:

Due to higher plasma levels in lower-weight children, the therapeutic effect may be achieved with lower doses (see section 5.2).

 

For paediatric patients who respond to treatment, the need for continued treatment after 6 months should be reviewed.  If no clinical benefit is achieved within 9 weeks, treatment should be reconsidered.

 

Elderly patients

Caution is recommended when increasing the dose, and the daily dose should generally not exceed 40mg.  Maximum recommended dose is 60 mg/day.

 

Patients with hepatic impairment

A lower or less frequent dose (e.g., 20 mg every second day) should be considered in patients with hepatic impairment (see section 5.2), or in patients where concomitant medication has the potential for interaction with PROZAC (see section 4.5).

 

Withdrawal symptoms seen on discontinuation of PROZAC: Abrupt discontinuation should be avoided.  When stopping treatment with PROZAC the dose should be gradually reduced over a period of at least one to two weeks in order to reduce the risk of withdrawal reactions (see section 4.4 and section 4.8).  If intolerable symptoms occur following a decrease in the dose or upon discontinuation of treatment, then resuming the previously prescribed dose may be considered.  Subsequently, the physician may continue decreasing the dose, but at a more gradual rate.

 

Method of administration

 

For oral administration.

Fluoxetine may be administered as a single or divided dose, during or between meals.

 

When dosing is stopped, active drug substances will persist in the body for weeks.  This should be borne in mind when starting or stopping treatment. 

 

The capsule and oral solution forms are bioequivalent.

 

4.3          Contraindications

 

Added (underlined) deleted (strikethrough):

 

Hypersensitivity to fluoxetine the active substance or to any of its the excipients listed in section 6.1.

 

Monoamine oxidase inhibitors: Cases of serious and sometimes fatal reactions have been reported in patients receiving an SSRI in combination with a monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI), and in patients who have recently discontinued an SSRI and have been started on a MAOI.  Treatment of fluoxetine should only be started 2 weeks after discontinuation of an irreversible MAOI and the following day after discontinuation of a reversible MAOI-A.

 

Some cases presented with features resembling serotonin syndrome (which may resemble and be diagnosed as neuroleptic malignant syndrome).  Cyproheptadine or dantrolene may benefit patients experiencing such reactions.  Symptoms of a drug interaction with a MAOI include: hyperthermia, rigidity, myoclonus, autonomic instability with possible rapid fluctuations of vital signs, mental status changes that include confusion, irritability and extreme agitation, progressing to delirium and coma.

 

Therefore, fluoxetine is contraindicated in combination with a non-selective MAOI.  Similarly, at least 5 weeks should elapse after discontinuing fluoxetine treatment before starting a MAOI.  If fluoxetine has been prescribed chronically and/or at a high dose, a longer interval should be considered.

 

The combination of fluoxetine with a reversible MAOI (e.g. moclobemide, linezolid, methylthioninium chloride (also called methylene blue; a reversible non-selective MAOI indicated for

medicinal or chemical induced methaemogobinaemiathe treatment of methaemoglobinaemia)) is not recommended.  Treatment with fluoxetine can be initiated the following day after discontinuation of a reversible MAOI.

 

In exceptional circumstances, linezolid (an antibiotic which is a reversible non‑selective MAOI) can be given in combination with fluoxetine provided that there are facilities for close observation of symptoms of serotonin syndrome and monitoring of blood pressure.

 

4.4          Special warnings and precautions for use

 

Added (bold) deleted (strikethrough):

 

Paediatric population - Use in cChildren and adolescents under 18 years of age

 

….

 

Fluoxetine should be used with caution in patients with conditions such as congenital long QT syndrome, a family history of QT prolongation or other clinical conditions that predispose to arrhythmias (e.g., hypokalemia and hypomagnesemia, bradycardia, acute myocardial infarction or uncompensated heart failure) or increased exposure to fluoxetine (e.g., hepatic impairment).

 

….

 

Serotonin syndrome or neuroleptic malignant syndrome-like events

On rare occasions, development of a serotonin syndrome or neuroleptic malignant syndrome-like events have been reported in association with treatment of fluoxetine, particularly when given in combination with other serotonergic (among others, L-tryptophan) and/or neuroleptic drugs.  As these syndromes may result in potentially life-threatening conditions, treatment with fluoxetine should be discontinued if such events (characterised by clusters of symptoms, such as hyperthermia, rigidity, myoclonus, autonomic instability with possible rapid fluctuations of vital signs, mental status changes, including confusion, irritability, extreme agitation, progressing to delirium and coma) occur and supportive symptomatic treatment should be initiated.

 

PROZAC oral liquid solution contains sucrose: Patients with rare hereditary problems of fructose intolerance, glucose-galactose malabsorption or sucrase-isomaltase insufficiency should not take this medicine.

 

4.5          Interaction with other medicinal products and other forms of interaction

 

Added (bold) deleted (strikethrough):

 

Interaction studies have only been performed in adults.

Half-life: The long elimination half-lives of both fluoxetine and norfluoxetine should be borne in mind (see section 5.2) when considering pharmacodynamic or pharmacokinetic drug interactions (e.g., when switching from fluoxetine to other antidepressants).

 

Paediatric population

Interaction studies have only been performed in adults.

 

4.6          Fertility, pregnancy and lactation

 

Added (bold) deleted (strikethrough):

 

Lactation: Breast-feeding

Fluoxetine and its metabolite, norfluoxetine, are known to be excreted in human breast milk.  Adverse events have been reported in breast-feeding infants.  If treatment with fluoxetine is considered necessary, discontinuation of breast-feeding should be considered; however, if breast-feeding is continued, the lowest effective dose of fluoxetine should be prescribed.

 

4.7          Effects on ability to drive and use machines

 

Added (underlined) deleted (strikethrough):

 

Prozac has no or negligible influence on the ability to drive and use machines. Although fluoxetine has been shown not to affect psychomotor performance in healthy volunteers, any psychoactive drug may impair judgement or skills.  Patients should be advised to avoid driving a car or operating hazardous machinery until they are reasonably certain that their performance is not affected.

 

4.8    Undesirable effects

 

Added (bold) deleted (strikethrough):

 

a. Summary of the safety profile

 

The most commonly reported adverse reactions in patients treated with fluoxetine were headache, nausea, insomnia, fatigue and diarrhoea.  Undesirable effects may decrease in intensity and frequency with continued treatment and do not generally lead to cessation of therapy.

 

b. Tabulated list of adverse reactions

 

The table below gives the adverse reactions observed with fluoxetine treatment in adult and paediatric populations.in clinical trials (n = 9297) and from spontaneous reporting.  Some of these adverse reactions are in common with other SSRIs.

 

The following frequencies have been calculated from clinical trials in adults (n = 9297) and from spontaneous reporting. 

 

Frequency estimate: Very common (³1/10), common (³1/100 to <1/10), uncommon (³1/1,000 to <1/100), rare (³1/10,000 to <1/1,000). very rare (<1/10,000), not known (cannot be estimated from the available data). Within each frequency grouping, undesirable effects are presented in order of decreasing seriousness.

 

Very Common

Common

Uncommon

Rare

Very Rare

Frequency Not Known

Blood and lymphatic system disorders

 

 

 

 

Thrombocytopenia

Thrombocytopenia

 

Immune system disorders

 

 

 

Anaphylactic reaction

Serum sickness

 

 

Endocrine disorders

 

 

 

Inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion

 

Inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion

Metabolism and nutrition disorders

 

Decreased appetite1

 

Hyponatraemia

 

 

 

Psychiatric disorders

Insomnia2

Anxiety

Nervousness

Restlessness

Tension

Libido decreased34

Sleep disorder

Abnormal dreams43

Depersonalisation

Elevated mood

Euphoric mood

Thinking abnormal

Orgasm abnormal5

Bruxism

Suicidal thoughts and behaviour 6

 

Hypomania

Mania

Hallucinations

Agitation

Panic attacks

Confusion

Dysphemia

 

 

Suicidal thoughts and behaviour 14

Confusion

Dysphemia

 

Nervous system disorders

Headache

Disturbance in attention

Dizziness

Dysgeusia

Lethargy

Somnolence76

Tremor

Psychomotor hyperactivity

Dyskinesia

Ataxia

Balance disorder

Myoclonus

Memory impairment

 

Convulsion

Akathisia Buccoglossal syndrome

Serotonin syndrome

 

 

Serotonin syndrome

Memory impairment

 

Eye disorders

 

Vision blurred

Mydriasis

 

 

 

Ear and labyrinth disorders

 

 

Tinnitus

 

 

Tinnitus

Cardiac disorders

 

Palpitations

 

Ventricular arrhythmia including torsade de pointes

Electrocardio-gram QT prolonged

 

 

Vascular disorders

 

Flushing87

Hypotension

Vasculitis

Vasodilatation

 

 

Respiratory, thoracic and mediastinal disorders

 

Yawning

Dyspnoea

Epistaxis

 

Pharyngitis

Pulmonary events (inflammatory processes of varying histopathology and/or fibrosis)9

 

Pulmonary events (inflammatory processes of varying histopathology and/or fibrosis)

Epistaxis

 

Gastrointestinal disorders

Diarrhoea

Nausea

Vomiting Dyspepsia

Dry mouth

Dysphagia

Gastrointestinal haemorrhage10

Oesophageal pain

 

Gastrointestinal haemorrhage15

Hepato-biliary disorders

 

 

 

idiosyncratic hepatitis

 

Very rare idiosyncratic hepatitis

Skin and subcutaneous tissue disorders

 

Rash118

Urticaria Pruritus Hyperhidrosis

 

Alopecia

Increased tendency to bruise

Cold sweat

 

 

Angioedema

Ecchymosis

Photosensitivity reaction

Purpura

Erythema multiforme12

 

 

Erythema multiforme13

Musculoskeletal and connective tissue and bone disorders

 

Arthralgia

 

Muscle twitching

Myalgia

 

Myalgia

Renal and urinary disorders

 

Frequent urination913

 

Dysuria

 

Urinary retention

Micturition disorder

 

 

Micturition disorder

Reproductive system and breast disorders

 

Gynaecological bleeding1114

Erectile dysfunction Ejaculation disorder150

Sexual dysfunction

Galactorrhoea, Hyperprolactinaemia

Priapism

 

 

Priapism

 

General disorders and administration site conditions

Fatigue162

Feeling jittery Chills

 

Malaise

Feeling abnormal

Feeling cold

Feeling hot

Mucosal haemorrhage

 

Mucosal haemorrhage

Investigations

 

Weight decrease

Abnormal liver function tests

 

 

Abnormal liver function tests

 

1 Includes anorexia

2 Includes early morning awakening, initial insomnia, middle insomnia

3 Includes loss of libido Includes nightmares4 Includes nightmares

Includes loss of libido

5 Includes anorgasmia

6 Includes completed suicide, depression suicidal, intentional self-injury, self-injurious ideation, suicidal behavior, suicidal ideation, suicide attempt, morbid thoughts, self injurious behaviour. These symptoms may be due to underlying disease

67 Includes hypersomnia, sedation

78 Includes hot flush

9 Includes atelectasis, interstitial lung disease, pneumonitis

8  Includes erythema, exfoliative rash, heat rash, rash, rash erythematous, rash follicular, rash generalized, rash macular, rash macular-papular, rash morbilliform, rash papular, rash pruritic, rash vesicular, umbilical erythema rash

9 Includes pollakiuria

10 Includes most frequently gingival bleeding, haematemesis, haematochezia, rectal haemorrhage, diarrhoea haemorrhagic, melaena, and gastric ulcerhaemorrhage

11 Includes erythema, exfoliative rash, heat rash, rash, rash erythematous, rash follicular, rash generalized, rash macular, rash macular-papular, rash morbilliform, rash papular, rash pruritic, rash vesicular, umbilical erythema rash

12 Could progress to Stevens-Johnson syndrome or Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis (Lyell Syndrome)

13 Includes pollakiuria

14 Includes cervix haemorrhage, uterine dysfunction, uterine bleeding, genital haemorrhage, menometrorhagia, menorrhagia, metrorrhagia, polymenorrhea, postmenopausal haemorrhage, uterine haemorrhage, vaginal haemorrhage

150 Includes ejaculation failure, ejaculation dysfunction, premature ejaculation, ejaculation delayed, retrograde ejaculation

11 Includes cervix haemorrhage, uterine dysfunction, uterine bleeding, genital haemorrhage, menometrorhagia, menorrhagia, metrorrhagia, polymenorrhea, postmenopausal haemorrhage, uterine haemorrhage, vaginal haemorrhage

162 Includes asthenia

13 Could progress to Stevens-Johnson syndrome or Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis (Lyell Syndrome)

14 These symptoms may be due to underlying disease.

15 Includes most frequently gingival bleeding, haematemesis, haematochezia, rectal haemorrhage, diarrhoea haemorrhagic, melaena, and gastric ulcer haemorrhage.

 

c. Description of selected adverse reactions

Suicide/suicidal thoughts or clinical worsening: Cases of suicidal ideation and suicidal behaviour have been reported during fluoxetine therapy or early after treatment discontinuation (see section 4.4).

 

Bone fractures: Epidemiological studies, mainly conducted in patients 50 years of age and older, show an increased risk of bone fractures in patients receiving SSRIs and TCAs. The mechanism leading to the risk is unknown.

 

Withdrawal symptoms seen on discontinuation of fluoxetine treatments: Discontinuation of fluoxetine commonly leads to withdrawal symptoms. Dizziness, sensory disturbances (including paraesthesia), sleep disturbances (including insomnia and intense dreams), asthenia, agitation or anxiety, nausea and/or vomiting, tremor and headache are the most commonly reported reactions. Generally these events are mild to moderate and are self-limiting; however, in some patients they may be severe and/or prolonged (see section 4.4). It is therefore advised that when PROZAC treatment is no longer required, gradual discontinuation by dose tapering should be carried out (see sections 4.2 and 4.4).

 

d. Paediatric population (see sections 4.4 and 5.1)

 

Children and adolescents (see sections 4.4 and 5.1):

 

Additional aAdverse reactions that have been observed specifically or with a different frequency in this population and are described below. Frequencies for these events are based on paediatric clinical trial exposures (n = 610). 

 

In paediatric clinical trials, suicide-related behaviours (suicide attempt and suicidal thoughts), and hostility (the events reported were: anger, irritability, aggression, agitation, activation syndrome), manic reactions, including mania and hypomania (no prior episodes reported in these patients) and epistaxis, were commonly reported and were more frequently observed among children and adolescents treated with antidepressants compared to those treated with placebo.  Manic reactions, including mania and hypomania, were reported (2.6% of fluoxetine-treated patients vs. 0% in placebo-controls), leading to discontinuation in the majority of cases.  These patients had no prior episodes of hypomania/mania. 

 

Isolated cases of growth retardation have been reported from clinical use. (See also section 5.1.)

 

In paediatric clinical trials, epistaxis was commonly reported, and fluoxetine treatment was also associated with a decrease in alkaline phosphatase levels.

 

Isolated cases of adverse events potentially indicating delayed sexual maturation or sexual dysfunction have been reported from paediatric clinical use.  (See also section 5.3.)

 

Reporting of suspected adverse reactions

Reporting suspected adverse reactions after authorisation of the medicinal product is important. It allows continued monitoring of the benefit/risk balance of the medicinal product. Healthcare professionals are asked to report any suspected adverse reactions via IMB Pharmacovigilance, Earlsfort Terrace, IRL - Dublin 2. Tel: +353 1 6764971, Fax: +353 1 6762517, Website: www.imb.ie, e-mail: imbpharmacovigilance@imb.ie.

 

4.9          Overdose

 

Added (bold):

 

Symptoms

Cases of overdose of fluoxetine alone usually have a mild course.  Symptoms of overdose have included nausea, vomiting, seizures, cardiovascular dysfunction ranging from asymptomatic arrhythmias  (including nodal rhythm and ventricular arrhythmias) or ECG changes indicative of QTc prolongation to cardiac arrest (including very rare cases of Torsade de Pointes), pulmonary dysfunction, and signs of altered CNS status ranging from excitation to coma.  Fatality attributed to overdose of fluoxetine alone has been extremely rare. 

 

Management

Cardiac and vital signs monitoring are recommended, along with general symptomatic and supportive measures.  No specific antidote is known.

 

Forced diuresis, dialysis, haemoperfusion, and exchange transfusion are unlikely to be of benefit.  Activated charcoal, which may be used with sorbitol, may be as or more effective than emesis or lavage.  In managing overdosage, consider the possibility of multiple drug involvement.  An extended time for close medical observation may be needed in patients who have taken excessive quantities of a tricyclic antidepressant if they are also taking, or have recently taken, fluoxetine.

 

 

 

5.             PHARMACOLOGICAL PROPERTIES

 

5.1          Pharmacodynamic properties

 

Added (bold) deleted (strikethrough):

 

Pharmacotherapeutic group: Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors.  ATC code: N06A B03.

 

Mechanism of action

 

Fluoxetine is a selective inhibitor of serotonin reuptake, and this probably accounts for the mechanism of action.  Fluoxetine has practically no affinity to other receptors such as α1-, α2-, and β-adrenergic; serotonergic; dopaminergic; histaminergic1; muscarinic; and GABA receptors.

 

Clinical efficacy and safety

 

Major depressive episodes: Clinical trials in patients with major depressive episodes have been conducted versus placebo and active controls.  PROZAC has been shown to be significantly more effective than placebo, as measured by the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D).  In these studies, PROZAC produced a significantly higher rate of response (defined by a 50 % decrease in the HAM-D score) and remission compared to placebo.

 

Dose response: In the fixed dose studies of patients with major depression there is a flat dose response curve, providing no suggestion of advantage in terms of efficacy for using higher than the recommended doses.  However, it is clinical experience that uptitrating might be beneficial for some patients.

 

Obsessive-compulsive disorder: In short-term trials (under 24 weeks), fluoxetine was shown to be significantly more effective than placebo.  There was a therapeutic effect at 20 mg/day, but higher doses (40 or 60 mg/day) showed a higher response rate.  In long-term studies (three short-term studies extension phase and a relapse prevention study), efficacy has not been shown.

 

Bulimia nervosa: In short-term trials (under 16 weeks), in out-patients fulfilling DSM-III-R-criteria for bulimia nervosa, fluoxetine 60 mg/day was shown to be significantly more effective than placebo for the reduction of bingeing, vomiting and purging activities.  However, for long-term efficacy no conclusion can be drawn.

 

Pre-Menstrual Dysphoric Disorder: Two placebo-controlled studies were conducted in patients meeting pre-menstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) diagnostic criteria according to DSM-IV.  Patients were included if they had symptoms of sufficient severity to impair social and occupational function and relationships with others.  Patients using oral contraceptives were excluded.  In the first study of continuous 20 mg daily dosing for 6 cycles, improvement was observed in the primary efficacy parameter (irritability, anxiety and dysphoria).  In the second study, with intermittent luteal phase dosing (20 mg daily for 14 days) for 3 cycles, improvement was observed in the primary efficacy parameter (Daily Record of Severity of Problems score).  However, definitive conclusions on efficacy and duration of treatment cannot be drawn from these studies.

 

Paediatric population

 

Major depressive episodes (children and adolescents): Clinical trials in children and adolescents aged 8 years and above have been conducted versus placebo.  PROZAC, at a dose of 20 mg, has been shown to be significantly more effective than placebo in two short-term pivotal studies, as measured by the reduction of Childhood Depression Rating Scale-Revised (CDRS-R) total scores and Clinical Global Impression of Improvement (CGI-I) scores.  In both studies, patients met criteria for moderate to severe MDD (DSM-III or DSM-IV) at three different evaluations by practising child psychiatrists.  Efficacy in the fluoxetine trials may depend on the inclusion of a selective patient population (one that has not spontaneously recovered within a period of 3-5 weeks and whose depression persisted in the face of considerable attention).  There is only limited data on safety and efficacy beyond 9 weeks.  In general, efficacy of fluoxetine was modest.  Response rates (the primary endpoint, defined as a 30 % decrease in the CDRS-R score) demonstrated a statistically significant difference in one of the two pivotal studies (58 % for fluoxetine versus 32 % for placebo, P = 0.013; and 65 % for fluoxetine versus 54 % for placebo, P = 0.093).  In these two studies, the mean absolute changes in CDRS-R from baseline to endpoint were 20 for fluoxetine versus 11 for placebo, P = 0.002; and 22 for fluoxetine versus 15 for placebo, P <0.001.

 

Effects on growth (children and adolescents), see sections 4.4 and 4.8:

After 19 weeks of treatment, paediatric subjects treated with fluoxetine in a clinical trial gained an average of 1.1 cm less in height (p=0.004) and 1.1 kg less in weight (p=0.008) than subjects treated with placebo.

 

In a retrospective matched control observational study with a mean of 1.8 years of exposure to fluoxetine, paediatric subjects treated with fluoxetine had no difference in growth adjusted for expected growth in height from their matched, untreated controls (0.0 cm, p=0.9673).

 

5.2          Pharmacokinetic properties

 

Added (bold) deleted (strikethrough):

 

 

Distribution

Fluoxetine is extensively bound to plasma proteins (about 95 %) and it is widely distributed (volume of distribution: 20-40 lL/kg).  Steady-state plasma concentrations are achieved after dosing for several weeks.  Steady-state concentrations after prolonged dosing are similar to concentrations seen at 4 to 5 weeks.

 

BiotransformationMetabolism:

Fluoxetine has a non-linear pharmacokinetic profile with first pass liver effect.  Maximum plasma concentration is generally achieved 6 to 8 hours after administration.  Fluoxetine is extensively metabolised by the polymorphic enzyme CYP2D6.  Fluoxetine is primarily metabolised by the liver to the active metabolite norfluoxetine (desmethylfluoxetine), by desmethylation.

 

 

At-RiskSpecial Ppopulations

 

Elderly: Kinetic parameters are not altered in healthy elderly when compared to younger subjects.

 

Paediatric populationChildren and adolescents: The mean fluoxetine concentration in children is approximately 2-fold higher than that observed in adolescents and the mean norfluoxetine concentration 1.5-fold higher.  Steady-state plasma concentrations are dependent on body weight and are higher in lower weight children (see section 4.2).  As in adults, fluoxetine and norfluoxetine accumulated extensively following multiple oral dosing; steady-state concentrations were achieved within 3 to 4 weeks of daily dosing.

 

 

6.             PHARMACEUTICAL PARTICULARS

 

Added (underlined) deleted (strikethrough):

 

6.1          List of excipients

 

The liquid oral solution contains:

Benzoic acid

Sucrose

Glycerine

Mint flavour (containing 0.23 % ethanol (alcohol))

Purified water

 

6.3          Shelf-life

 

Added (underlined) deleted (strikethrough):

 

20mg capsules: 3 years.

 

Liquid Oral solution: 2 years.

 

6.4          Special precautions for storage

 

Added (underlined) deleted (strikethrough):

 

Do not store above 30°C.

 

Liquid Oral solution: Store in the original bottle to protect from light.

 

6.5          Nature and contents of container

 

Added (underlined) deleted (strikethrough):

 

20mg capsules: PVC/aluminium blister packs of 2, 7, 12, 14, 20, 28, 30, 50, 56, 70, 98, 100 and 500 capsules.

 

Liquid Oral solution: Brown glass bottles containing 60 ml, or 70 ml with dosing syringe or 140 ml oral liquidsolution. The pack may include a measuring cup or syringeone of the following measuring and dosing devices:

-            a measuring cup, with a 5 ml graduation,

-            a 5 ml capacity syringe with graduations to measure 1.25, 2.5, 3.75 and 5 ml,

-            a 5 ml capacity syringe with graduations to measure 5, 10, 15 and 20 mg,

-            a double ended spoon with the smaller spoon marked with a fill level equivalent to 2.5 ml and the larger spoon marked with a fill level equivalent to 5 ml.

 

Not all pack/bottle sizes may be marketed.

 

Deleted (strikethrough):

 

6.6          Special precautions for disposal of a used medicinal product or waste material derived from such medicinal product and other handling of the product

 

No special requirements.

 

 

8.             MARKETING AUTHORISATION NUMBERS

 

Added (underlined) deleted (strikethrough):

 

 

20mg capsules:                    PA 0047/077/002

Liquid Oral solution:         PA 0047/077/001

 

 

9.             DATE OF FIRST AUTHORISATION/RENEWAL OF THE AUTHORISATION

 

Added (underlined) deleted (strikethrough):

 

Capsules:

 

Date of first authorisation:                        9 February 1989

Date of last renewal:                                   02 April 2008 1 April 2013

Liquid Oral solution:

 

Date of first authorisation:                        23 February 1994

Date of last renewal:                                   01 April 2008 1 April 2013

 

 

 

10.          DATE OF REVISION OF THE TEXT

 

New date:

 

09 October 2014

 

 

Detailed information on this medicinal product is available on the website of UK/MHRA

 

 

 

 

Updated on 13-Mar-2013 and displayed until 16-Oct-2014

Reasons for adding or updating:

  • Change to section 4.3 - Contraindications
  • Change to section 4.4 - Special warnings and precautions for use
  • Change to section 4.5 - Interaction with other medicinal products and other forms of interaction
  • Change to section 4.8 - Undesirable effects
  • Change to section 4.9 - Overdose
  • Change to section 10 - Date of revision of the text

Date of revision of text on the SPC: 01-Mar-2013

Legal Category:POM

Black Triangle (CHM): NO

Free-text change information supplied by the pharmaceutical company:



4.             CLINICAL PARTICULARS

4.3          Contraindications

 

Added (bold):

 

The combination of fluoxetine with a reversible MAOI (e.g. moclobemide, linezolid, methylthioninium chloride (also called methylene blue; a reversible non-selective MAOI indicated for the treatment of methaemoglobinaemia)) is not recommended.  Treatment with fluoxetine can be initiated the following day after discontinuation of a reversible MAOI.

 

In exceptional circumstances, linezolid (an antibiotic which is a reversible non‑selective MAOI) can be given in combination with fluoxetine provided that there are facilities for close observation of symptoms of serotonin syndrome and monitoring of blood pressure.

 

4.4.         Special warnings and precautions for use

 

Added (bold) deleted (strikethrough):

 

Cardiovascular Effects: Cases of QT interval prolongation and ventricular arrhythmia including torsade de pointes have been reported during the post-marketing period (see sections 4.5, 4.8 and 4.9).

 

Fluoxetine should be used with caution in patients with conditions such as congenital long QT syndrome, a family history of QT prolongation or other clinical conditions that predispose to arrhythmias (e.g., hypokalemia and  hypomagnesemia, bradycardia, acute myocardial infarction or uncompensated heart failure) or increased exposure to fluoxetine (e.g., hepatic impairment). No conduction abnormalities that resulted in heart block were observed in the ECG of 312 patients who received fluoxetine in double blind clinical trials.  However, clinical experience in acute cardiac disease is limited, therefore caution is advisable.

 

If patients with stable cardiac disease are treated, an ECG review should be considered before treatment is started.If signs of cardiac arrhythmia occur during treatment with fluoxetine, the treatment should be withdrawn and an ECG should be performed.

 

4.5.         Interaction with other medicinal products and other forms of interaction

 

Added:

 

QT interval prolongation: Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic studies between fluoxetine and other medicinal products that prolong the QT interval have not been performed. An additive effect of fluoxetine and these medicinal products cannot be excluded. Therefore, co-administration of fluoxetine with medicinal products that prolong the QT interval, such as Class IA and III antiarrhythmics, antipsychotic (e.g. phenothiazine derivatives, pimozide, haloperidol), tricyclic antidepressants, certain antimicrobial agents (e.g.sparfloxacin, moxifloxacin, erythromycin IV, pentamidine), anti-malaria treatment particularly halofantrine, certain antihistamines (astemizole, mizolastine), should be used with caution.


 

4.8.         Undesirable effects

 

Added (bold):

 

Very Common

Common

Uncommon

Rare

Very Rare

Frequency Not Known

Cardiac disorders

 

Palpitations

 

Ventricular arrhythmia including torsade de pointes

Electrocardio-gram QT prolonged

 

 

Reproductive system and breast disorders

 

Gynaecological bleeding11

Erectile dysfunction Ejaculation disorder10

Sexual dysfunction

Galactorrhoea

Hyperprolactinaemia

 

Priapism

 

 

 

4.9.         Overdose

 

Added (bold):

 

Cases of overdose of fluoxetine alone usually have a mild course. Symptoms of overdose have included nausea, vomiting, seizures, cardiovascular dysfunction ranging from asymptomatic arrhythmias (including nodal rhythm and ventricular arrhythmias) or ECG changes indicative of QTc prolongation to cardiac arrest (including very rare cases of Torsade de Pointes), pulmonary dysfunction, and signs of altered CNS status ranging from excitation to coma. Fatality attributed to overdose of fluoxetine alone has been extremely rare.  Cardiac and vital signs monitoring are recommended, along with general symptomatic and supportive measures. No specific antidote is known.

 

 

10.          DATE OF REVISION OF THE TEXT

 

New date:

                01 March 2013

Updated on 07-Feb-2013 and displayed until 13-Mar-2013

Reasons for adding or updating:

  • Change to section 6.1 - List of excipients
  • Change to section 10 - Date of revision of the text

Date of revision of text on the SPC: 28-Jan-2013

Legal Category:POM

Black Triangle (CHM): NO

Free-text change information supplied by the pharmaceutical company:



6.             Pharmaceutical Particulars

 

 

6.1.         List of excipients

 

Capsule components:

 

Added (Bold):

containing shellac, hydrated ferric oxide (black) E172, propylene glycol and may contain ammonium hydroxide and potassium hydroxide.

 

 

 

10.          DATE OF REVISION OF THE TEXT

 

New date:

                28 January 2013

Updated on 09-Oct-2012 and displayed until 07-Feb-2013

Reasons for adding or updating:

  • Change to section 4.6 - Pregnancy and Lactation
  • Change to section 5.3 - Preclinical Safety Data
  • Change to section 10 date of revision of the text

Date of revision of text on the SPC: 25-Sep-2012

Legal Category:POM

Black Triangle (CHM): NO

Free-text change information supplied by the pharmaceutical company:



4.             CLINICAL PARTICULARS

 

4.6.         Fertility, pregnancy and lactation

 

Added:

 

Fertility

Animal data have shown that fluoxetine may affect sperm quality (see section 5.3).

Human case reports with some SSRI’s have shown that an effect on sperm quality is reversible.

Impact on human fertility has not been observed so far.

 

5.             PHARMACOLOGICAL PROPERTIES

5.3.         Preclinical safety data

 

Added:

 

Adult animal studies

In a 2-generation rat reproduction study, fluoxetine did not produce adverse effects on the mating or fertility of rats, was not teratogenic, and did not affect growth, development, or reproductive parameters of the offspring.

The concentrations in the diet provided doses approximately equivalent to 1.5, 3.9, and 9.7 mg fluoxetine/kg body weight.

Male mice treated daily for 3 months with fluoxetine in the diet at a dose approximately equivalent to 31 mg/kg showed a decrease in testis weight and hypospermatogenesis. However, this dose level exceeded the maximum-tolerated dose (MTD) as significant signs of toxicity were seen.

 

Added:

 

Juvenile animal studies

 

 

10.          DATE OF REVISION OF THE TEXT

 

New date:

                25 September 2012

Updated on 03-May-2012 and displayed until 09-Oct-2012

Reasons for adding or updating:

  • Change to section 4.8 - Undesirable Effects
  • Change to section 10 date of revision of the text

Date of revision of text on the SPC: 26-Apr-2012

Legal Category:POM

Black Triangle (CHM): NO

Free-text change information supplied by the pharmaceutical company:



4.             CLINICAL PARTICULARS

 

4.8.         Undesirable effects

 

Added (bold)

 

Very Common

Common

Uncommon

Rare

Very Rare

Frequency Not Known

Gastrointestinal disorders

Diarrhoea

Nausea

Vomiting Dyspepsia

Dry mouth

Dysphagia

Oesophageal pain

 

Gastrointestinal haemorrhage15

 

Added:

 

15 Includes most frequently gingival bleeding, haematemesis, haematochezia, rectal haemorrhage, diarrhoea haemorrhagic, melaena, and gastric ulcerhaemorrhage.

 

 

10.          DATE OF REVISION OF THE TEXT

 

New date:

                26 April 2012

Updated on 20-Mar-2012 and displayed until 03-May-2012

Reasons for adding or updating:

  • Change to section 4.4 - Special warnings and precautions for Use
  • Change to section 4.8 - Undesirable Effects
  • Change to section 5.1 - Pharmacodynamic Properties
  • Change to section 10 date of revision of the text

Date of revision of text on the SPC: 09-Mar-2012

Legal Category:POM

Black Triangle (CHM): NO

Free-text change information supplied by the pharmaceutical company:



4.             CLINICAL PARTICULARS

 

4.4          Special warnings and precautions for use

 

Added:

 

Mydriasis: Mydriasis has been reported in association with fluoxetine; therefore, caution should be used when prescribing fluoxetine in patients with raised intraocular pressure or those at risk of acute narrow-angle glaucoma.

 

4.8          Undesirable effects

 

Added (Bold):

 

Nervous system disorders

Headache

Disturbance in attention

Dizziness

Dysgeusia

Lethargy

Somnolence6

Tremor

Psychomotor hyperactivity

Dyskinesia

Ataxia

Balance disorder

Myoclonus

 

Convulsion

Akathisia Buccoglossal syndrome

 

 

Serotonin syndrome

Memory impairment

 

 

Deleted:

After 19 weeks of treatment, paediatric subjects treated with fluoxetine in a clinical trial gained an average of 1.1 cm less in height (p=0.004) and 1.1 kg less in weight (p=0.008) than subjects treated with placebo. 

 

Deleted:

The safety of fluoxetine has not been assessed in this population for chronic treatment longer than 19 weeks. 

 

 

 

5.             PHARMACOLOGICAL PROPERTIES

 

5.1.         Pharmacodynamic properties

 

Added:

 

Effects on growth (children and adolescents), see sections 4.4 and 4.8: After 19 weeks of treatment, paediatric subjects treated with fluoxetine in a clinical trial gained an average of 1.1 cm less in height (p=0.004) and 1.1 kg less in weight (p=0.008) than subjects treated with placebo.

 

In a retrospective matched control observational study with a mean of 1.8 years of exposure to fluoxetine, pediatric subjects treated with fluoxetine had no difference in growth adjusted for expected growth in height from their matched, untreated controls (0.0 cm, p=0.9673).

 

 

10.          DATE OF REVISION OF THE TEXT

 

New date:

                09 March 2012

Updated on 13-Oct-2011 and displayed until 20-Mar-2012

Reasons for adding or updating:

  • Change to section 4.8 - Undesirable Effects
  • Change to section 10 date of revision of the text

Date of revision of text on the SPC: 23-Sep-2011

Legal Category:POM

Black Triangle (CHM): NO

Free-text change information supplied by the pharmaceutical company:



4.             CLINICAL PARTICULARS

 

4.8.         Undesirable effects

 

Table – Added:

 

Very Common

Common

Uncommon

Rare

Very Rare

Frequency Not Known

Blood and lymphatic system disorders

 

 

 

 

Thrombocytopenia

 

 

Added (bold):

 

Psychiatric disorders

Insomnia2

Anxiety

Nervousness

Restlessness

Tension

Libido decreased4

Sleep disorder

Abnormal dreams3

Depersonalisation

Elevated mood

Euphoric mood

Thinking abnormal

Orgasm abnormal5

Bruxism

 

Hypomania

Mania

Hallucinations

Agitation

Panic attacks

 

Suicidal thoughts and behaviour 14

Confusion

Dysphemia

 

 

Added:

 

Ear and labyrinth disorders

 

 

 

 

 

Tinnitus

 

 

 

10.          DATE OF REVISION OF THE TEXT

 

New date:

 

23 September 2011

Updated on 14-Apr-2011 and displayed until 13-Oct-2011

Reasons for adding or updating:

  • Change to section 4.4 - Special warnings and precautions for Use
  • Change to section 4.5 - Interaction with other medicinal products and other forms of interaction
  • Change to section 4.8 - Undesirable Effects
  • Change to section 10 date of revision of the text

Date of revision of text on the SPC: 10-Mar-2011

Legal Category:POM

Black Triangle (CHM): NO

Free-text change information supplied by the pharmaceutical company:



4.             CLINICAL PARTICULARS

4.4.         Special warnings and precautions for use

 

Added:

 

Tamoxifen : Fluoxetine, a potent inhibitor of CYP2D6, may lead to reduced concentrations of endoxifen, one of the most important active metabolites of tamoxifen. Therefore, fluoxetine should whenever possible be avoided during tamoxifen treatment (see section 4.5).

 

4.5.         Interaction with other medicinal products and other forms of interaction

 

Added:

 

Pharmacokinetic interaction between CYP2D6 inhibitors and tamoxifen, showing a 65-75% reduction in plasma levels of one of the more active forms of the tamoxifen, i.e. endoxifen, has been reported in the literature. Reduced efficacy of tamoxifen has been reported with concomitant usage of some SSRI antidepressants in some studies. As a reduced effect of tamoxifen cannot be excluded, co-administration with potent CYP2D6 inhibitors (including fluoxetine) should whenever possible be avoided (see section 4.4).

 

4.8.         Undesirable effects

 

Note: This section has had major additions and deletions and as such has been re-formatted in entirety:

 

The most commonly reported adverse reactions in patients treated with fluoxetine were headache, nausea, insomnia, fatigue and diarrhoea.  Undesirable effects may decrease in intensity and frequency with continued treatment and do not generally lead to cessation of therapy.

 

The table below gives the adverse reactions observed in clinical trials (n = 9297) and from spontaneous reporting.  Some of these adverse reactions are in common with other SSRIs.

 

Frequency estimate: Very common (³1/10), common (³1/100 to <1/10), uncommon (³1/1,000 to <1/100), rare (³1/10,000 to <1/1,000), very rare (<1/10,000), not known (cannot be estimated from the available data).

Within each frequency grouping, undesirable effects are presented in order of decreasing seriousness.

 

Very Common

Common

Uncommon

Rare

Very Rare

Frequency Not Known

Immune system disorders

 

 

 

Anaphylactic reaction

Serum sickness

 

 

Endocrine disorders

 

 

 

 

 

Inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion

Metabolism and nutrition disorders

 

Decreased appetite1

 

Hyponatraemia

 

 

 

Psychiatric disorders

Insomnia2

Anxiety

Nervousness

Restlessness

Tension

Libido decreased4

Sleep disorder

Abnormal dreams3

Depersonalisation

Elevated mood

Euphoric mood

Thinking abnormal

Orgasm abnormal5

Bruxism

 

Hypomania

Mania

Hallucinations

Agitation

Panic attacks

 

Suicidal thoughts and behaviour 14

Confusion

 

Nervous system disorders

Headache

Disturbance in attention

Dizziness

Dysgeusia

Lethargy

Somnolence6

Tremor

Psychomotor hyperactivity

Dyskinesia

Ataxia

Balance disorder

Myoclonus

 

Convulsion

Akathisia Buccoglossal syndrome

 

 

Serotonin syndrome

 

Eye disorders

 

Vision blurred

Mydriasis

 

 

 

Cardiac disorders

 

Palpitations

 

 

 

 

Vascular disorders

 

Flushing7

Hypotension

Vasculitis

Vasodilitation

 

 

Respiratory, thoracic and mediastinal disorders

 

Yawning

Dyspnoea

 

Pharyngitis

 

Pulmonary events (inflammatory processes of varying histopathology and/or fibrosis)

Epistaxis

Gastrointestinal disorders

Diarrhoea

Nausea

Vomiting Dyspepsia

Dry mouth

Dysphagia

Oesophageal pain

 

Gastrointestinal haemorrhage

Hepato-biliary disorders

 

 

 

 

 

Very rare idiosyncratic hepatitis

Skin and subcutaneous tissue disorders

 

Rash8

Urticaria Pruritus Hyperhidrosis

 

Alopecia

Increased tendency to bruise

Cold sweat

 

 

Angioedema

Ecchymosis

Photosensitivity reaction

Purpura

 

 

Erythema multiforme13

Musculoskeletal, connective tissue and bone disorders

 

Arthralgia

 

Muscle twitching

 

 

Myalgia

 

Renal and urinary disorders

 

Frequent urination9

 

Dysuria

 

Urinary retention

 

 

Micturition disorder

Reproductive system and breast disorders

 

Gynaecological bleeding11

Erectile dysfunction Ejaculation disorder10

Sexual dysfunction

Galactorrhoea

 

Priapism

 

General disorders and administration site conditions

Fatigue12

Feeling jittery Chills

 

Malaise

Feeling abnormal

Feeling cold

Feeling hot

 

 

Mucosal haemorrhage

Investigations

 

Weight decreased

 

 

 

Abnormal liver function tests

1 Includes anorexia

2 Includes early morning awakening, initial insomnia, middle insomnia

3 Includes nightmares

4 Includes loss of libido

5 Includes anorgasmia

6 Includes hypersomnia, sedation

7 Includes hot flush

8 Includes erythema, exfoliative rash, heat rash, rash, rash erythematous, rash follicular, rash generalized, rash macular, rash macular-papular, rash morbilliform, rash papular, rash pruritic, rash vesicular, umbilical erythema rash

9 Includes pollakiuria

10 Includes ejaculation failure, ejaculation dysfunction, premature ejaculation, ejaculation delayed, retrograde ejaculation

11 Includes cervix haemorrhage, uterine dysfunction, uterine bleeding, genital haemorrhage, menometrorhagia, menorrhagia, metrorrhagia, polymenorrhea, postmenopausal haemorrhage, uterine haemorrhage, vaginal haemorrhage

12 Includes asthenia

13 Could progress to Stevens-Johnson syndrome or Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis (Lyell Syndrome)

14 These symptoms may be due to underlying disease.

 

Cases of suicidal ideation and suicidal behaviour have been reported during fluoxetine therapy or early after treatment discontinuation (see Section 4.4).

 

Bone fractures: Epidemiological studies, mainly conducted in patients 50 years of age and older, show an increased risk of bone fractures in patients receiving SSRIs and TCAs. The mechanism leading to the risk is unknown.

 

Withdrawal symptoms seen on discontinuation of fluoxetine treatments: Discontinuation of fluoxetine commonly leads to withdrawal symptoms. Dizziness, sensory disturbances (including paraesthesia), sleep disturbances (including insomnia and intense dreams), asthenia, agitation or anxiety, nausea and/or vomiting, tremor and headache are the most commonly reported reactions. Generally these events are mild to moderate and are self-limiting, however, in some patients they may be severe and/or prolonged (see section 4.4). It is therefore advised that when Prozac treatment is no longer required, gradual discontinuation by dose tapering should be carried out (see sections 4.2 and 4.4).

 

Children and adolescents (see section 4.4 ):

 

Additional adverse reactions have been observed specifically in this population and are described below.  

 

In paediatric clinical trials, suicide-related behaviours (suicide attempt and suicidal thoughts), and hostility were more frequently observed among children and adolescents treated with antidepressants compared to those treated with placebo.  Manic reactions, including mania and hypomania, were reported (2.6% of fluoxetine-treated patients vs. 0% in placebo-controls), leading to discontinuation in the majority of cases.  These patients had no prior episodes of hypomania/mania. 

 

After 19 weeks of treatment, paediatric subjects treated with fluoxetine in a clinical trial gained an average of 1.1 cm less in height (p=0.004) and 1.1 kg less in weight (p=0.008) than subjects treated with placebo.  Isolated cases of growth retardation have also been reported from clinical use. 

 

In paediatric clinical trials, epistaxis was commonly reported, and fluoxetine treatment was associated with a decrease in alkaline phosphatase levels.

 

Isolated cases of adverse events potentially indicating delayed sexual maturation or sexual dysfunction have been reported from paediatric clinical use.  (See also section 5.3)

 

The safety of fluoxetine has not been assessed in this population for chronic treatment longer than 19 weeks. 

 


 

10.          DATE OF REVISION OF THE TEXT

 

New date:

 

10 March 2011

Updated on 03-Nov-2010 and displayed until 14-Apr-2011

Reasons for adding or updating:

  • Change to section 4.6 - Pregnancy and Lactation
  • Change to section 10 date of revision of the text

Date of revision of text on the SPC: 14-Oct-2010

Legal Category:POM

Black Triangle (CHM): NO

Free-text change information supplied by the pharmaceutical company:



4.             CLINICAL PARTICULARS

 

4.6.         Pregnancy and lactation

 

                Added:

 

Pregnancy: Some epidemiological studies suggest an increased risk of cardiovascular defects associated with the use of fluoxetine during the first trimester. The mechanism is unknown. Overall the data suggest that the risk of having an infant with a cardiovascular defect following maternal fluoxetine exposure is in the region of 2/100 compared with an expected rate for such defects of approximately 1/100 in the general population.

 

 

 

10.          DATE OF REVISION OF THE TEXT

 

New date:

 

14 October 2010

Updated on 20-Jul-2010 and displayed until 03-Nov-2010

Reasons for adding or updating:

  • Change to section 4.6 - Pregnancy and Lactation
  • Change to section 4.8 - Undesirable Effects
  • Change to section 6.1 - List of Excipients
  • Change to section 10 date of revision of the text

Date of revision of text on the SPC: 01-Jul-2010

Legal Category:POM

Black Triangle (CHM): NO

Free-text change information supplied by the pharmaceutical company:



4.          CLINICAL PARTICULARS

 

4.6.        Pregnancy and lactation

 

             Added text in bold. Deletions shown in strikethrough

 

Pregnancy: Epidemiological data have suggested that the use of SSRIs in pregnancy, particular in late pregnancy, may increase the risk of persistent pulmonary hypertension in the newborn (PPHN). The observed risk was approximately 5 cases per 1000 pregnancies. In the general population 1 to 2 cases of PPHN per 1000 pregnancies occur.

 Data on a large number of exposed pregnancies do not indicate a teratogenic effect of fluoxetine. Furthermore, although Ffluoxetine can be used during pregnancy, but caution should be exercised, especially during late pregnancy or just prior to the onset of labour since the following some other effects have been reported in neonates: irritability, tremor, hypotonia, persistent crying, difficulty in sucking or in sleeping.  These symptoms may indicate either serotonergic effects or a withdrawal syndrome.  The time to occur and the duration of these symptoms may be related to the long half-life of fluoxetine (4-6 days) and its active metabolite, norfluoxetine (4-16 days).

 

 

4.8.       Undesirable effects

               

             Added:

 

Bone fractures: Epidemiological studies, mainly conducted in patients 50 years of age and older, show an increased risk of bone fractures in patients receiving SSRIs and TCAs. The mechanism leading to the risk is unknown.

 

 

6.         Pharmaceutical Particulars

 

6.1.       List of excipients

 

Added text in bold:

 

The capsules contain:

Maize starch flowable

                                                                                               

 

 

10.        DATE OF REVISION OF THE TEXT

 

New date:

 

1 July 2010

Updated on 14-Apr-2009 and displayed until 20-Jul-2010

Reasons for adding or updating:

  • Change to section 2 - Qualitative and quantitative composition
  • Change to section 4.4 - Special warnings and precautions for Use
  • Change to section 6.1 - List of Excipients
  • Change to section 6. 4 - Special Precautions for Storage
  • Change to section 9 - Date of first Authorisation/renewal of the Authorisation
  • Change to section 10 date of revision of the text

Date of revision of text on the SPC: 18-Feb-2009

Legal Category:POM

Black Triangle (CHM): NO

Free-text change information supplied by the pharmaceutical company:



2.             QUALITATIVE AND QUANTITATIVE COMPOSITION

 

Added:

 

Oral liquid xcipients: contains 3g of sucrose per 5ml dose. This should be taken into account in patients with diabetes mellitus.

 

 

 

4.             CLINICAL PARTICULARS

 

4.4.         Special warnings and precautions for use

 

Added:

 

Prozac oral liquid contains sucrose: Patients with rare hereditary problems of fructose intolerance, glucose-galactose malabsorption or sucrase-isomaltase insufficiency should not take this medicine.

 

 

 

6.             Pharmaceutical Particulars

 

6.1.         List of excipients

 

Added:

 

…containing shellac and hydrated ferric oxide (black) E172.

 

Deleted:

 

Formulation 1:

Shellac

Propylene Glycol

Ammonium Hydroxide

Black Iron Oxide E172

 

Formulation 2:

Shellac

Soya Lecithin

Antifoam DC 1510

Black Iron Oxide E172

 

6.4.         Special precautions for storage

 

Added:

 

Liquid: Store in the original bottle to protect from light.

 

 


 

9.             DATE OF FIRST AUTHORISATION/RENEWAL OF THE AUTHORISATION

 

Added:

 

Date of latest renewal:  02 April 2008

 

 

 

10.          DATE OF REVISION OF THE TEXT

 

New date:

 

18 February 2009

Updated on 08-Aug-2008 and displayed until 14-Apr-2009

Reasons for adding or updating:

  • Change to section 6. 5 - Nature and Contents of Container
  • Change to section 4.4 - Special warnings and precautions for Use
  • Change to section 4.8 - Undesirable Effects
  • Change to section 6. 6 - Instructions for use, handling and disposal
  • Change to section 9 - Date of first Authorisation/renewal of the Authorisation
  • Change to section 10 date of revision of the text

Date of revision of text on the SPC: 20-Jun-2008

Legal Category:POM

Black Triangle (CHM): NO

Free-text change information supplied by the pharmaceutical company:



4.             CLINICAL PARTICULARS

 

4.4.         Special warnings and precautions for use

 

Use in children and adolescents under 18 years of age

 

Added (bold):

 

Suicide/suicidal thoughts or clinical worsening:

 

Amended:

Patients with a history of suicide-related events, those exhibiting a significant degree of suicidal ideation prior to commencement of treatment are known to be at greater risk of suicidal thoughts or suicide attempts, and should receive careful monitoring during treatment.

A meta-analysis of placebo-controlled clinical trials of antidepressants drugs in adult patients with psychiatric disorders showed an increased risk of suicidal behaviour with antidepressants compared to placebo in patients less than 25 years old.

Close supervision of patients and in particular those at high risk should accompany drug therapy especially in early treatment and following dose changes. Patients (and caregivers of patients) should be alerted about the need to monitor for any clinical worsening, suicidal behaviour or thoughts and unusual changes in behaviour and to seek medical advice immediately if these symptoms present.

 

4.8.         Undesirable effects

 

Body as a whole:

 

Amended:

 

Hypersensitivity (e.g. pruritis, rash, urticaria, anaphylactoid reaction, vasculitis, serum sickness-like reaction, angioedema) (see sections 4.3 and 4.4), chills, serotonin syndrome, photosensitivity, and very rarely Erythema Multiforme that could progress to Stevens-Johnson syndrome or Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis (Lyell syndrome).

 

Nervous system:

 

Amended:

 

Headache, sleep abnormalities (e.g. abnormal dreams, insomnia), dizziness, anorexia, fatigue (e.g. somnolence, drowsiness), euphoria, transient abnormal movement (e.g., twitching, ataxia, tremor, myoclonus), seizures and rarely psychomotor restlessness/akathisia (see section 4.4).  Hallucinations, manic reaction, confusion, agitation, anxiety and associated symptoms (e.g. nervousness), impaired concentration and thought process (e.g. depersonalisation), panic attacks, very rarely serotonin syndrome, suicidal thoughts and behaviour (these symptoms may be due to the underlying disease). Cases of suicidal ideation and suicidal behaviour have been reported during fluoxetine therapy or early after treatment discontinuation (see Section 4.4)

 

 


 

6.             Pharmaceutical Particulars

 

6.5.         Nature and contents of container

 

Amended:

 

PVC/aluminium blister packs of 2, 7, 12, 14, 20, 28, 30, 50, 56, 70, 98, 100 and 500 capsules.

 

6.6.              Special precautions for disposal

 

Sub-Title changed

 

Added:

 

No special requirements.

 

 

 

9.             DATE OF FIRST AUTHORISATION/RENEWAL OF THE AUTHORISATION

 

Re-formatted Sub-Heading:

 

Date of latest renewal:

 

 

 

10.          DATE OF REVISION OF THE TEXT

 

New date:

 

20 June 2008

Updated on 10-Jan-2008 and displayed until 08-Aug-2008

Reasons for adding or updating:

  • Change to section 10 date of revision of the text
  • Change to section 7 - Marketing Authorisation Holder

Date of revision of text on the SPC: 01-Nov-2007

Legal Category:POM

Black Triangle (CHM): NO

Free-text change information supplied by the pharmaceutical company:

Change to section 7 - Marketing Authorisation Holder,
Change to section 10 date of revision of the text

Updated on 24-Apr-2007 and displayed until 10-Jan-2008

Reasons for adding or updating:

  • Change to section 4.4 - Special warnings and precautions for Use
  • Change to section 4.8 - Undesirable Effects
  • Change to section 10 date of revision of the text

Date of revision of text on the SPC: 01-Mar-2007

Legal Category:POM

Black Triangle (CHM): NO

Free-text change information supplied by the pharmaceutical company:

4.             CLINICAL PARTICULARS

 

4.4          Special warnings and precautions for use

 

Added

 

Prozac oral liquid contains sucrose: Patients with rare hereditary problems of fructose intolerance, glucose-galactose malabsorption or sucrase-isomaltase insufficiency should not take this medicine.

 

4.8                Undesirable effects

 

Addition in bold text

 

Body as a whole: Hypersensitivity (eg, pruritus, rash, urticaria, anaphylactoid reaction, vasculitis, serum sickness-like reaction, angioedema) (see sections 4.3 and 4.4), chills, serotonin syndrome, photosensitivity and very rarely, erythema multiforme that could progress to Stevens-Johnson syndrome or toxic epidermal necrolysis (Lyell syndrome).

 

 

 

10.          DATE OF REVISION OF THE TEXT

 

New date:

 

March 2007

Updated on 23-Feb-2007 and displayed until 24-Apr-2007

Reasons for adding or updating:

  • Change to section 3 - Pharmaceutical form
  • Change to section 4.1 - Therapeutic indications
  • Change to section 4.2 - Posology and method of administration
  • Change to section 4.4 - Special warnings and precautions for Use
  • Change to section 4.5 - Interaction with other medicinal products and other forms of interaction
  • Change to section 4.8 - Undesirable Effects
  • Change to section 5.1 - Pharmacodynamic Properties
  • Change to section 5.2 - Pharmacokinetic Properties
  • Change to section 5.3 - Preclinical Safety Data
  • Change to section 6. 4 - Special Precautions for Storage
  • Change to section 10 date of revision of the text

Date of revision of text on the SPC: 01-Sep-2006

Legal Category:POM

Black Triangle (CHM): NO

Free-text change information supplied by the pharmaceutical company:

Removal of 60mg capsule.

 

3.             PHARMACEUTICAL FORM

 

The 20mg capsules are green and yellow, printed ‘Prozac 20mg’.

 

Changed to:

 

The capsules are green and yellow, printed ‘Lilly 3105’.

 

4.             CLINICAL PARTICULARS

 

4.1          Therapeutic indications

 

Added:

 

Children and Adolescents Aged 8 Years and Above

 

Moderate to severe major depressive episode, if depression is unresponsive to psychological therapy after 4-6 sessions.  Antidepressant medication should be offered to a child or young person with moderate to severe depression only in combination with a concurrent psychological therapy.

 

4.2          Posology and method of administration

 

Removed:

 

Children: The use of fluoxetine in children and adolescents (under the age of 18) is not recommended, as safety and efficacy have not been established.

 

Replaced by:

 

Children and adolescents aged 8 years and above (moderate to severe major depressive episode): Treatment should be initiated and monitored under specialist supervision.  The starting dose is 10mg/day given as 2.5ml of the Prozac liquid formulation.  Dose adjustments should be made carefully, on an individual basis, to maintain the patient at the lowest effective dose.

 

After one to two weeks, the dose may be increased to 20mg/day.  Clinical trial experience with daily doses greater than 20mg is minimal.  There is only limited data on treatment beyond 9 weeks.

 

Lower weight children: Due to higher plasma levels in lower weight children, the therapeutic effect may be achieved with lower doses (see section 5.2).

 

For paediatric patients who respond to treatment, the need for continued treatment after 6 months should be reviewed.  If no clinical benefit is achieved within 9 weeks, treatment should be reconsidered.


 

4.4          Special warnings and precautions for use

 

Added:

 

Use in children and adolescents under 18 years of age: Suicide-related behaviours (suicide attempt and suicidal thoughts) and hostility (predominantly aggression, oppositional behaviour, and anger) were more frequently observed in clinical trials among children and adolescents treated with antidepressants compared to those treated with placebo.  Prozac should only be used in children and adolescents aged 8 to 18 years for the treatment of moderate to severe major depressive episodes and it should not be used in other indications.  If, based on clinical need, a decision to treat is nevertheless taken, the patient should be carefully monitored for the appearance of suicidal symptoms.  In addition, only limited evidence is available concerning long-term effect on safety in children and adolescents, including effects on growth, sexual maturation, and cognitive, emotional, and behavioural developments (see section 5.3).

 

In a 19-week clinical trial, decreased height and weight gain was observed in children and adolescents treated with fluoxetine (see section 4.8).  It has not been established whether there is an effect on achieving normal adult height.  The possibility of a delay in puberty cannot be ruled out (see sections 5.3 and 4.8).  Growth and pubertal development (height, weight, and TANNER staging) should therefore be monitored during and after treatment with fluoxetine.  If either is slowed, referral to a paediatrician should be considered.

 

In paediatric trials, mania and hypomania were commonly reported (see section 4.8).  Therefore, regular monitoring for the occurrence of mania/hypomania is recommended.  Fluoxetine should be discontinued in any patient entering a manic phase.

 

It is important that the prescriber discusses carefully the risks and benefits of treatment with the child/young person and/or their parents.

 

4.5          Interaction with other medicinal products and other forms of interaction

 

Added:

 

Interaction studies have only been performed in adults.

 

4.8          Undesirable effects

 

Added:

 

Children and adolescent (see section 4.4): In paediatric clinical trials, suicide-related behaviours (suicide attempt and suicidal thoughts) and hostility were more frequently observed among children and adolescents treated with antidepressants compared to those treated with placebo.

 

The safety of fluoxetine has not been systematically assessed for chronic treatment longer than 19 weeks.

 

In paediatric clinical trials, manic reactions, including mania and hypomania, were reported (2.6% of fluoxetine-treated patients versus 0% in placebo-controls), leading to discontinuation in the majority of cases.  These patients had no prior episodes of hypomania/mania.

 

After 19 weeks of treatment, paediatric subjects treated with fluoxetine in a clinical trial gained an average of 1.1 cm less in height (P = 0.004) and 1.1 kg less in weight (P = 0.008) than subjects treated with placebo.  Isolated cases of growth retardation have also been reported from clinical use.

 

Isolated cases of adverse events potentially indicating delayed sexual maturation or sexual dysfunction have been reported from paediatric clinical use (see also section 5.3).

 

In paediatric clinical trials, fluoxetine treatment was associated with a decrease in alkaline phosphatase levels.


 

5.             PHARMACOLOGICAL PROPERTIES

 

5.1          Pharmacodynamic properties

 

Added:

 

Pharmacotherapeutic group: Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors.  ATC code: N06A B03.

 

Added:

 

Major depressive episodes (children and adolescents): Clinical trials in children and adolescents aged 8 years and above have been conducted versus placebo.  Prozac, at a dose of 20mg, has been shown to be significantly more effective than placebo in two short-term pivotal studies, as measured by the reduction of Childhood Depression Rating Scale-Revised (CDRS-R) total scores and Clinical Global Impression of Improvement (CGI-I) scores.  In both studies, patients met criteria for moderate to severe MDD (DSM-III or DSM-IV) at three different evaluations by practising child psychiatrists.  Efficacy in the fluoxetine trials may depend on the inclusion of a selective patient population (one that has not spontaneously recovered within a period of 3-5 weeks and whose depression persisted in the face of considerable attention).  There is only limited data on safety and efficacy beyond 9 weeks.  In general, efficacy of fluoxetine was modest.  Response rates (the primary endpoint, defined as a 30% decrease in the CDRS-R score) demonstrated a statistically significant difference in one of the two pivotal studies (58% for fluoxetine versus 32% for placebo, P = 0.013; and 65% for fluoxetine versus 54% for placebo, P = 0.093).  In these two studies, the mean absolute changes in CDRS-R from baseline to endpoint were 20 for fluoxetine versus 11 for placebo, P = 0.002; and 22 for fluoxetine versus 15 for placebo, P <0.001.

 

5.2          Pharmacokinetic properties

 

Added:

 

Children and adolescents: The mean fluoxetine concentration in children is approximately 2-fold higher than that observed in adolescents and the mean norfluoxetine concentration 1.5-fold higher.  Steady-state plasma concentrations are dependent on body weight and are higher in lower weight children (see section 4.2).  As in adults, fluoxetine and norfluoxetine accumulated extensively following multiple oral dosing; steady-state concentrations were achieved within 3 to 4 weeks of daily dosing.

 

5.3          Preclinical safety data

 

There is no evidence of carcinogenicity, mutagenicity, or impairment of fertility from in vitro or animal studies.

 

Changed to:

 

There is no evidence of carcinogenicity or mutagenicity from in vitro or animal studies.

 

Added:

 

In a juvenile toxicology study in CD rats, administration of 30mg/kg/day of fluoxetine hydrochloride on postnatal days 21 to 90 resulted in irreversible testicular degeneration and necrosis, epididymal epithelial vacuolation, immaturity and inactivity of the female reproductive tract, and decreased fertility.  Delays in sexual maturation occurred in males (10 and 30mg/kg/day) and females (30mg/kg/day).  The significance of these findings in humans is unknown.  Rats administered 30mg/kg also had decreased femur lengths compared with controls and skeletal muscle degeneration, necrosis, and regeneration.  At 10mg/kg/day, plasma levels achieved in animals were approximately 0.8 to 8.8-fold (fluoxetine) and 3.6 to 23.2-fold (norfluoxetine) those usually observed in paediatric patients.  At 3mg/kg/day, plasma levels achieved in animals were approximately 0.04 to 0.5-fold (fluoxetine) and 0.3 to 2.1-fold (norfluoxetine) those usually achieved in paediatric patients.

 

A study in juvenile mice has indicated that inhibition of the serotonin transporter prevents the accrual of bone formation.  This finding would appear to be supported by clinical findings.  The reversibility of this effect has not been established.


 

Another study in juvenile mice (treated on postnatal days 4 to 21) has demonstrated that inhibition of the serotonin transporter had long lasting effects on the behaviour of the mice.  There is no information on whether the effect was reversible.  The clinical relevance of this finding has not been established.

 

6.             PHARMACEUTICAL PARTICULARS

 

6.4          Special precautions for storage

 

Do not store above 25°C.

 

Changed to:

 

Do not store above 30°C.

 

10.          DATE OF REVISION OF THE TEXT

 

New date:

 

September 2006

Updated on 05-Feb-2007 and displayed until 23-Feb-2007

Reasons for adding or updating:

  • Change to section 3 - Pharmaceutical form
  • Change to section 4.1 - Therapeutic indications
  • Change to section 4.2 - Posology and method of administration
  • Change to section 4.4 - Special warnings and precautions for Use
  • Change to section 4.5 - Interaction with other medicinal products and other forms of interaction
  • Change to section 4.8 - Undesirable Effects
  • Change to section 5.1 - Pharmacodynamic Properties
  • Change to section 5.2 - Pharmacokinetic Properties
  • Change to section 5.3 - Preclinical Safety Data
  • Change to section 6. 4 - Special Precautions for Storage
  • Change to section 10 date of revision of the text

Updated on 13-Feb-2006 and displayed until 23-Feb-2007

Reasons for adding or updating:

  • Change to section 4.2 - Posology and Method of Administration
  • Change to section 4.4 - Special Warnings and Precautions for Use
  • Change to section 4.8 - Undesirable Effects
  • Change to section 5.1 - Pharmacodynamic Properties
  • Change to section 10 (date of (partial) revision of the text

Updated on 29-Jul-2005 and displayed until 24-Apr-2007

Reasons for adding or updating:

  • Change to section 1 - trade name
  • Change to section 2 - qualitative and quantitative composition
  • Change to section 3 - pharmaceutical form
  • Change to section 6.1 - List of Excipients
  • Change to section 9 - Date of Renewal of Authorisation
  • Change to section 10 (date of (partial) revision of the text

Updated on 26-Nov-2003 and displayed until 26-Nov-2003

Reasons for adding or updating:

  • Change to section 2 - qualitative and quantitative composition
  • Change to section 4.1 - Therapeutic Indications
  • Change to section 4.3 - Contra-indications
  • Change to section 4.4 - Special Warnings and Precautions for Use
  • Change to section 4.5 - Interactions with other Medicaments and other forms of Interaction
  • Change to section 4.6 - Pregnancy and Lactation
  • Change to section 4.8 - Undesirable Effects
  • Change to section 4.9 - Overdose
  • Change to section 5.1 - Pharmacodynamic Properties
  • Change to section 5.2 - Pharmacokinetic Properties
  • Change to section 10 (date of (partial) revision of the text

Updated on 18-Jul-2002 and displayed until 26-Nov-2003

Reasons for adding or updating:

  • Change to section 6. 3 - Shelf Life
  • Change to section 6. 4 - Special Precautions for Storage
  • Change to section 10 (date of (partial) revision of the text

Updated on 17-Aug-2001 and displayed until 18-Jul-2002

Reasons for adding or updating:

  • Transferred from eMC version 1

Updated on 14-Dec-2000 and displayed until 17-Aug-2001

Reasons for adding or updating:

  • No reasons supplied

Updated on 06-Mar-2000 and displayed until 14-Dec-2000

Reasons for adding or updating:

  • No reasons supplied

Updated on 06-Sep-1999 and displayed until 06-Mar-2000

Reasons for adding or updating:

  • No reasons supplied

Company contact details

Eli Lilly and Company Limited

Company image
Address

Lilly House, Priestley Road, Basingstoke, Hampshire, RG24 9NL

Fax

+44 (0)1256 775 858

Medical Information Fax

+44 (0)1256 775 569

Telephone

+44 (0)1256 315 000

Medical Information e-mail

Before you contact this company: often several companies will market medicines with the same active ingredient. Please check that this is the correct company before contacting them. Why?

Active ingredients

fluoxetine hydrochloride

Legal categories

POM - Prescription Only Medicine

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