- 1. Name of the medicinal product
- 2. Qualitative and quantitative composition
- 3. Pharmaceutical form
- 4. Clinical particulars
- 4.1 Therapeutic indications
- 4.2 Posology and method of administration
- 4.3 Contraindications
- 4.4 Special warnings and precautions for use
- 4.5 Interaction with other medicinal products and other forms of interaction
- 4.6 Fertility, pregnancy and lactation
- 4.7 Effects on ability to drive and use machines
- 4.8 Undesirable effects
- 4.9 Overdose
- 5. Pharmacological properties
- 5.1 Pharmacodynamic properties
- 5.2 Pharmacokinetic properties
- 5.3 Preclinical safety data
- 6. Pharmaceutical particulars
- 6.1 List of excipients
- 6.2 Incompatibilities
- 6.3 Shelf life
- 6.4 Special precautions for storage
- 6.5 Nature and contents of container
- 6.6 Special precautions for disposal and other handling
- 7. Marketing authorisation holder
- 8. Marketing authorisation number(s)
- 9. Date of first authorisation/renewal of the authorisation
- 10. Date of revision of the text
- Legal category
OsteoarthritisThe recommended dose is 30 mg once daily. In some patients with insufficient relief from symptoms, an increased dose of 60 mg once daily may increase efficacy. In the absence of an increase in therapeutic benefit, other therapeutic options should be considered.
Rheumatoid arthritisThe recommended dose is 90 mg once daily.
Ankylosing spondylitisThe recommended dose is 90 mg once daily.For acute pain conditions, etoricoxib should be used only for the acute symptomatic period.
Acute gouty arthritisThe recommended dose is 120 mg once daily. In clinical trials for acute gouty arthritis, etoricoxib was given for 8 days.
Postoperative dental surgery painThe recommended dose is 90 mg once daily, limited to a maximum of 3 days. Some patients may require additional postoperative analgesia.Doses greater than those recommended for each indication have either not demonstrated additional efficacy or have not been studied. Therefore:The dose for OA should not exceed 60 mg daily.The dose for RA and ankylosing spondylitis should not exceed 90 mg daily. The dose for acute gout should not exceed 120 mg daily, limited to a maximum of 8 days treatment.The dose for postoperative acute dental surgery pain should not exceed 90 mg daily, limited to a maximum of 3 days.
ElderlyNo dosage adjustment is necessary for elderly patients. As with other drugs, caution should be exercised in elderly patients (see section 4.4).
Hepatic insufficiencyRegardless of indication, in patients with mild hepatic dysfunction (Child-Pugh score 5-6) a dose of 60 mg once daily should not be exceeded. In patients with moderate hepatic dysfunction (Child-Pugh score 7-9), regardless of indication, the dose of 30 mg once daily should not be exceeded. Clinical experience is limited particularly in patients with moderate hepatic dysfunction and caution is advised. There is no clinical experience in patients with severe hepatic dysfunction (Child-Pugh score ≥10); therefore, its use is contra-indicated in these patients (see sections 4.3, 4.4 and 5.2).
Renal insufficiencyNo dosage adjustment is necessary for patients with creatinine clearance ≥30 ml/min (see section 5.2). The use of etoricoxib in patients with creatinine clearance <30 ml/min is contra-indicated (see sections 4.3 and 4.4).
Paediatric patientsEtoricoxib is contra-indicated in children and adolescents under 16 years of age (see section 4.3).
Method of administrationARCOXIA is administered orally and may be taken with or without food. The onset of the effect of the medicinal product may be faster when ARCOXIA is administered without food. This should be considered when rapid symptomatic relief is needed.
Gastrointestinal effectsUpper gastrointestinal complications [perforations, ulcers or bleedings (PUBs)], some of them resulting in fatal outcome, have occurred in patients treated with etoricoxib. Caution is advised with treatment of patients most at risk of developing a gastrointestinal complication with NSAIDs; the elderly, patients using any other NSAID or acetylsalicylic acid concomitantly or patients with a prior history of gastrointestinal disease, such as ulceration and GI bleeding. There is a further increase in the risk of gastrointestinal adverse effects (gastrointestinal ulceration or other gastrointestinal complications) when etoricoxib is taken concomitantly with acetylsalicylic acid (even at low doses). A significant difference in GI safety between selective COX-2 inhibitors + acetylsalicylic acid vs. NSAIDs + acetylsalicylic acid has not been demonstrated in long-term clinical trials (see section 5.1).
Cardiovascular effectsClinical trials suggest that the selective COX-2 inhibitor class of drugs may be associated with a risk of thrombotic events (especially myocardial infarction (MI) and stroke), relative to placebo and some NSAIDs. As the cardiovascular risks of etoricoxib may increase with dose and duration of exposure, the shortest duration possible and the lowest effective daily dose should be used. The patient's need for symptomatic relief and response to therapy should be re-evaluated periodically, especially in patients with osteoarthritis (see sections 4.2, 4.3, 4.8 and 5.1).Patients with significant risk factors for cardiovascular events (e.g. hypertension, hyperlipidaemia, diabetes mellitus, smoking) should only be treated with etoricoxib after careful consideration (see section 5.1).COX-2 selective inhibitors are not a substitute for acetylsalicylic acid for prophylaxis of cardiovascular thrombo-embolic diseases because of their lack of antiplatelet effect. Therefore antiplatelet therapies should not be discontinued (see sections above, 4.5 and 5.1.).
Renal effectsRenal prostaglandins may play a compensatory role in the maintenance of renal perfusion. Therefore, under conditions of compromised renal perfusion, administration of etoricoxib may cause a reduction in prostaglandin formation and, secondarily, in renal blood flow, and thereby impair renal function. Patients at greatest risk of this response are those with pre-existing significantly impaired renal function, uncompensated heart failure, or cirrhosis. Monitoring of renal function in such patients should be considered.
Fluid retention, oedema and hypertensionAs with other medicinal products known to inhibit prostaglandin synthesis, fluid retention, oedema and hypertension have been observed in patients taking etoricoxib. All Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs), including etoricoxib, can be associated with new onset or recurrent congestive heart failure. For information regarding a dose related response for etoricoxib see section 5.1. Caution should be exercised in patients with a history of cardiac failure, left ventricular dysfunction, or hypertension and in patients with pre-existing oedema from any other reason. If there is clinical evidence of deterioration in the condition of these patients, appropriate measures including discontinuation of etoricoxib should be taken.Etoricoxib may be associated with more frequent and severe hypertension than some other NSAIDs and selective COX-2 inhibitors, particularly at high doses. Therefore, hypertension should be controlled before treatment with etoricoxib (see section 4.3) and special attention should be paid to blood pressure monitoring during treatment with etoricoxib. Blood pressure should be monitored within two weeks after initiation of treatment and periodically thereafter. If blood pressure rises significantly, alternative treatment should be considered.
Hepatic effectsElevations of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and/or aspartate aminotransferase (AST) (approximately three or more times the upper limit of normal) have been reported in approximately 1% of patients in clinical trials treated for up to one year with etoricoxib 30, 60 and 90 mg daily.Any patients with symptoms and/or signs suggesting liver dysfunction, or in whom an abnormal liver function test has occurred, should be monitored. If signs of hepatic insufficiency occur, or if persistently abnormal liver function tests (three times the upper limit of normal) are detected, etoricoxib should be discontinued.
GeneralIf during treatment, patients deteriorate in any of the organ system functions described above, appropriate measures should be taken and discontinuation of etoricoxib therapy should be considered. Medically appropriate supervision should be maintained when using etoricoxib in the elderly and in patients with renal, hepatic, or cardiac dysfunction.Caution should be used when initiating treatment with etoricoxib in patients with dehydration. It is advisable to rehydrate patients prior to starting therapy with etoricoxib.Serious skin reactions, some of them fatal, including exfoliative dermatitis, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, and toxic epidermal necrolysis, have been reported very rarely in association with the use of NSAIDs and some selective COX-2 inhibitors during post-marketing surveillance (see section 4.8). Patients appear to be at highest risk for these reactions early in the course of therapy with the onset of the reaction occurring in the majority of cases within the first month of treatment. Serious hypersensitivity reactions (such as anaphylaxis and angioedema) have been reported in patients receiving etoricoxib (see section 4.8). Some selective COX-2 inhibitors have been associated with an increased risk of skin reactions in patients with a history of any drug allergy. Etoricoxib should be discontinued at the first appearance of skin rash, mucosal lesions, or any other sign of hypersensitivity.Etoricoxib may mask fever and other signs of inflammation.Caution should be exercised when co-administering etoricoxib with warfarin or other oral anticoagulants (see section 4.5).The use of etoricoxib, as with any medicinal product known to inhibit cyclooxygenase / prostaglandin synthesis, is not recommended in women attempting to conceive (see sections 4.6, 5.1, and 5.3).ARCOXIA tablets contain lactose. Patients with rare hereditary problems of galactose intolerance, the Lapp lactase deficiency or glucose-galactose malabsorption should not take this medicine.
Pharmacodynamic interactionsOral anticoagulants: In subjects stabilised on chronic warfarin therapy, the administration of etoricoxib 120 mg daily was associated with an approximate 13% increase in prothrombin time International Normalised Ratio (INR). Therefore, patients receiving oral anticoagulants should be closely monitored for their prothrombin time INR, particularly in the first few days when therapy with etoricoxib is initiated or the dose of etoricoxib is changed (see section 4.4).Diuretics, ACE inhibitors and Angiotensin II Antagonists: NSAIDs may reduce the effect of diuretics and other antihypertensive drugs. In some patients with compromised renal function (e.g. dehydrated patients or elderly patients with compromised renal function) the co-administration of an ACE inhibitor or Angiotensin II antagonist and agents that inhibit cyclo-oxygenase may result in further deterioration of renal function, including possible acute renal failure, which is usually reversible. These interactions should be considered in patients taking etoricoxib concomitantly with ACE inhibitors or angiotensin II antagonists. Therefore, the combination should be administered with caution, especially in the elderly. Patients should be adequately hydrated and consideration should be given to monitoring of renal function after initiation of concomitant therapy, and periodically thereafter.Acetylsalicylic Acid: In a study in healthy subjects, at steady state, etoricoxib 120 mg once daily had no effect on the anti-platelet activity of acetylsalicylic acid (81 mg once daily). Etoricoxib can be used concomitantly with acetylsalicylic acid at doses used for cardiovascular prophylaxis (low-dose acetylsalicylic acid). However, concomitant administration of low-dose acetylsalicylic acid with etoricoxib may result in an increased rate of GI ulceration or other complications compared to use of etoricoxib alone. Concomitant administration of etoricoxib with doses of acetylsalicylic acid above those for cardiovascular prophylaxis or with other NSAIDs is not recommended (see sections 5.1 and 4.4.).Ciclosporin and tacrolimus: Although this interaction has not been studied with etoricoxib, coadministration of ciclosporin or tacrolimus with any NSAID may increase the nephrotoxic effect of ciclosporin or tacrolimus. Renal function should be monitored when etoricoxib and either of these drugs is used in combination.
The effect of etoricoxib on the pharmacokinetics of other drugsLithium: NSAIDs decrease lithium renal excretion and therefore increase lithium plasma levels. If necessary, monitor blood lithium closely and adjust the lithium dosage while the combination is being taken and when the NSAID is withdrawn.Methotrexate: Two studies investigated the effects of etoricoxib 60, 90 or 120 mg administered once daily for seven days in patients receiving once-weekly methotrexate doses of 7.5 to 20 mg for rheumatoid arthritis. Etoricoxib at 60 and 90 mg had no effect on methotrexate plasma concentrations or renal clearance. In one study, etoricoxib 120 mg had no effect, but in the other study, etoricoxib 120 mg increased methotrexate plasma concentrations by 28% and reduced renal clearance of methotrexate by 13%. Adequate monitoring for methotrexate-related toxicity is recommended when etoricoxib and methotrexate are administered concomitantly.Oral contraceptives: Etoricoxib 60 mg given concomitantly with an oral contraceptive containing 35 micrograms ethinyl estradiol (EE) and 0.5 to 1 mg norethindrone for 21 days increased the steady state AUC0-24hr of EE by 37%. Etoricoxib 120 mg given with the same oral contraceptive concomitantly or separated by 12 hours, increased the steady state AUC0-24hr of EE by 50 to 60%. This increase in EE concentration should be considered when selecting an oral contraceptive for use with etoricoxib. An increase in EE exposure can increase the incidence of adverse events associated with oral contraceptives (e.g., venous thrombo-embolic events in women at risk).Hormone Replacement Therapy (HRT): Administration of etoricoxib 120 mg with hormone replacement therapy consisting of conjugated estrogens (0.625 mg PREMARINTM) for 28 days, increased the mean steady state AUC0-24hr of unconjugated estrone (41%), equilin (76%), and 17-β-estradiol (22%). The effect of the recommended chronic doses of etoricoxib (30, 60, and 90 mg) has not been studied. The effects of etoricoxib 120 mg on the exposure (AUC0-24hr) to these estrogenic components of PREMARIN were less than half of those observed when PREMARIN was administered alone and the dose was increased from 0.625 to 1.25 mg. The clinical significance of these increases is unknown, and higher doses of PREMARIN were not studied in combination with etoricoxib. These increases in estrogenic concentration should be taken into consideration when selecting post-menopausal hormone therapy for use with etoricoxib because the increase in oestrogen exposure might increase the risk of adverse events associated with HRT.Prednisone/prednisolone: In drug-interaction studies, etoricoxib did not have clinically important effects on the pharmacokinetics of prednisone/prednisolone.Digoxin: Etoricoxib 120 mg administered once daily for 10 days to healthy volunteers did not alter the steady-state plasma AUC0-24hr or renal elimination of digoxin. There was an increase in digoxin Cmax (approximately 33%). This increase is not generally important for most patients. However, patients at high risk of digoxin toxicity should be monitored for this when etoricoxib and digoxin are administered concomitantly.
Effect of etoricoxib on drugs metabolised by sulfotransferasesEtoricoxib is an inhibitor of human sulfotransferase activity, particularly SULT1E1, and has been shown to increase the serum concentrations of ethinyl estradiol. While knowledge about effects of multiple sulfotransferases is presently limited and the clinical consequences for many drugs are still being examined, it may be prudent to exercise care when administering etoricoxib concurrently with other drugs primarily metabolised by human sulfotransferases (e.g., oral salbutamol and minoxidil).
Effect of etoricoxib on drugs metabolised by CYP isoenzymesBased on in vitro studies, etoricoxib is not expected to inhibit cytochromes P450 (CYP) 1A2, 2C9, 2C19, 2D6, 2E1 or 3A4. In a study in healthy subjects, daily administration of etoricoxib 120 mg did not alter hepatic CYP3A4 activity as assessed by the erythromycin breath test.
Effects of other drugs on the pharmacokinetics of etoricoxibThe main pathway of etoricoxib metabolism is dependent on CYP enzymes. CYP3A4 appears to contribute to the metabolism of etoricoxib in vivo. In vitro studies indicate that CYP2D6, CYP2C9, CYP1A2 and CYP2C19 also can catalyse the main metabolic pathway, but their quantitative roles have not been studied in vivo.Ketoconazole: Ketoconazole, a potent inhibitor of CYP3A4, dosed at 400 mg once a day for 11 days to healthy volunteers, did not have any clinically important effect on the single-dose pharmacokinetics of 60 mg etoricoxib (43% increase in AUC).Voriconazole and Miconazole: Co-administration of either oral voriconazole or topical miconazole oral gel, strong CYP3A4 inhibitors, with etoricoxib caused a slight increase in exposure to etoricoxib, but is not considered to be clinically meaningful based on published data.Rifampicin: Co-administration of etoricoxib with rifampicin, a potent inducer of CYP enzymes, produced a 65% decrease in etoricoxib plasma concentrations. This interaction may result in recurrence of symptoms when etoricoxib is co-administered with rifampicin. While this information may suggest an increase in dose, doses of etoricoxib greater than those listed for each indication have not been studied in combination with rifampicin and are therefore not recommended (see section 4.2).Antacids: Antacids do not affect the pharmacokinetics of etoricoxib to a clinically relevant extent.
PregnancyNo clinical data on exposed pregnancies are available for etoricoxib. Studies in animals have shown reproductive toxicity (see section 5.3). The potential for human risk in pregnancy is unknown. Etoricoxib, as with other medicinal products inhibiting prostaglandin synthesis, may cause uterine inertia and premature closure of the ductus arteriosus during the last trimester. Etoricoxib is contraindicated in pregnancy (see section 4.3). If a woman becomes pregnant during treatment, etoricoxib must be discontinued.
BreastfeedingIt is not known whether etoricoxib is excreted in human milk. Etoricoxib is excreted in the milk of lactating rats. Women who use etoricoxib must not breast feed (see sections 4.3 and 5.3).
FertilityThe use of etoricoxib, as with any drug substance known to inhibit COX-2, is not recommended in women attempting to conceive.
Summary of the safety profileIn clinical trials, etoricoxib was evaluated for safety in 7152 individuals, including 4614 patients with OA, RA, chronic low back pain or ankylosing spondylitis (approximately 600 patients with OA or RA were treated for one year or longer).In clinical studies, the undesirable effects profile was similar in patients with OA or RA treated with etoricoxib for one year or longer.In a clinical study for acute gouty arthritis, patients were treated with etoricoxib 120 mg once daily for eight days. The adverse experience profile in this study was generally similar to that reported in the combined OA, RA, and chronic low back pain studies.In a cardiovascular safety outcomes programme of pooled data from three active comparator controlled trials, 17, 412 patients with OA or RA were treated with etoricoxib (60 mg or 90 mg) for a mean duration of approximately 18 months. The safety data and details from this programme are presented in section 5.1.In clinical studies for acute postoperative dental pain following surgery including 614 patients treated with etoricoxib (90 mg or 120 mg), the adverse experience profile in these studies was generally similar to that reported in the combined OA, RA, and chronic low back pain studies.
Tabulated list of adverse reactionsThe following undesirable effects were reported at an incidence greater than placebo in clinical trials in patients with OA, RA, chronic low back pain or ankylosing spondylitis treated with etoricoxib 30 mg, 60 mg or 90 mg up to the recommended dose for up to 12 weeks; in the MEDAL Programme studies for up to 3½ years; in short term acute pain studies for up to 7 days; or in post-marketing experience (see Table 1):
|System Organ Class||Adverse Experience Term||Frequency Category*|
|Infections and infestations||alveolar osteitis||Common|
|gastroenteritis, upper respiratory infection, urinary tract infection||Uncommon|
|Blood and lymphatic system disorders||anaemia (primarily associated with gastrointestinal bleeding), leukopenia, thrombocytopenia||Uncommon|
|Immune system disorders||hypersensitivity ß||Uncommon|
|angioedema/anaphylactic /anaphylactoid reactions including shock||Rare|
|Metabolism and nutrition disorders||oedema/fluid retention||Common|
|appetite increase or decrease, weight gain||Uncommon|
|Psychiatric disorders||anxiety, depression, mental acuity decreased, hallucinations||Uncommon|
|Nervous system disorders||dizziness, headache||Common|
|dysgeusia, insomnia, paresthaesia/hypaesthesia, somnolence||Uncommon|
|Eye disorders||blurred vision, conjunctivitis||Uncommon|
|Ear and labyrinth disorders||tinnitus, vertigo||Uncommon|
|Cardiac disorders||palpitations, arrhythmia||Common|
|atrial fibrillation, tachycardia, congestive heart failure, non-specific ECG changes, angina pectoris, myocardial infarction§||Uncommon|
|flushing, cerebrovascular accident§, transient ischaemic attack, hypertensive crisis, vasculitis||Uncommon|
|Respiratory, thoracic and mediastinal disorders||bronchospasm||Common|
|cough, dyspnoea, epistaxis||Uncommon|
|Gastrointestinal disorders||abdominal pain||Very common|
|Constipation, flatulence, gastritis, heartburn/acid reflux, diarrhea, dyspepsia/epigastric discomfort, nausea, vomiting, oesophagitis, oral ulcer||Common|
|abdominal distention, bowel movement pattern change, dry mouth, gastroduodenal ulcer, peptic ulcers including gastrointestinal perforation and bleeding, irritable bowel syndrome, pancreatitis||Uncommon|
|Hepatobiliary disorders||ALT increased, AST increased||Common|
|hepatic failure, jaundice||Rare|
|Skin and subcutaneous tissue disorders||ecchymosis||Common|
|facial oedema, pruritus, rash, erythema, urticaria||Uncommon|
|Stevens-Johnson syndrome, toxic epidermal necrolysis, fixed drug eruption||Rare|
|Musculoskeletal and connective tissue disorders||muscular cramp/spasm, musculoskeletal pain/stiffness||Uncommon|
|Renal and urinary disorders||proteinuria, serum creatinine increased, renal failure/renal insufficiency(see section 4.4)||Uncommon|
|General disorders and administration site conditions||asthenia/fatigue, flu-like disease||Common|
|Investigations||blood urea nitrogen increased, creatine phosphokinase increased, hyperkalaemia, uric acid increased||Uncommon|
|blood sodium decreased||Rare|
|*Frequency Category: Defined for each Adverse Experience Term by the incidence reported in the clinical trials data base: Very Common (≥1/10), Common (≥1/100 to <1/10), Uncommon (≥1/1000 to <1/100), Rare (≥1/10,000 to <1/1000), Very Rare (<1/10,000). This adverse reaction was identified through post-marketing surveillance. Its reported frequency has been estimated based upon the highest frequency observed across clinical trial data pooled by indication and approved dose. The frequency category of Rare was defined per the Summary of Product Characteristics (SmPC) guidance (rev. 2, Sept 2009) on the basis of an estimated upper bound of the 95% confidence interval for 0 events given the number of subjects treated with ARCOXIA in the analysis of the Phase III data pooled by dose and indication (n=15,470). ß Hypersensitivity includes the terms "allergy", "drug allergy", "drug hypersensitivity", "hypersensitivity", "hypersensitivity NOS", "hypersensitivity reaction" and "nonspecific allergy". §Based on analyses of long-term placebo and active controlled clinical trials, selective COX-2 inhibitors have been associated with an increased risk of serious thrombotic arterial events, including myocardial infarction and stroke. The absolute risk increase for such events is unlikely to exceed 1% per year based on existing data (uncommon).|
Mechanism of ActionEtoricoxib is an oral, selective cyclo-oxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor within the clinical dose range. Across clinical pharmacology studies, ARCOXIA produced dose-dependent inhibition of COX-2 without inhibition of COX-1 at doses up to 150 mg daily. Etoricoxib did not inhibit gastric prostaglandin synthesis and had no effect on platelet function.Cyclooxygenase is responsible for generation of prostaglandins. Two isoforms, COX-1 and COX-2, have been identified. COX-2 is the isoform of the enzyme that has been shown to be induced by pro-inflammatory stimuli and has been postulated to be primarily responsible for the synthesis of prostanoid mediators of pain, inflammation, and fever. COX-2 is also involved in ovulation, implantation and closure of the ductus arteriosus, regulation of renal function, and central nervous system functions (fever induction, pain perception and cognitive function). It may also play a role in ulcer healing. COX-2 has been identified in tissue around gastric ulcers in man but its relevance to ulcer healing has not been established.
Clinical efficacy and safety
EfficacyIn patients with osteoarthritis (OA), etoricoxib 60 mg once daily provided significant improvements in pain and patient assessments of disease status. These beneficial effects were observed as early as the second day of therapy and maintained for up to 52 weeks. Studies with etoricoxib 30 mg once daily demonstrated efficacy superior to placebo over a 12 week treatment period (using similar assessments as the above studies). In a dose ranging study, etoricoxib 60 mg demonstrated significantly greater improvement than 30 mg for all 3 primary endpoints over 6 weeks of treatment. The 30 mg dose has not been studied in osteoarthritis of hands. In patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), etoricoxib 90 mg once daily provided significant improvements in pain, inflammation, and mobility. These beneficial effects were maintained over the 12-week treatment periods.In patients experiencing attacks of acute gouty arthritis, etoricoxib 120 mg once daily over an eight-day treatment period, relieved moderate to extreme joint pain and inflammation comparable to indomethacin 50 mg three times daily. Pain relief was observed as early as four hours after initiation of treatment.In patients with ankylosing spondylitis, etoricoxib 90 mg once daily provided significant improvements in spine pain, inflammation, stiffness and function. The clinical benefit of etoricoxib was observed as early as the second day of therapy after initiation of treatment and was maintained throughout the 52-week treatment period. In a clinical study evaluating postoperative dental pain, etoricoxib 90 mg was administered once daily for up to three days. In the subgroup of patients with moderate pain at baseline, etoricoxib 90 mg demonstrated a similar analgesic effect to that of ibuprofen 600 mg (16.11 vs. 16.39; P=0.722), and greater than that of paracetamol/codeine 600 mg/60 mg (11.00; P<0.001) and placebo (6.84; P<0.001) as measured by total pain relief over the first 6 hours (TOPAR6). The proportion of patients reporting rescue medication usage within the first 24 hours of dosing was 40.8% for etoricoxib 90 mg, 25.5% for ibuprofen 600 mg Q6h, and 46.7% for paracetamol/codeine 600 mg/60 mg Q6h compared to 76.2% for placebo. In this study, the median onset of action (perceptible pain relief) of 90 mg etoricoxib was 28 minutes after dosing.
Multinational Etoricoxib and Diclofenac Arthritis Long-term (MEDAL) ProgrammeThe MEDAL Programme was a prospectively designed Cardiovascular (CV) Safety Outcomes Programme of pooled data from three randomized, double-blind active comparator controlled trials, the MEDAL study, EDGE II and EDGE. The MEDAL Study, was an endpoint driven CV Outcomes study in 17,804 OA and 5,700 RA patients treated with etoricoxib 60 (OA) or 90 mg (OA and RA) or diclofenac 150 mg daily for a mean period of 20.3 months (maximum of 42.3 months, median 21.3 months). In this trial, only serious adverse events and discontinuations due to any adverse events were recorded.The EDGE and EDGE II studies compared the gastrointestinal tolerability of etoricoxib versus diclofenac. The EDGE study included 7111 OA patients treated with a dose of etoricoxib 90 mg daily (1.5 times the dose recommended for OA) or diclofenac 150 mg daily for a mean period of 9.1 months (maximum 16.6 months, median 11.4 months). The EDGE II study included 4086 RA patients treated with etoricoxib 90 mg daily or diclofenac 150 mg daily for a mean period of 19.2 months (maximum 33.1 months, median 24 months). In the pooled MEDAL Programme, 34,701 patients with OA or RA were treated for a mean duration of 17.9 months (maximum 42.3 months, median 16.3 months) with approximately 12,800 patients receiving treatment for more than 24 months. Patients enrolled in the Programme had a wide range of cardiovascular and gastrointestinal risk factors at baseline. Patients with a recent history of myocardial infarction, coronary artery bypass grafting or percutaneous coronary intervention within 6 months preceding enrollment were excluded. Use of gastroprotective agents and low dose aspirin were permitted in the studies. Overall Safety: There was no significant difference between etoricoxib and diclofenac in the rate of cardiovascular thrombotic events. Cardiorenal adverse events were observed more frequently with etoricoxib than with diclofenac, and this effect was dose-dependent (see specific results below). Gastrointestinal and hepatic adverse events were observed significantly more frequently with diclofenac than etoricoxib. The incidence of adverse experiences in EDGE and EDGE II and of adverse experiences considered serious or resulting in discontinuation in the MEDAL study was higher with etoricoxib than diclofenac. Cardiovascular safety results: The rate of confirmed thrombotic cardiovascular serious adverse events (consisting of cardiac, cerebrovascular, and peripheral vascular events) was comparable between etoricoxib and diclofenac, and data are summarized in the table below. There were no statistically significant differences in thrombotic event rates between etoricoxib and diclofenac across all subgroups analyzed including patient categories across a range of baseline cardiovascular risk. When considered separately, the relative risks for confirmed thrombotic cardiovascular serious adverse events with etoricoxib 60 mg or 90 mg compared with diclofenac 150mg were similar.
|Table 2: Rates of Confirmed Thrombotic CV Events (Pooled MEDAL Programme)|
|Etoricoxib(N=16819) 25836 Patient-Years||Diclofenac(N=16483) 24766 Patient-Years||Between Treatment Comparison|
|Rate (95% CI)||Rate (95% CI)||Relative Risk (95% CI)|
|Confirmed Thrombotic Cardiovascular Serious Adverse Events|
|Per-protocol||1.24 (1.11, 1.38)||1.30 (1.17, 1.45)||0.95 (0.81, 1.11)|
|Intent-to-treat||1.25 (1.14, 1.36)||1.19 (1.08, 1.30)||1.05 (0.93, 1.19)|
|Confirmed Cardiac Events|
|Per-protocol||0.71 (0.61, 0.82)||0.78 (0.68, 0.90)||0.90 (0.74, 1.10)|
|Intent-to-treat||0.69 (0.61, 0.78)||0.70 (0.62, 0.79)||0.99 (0.84, 1.17)|
|Confirmed Cerebrovascular Events|
|Per-protocol||0.34 (0.28, 0.42)||0.32 (0.25, 0.40)||1.08 (0.80, 1.46)|
|Intent-to-treat||0.33 (0.28, 0.39)||0.29 (0.24, 0.35)||1.12 (0.87, 1.44)|
|Confirmed Peripheral Vascular Events|
|Per-protocol||0.20 (0.15, 0.27)||0.22 (0.17, 0.29)||0.92 (0.63, 1.35)|
|Intent-to-treat||0.24 (0.20, 0.30)||0.23 (0.18, 0.28)||1.08 (0.81, 1.44)|
|Events per 100 Patient-Years; CI=confidence interval N=total number of patients included in Per-protocol population Per-protocol: all events on study therapy or within 14 days of discontinuation (excluded: patients who took < 75% of their study medication or took non-study NSAIDs >10% of the time). Intent-to-treat: all confirmed events up to the end of the trial (included patients potentially exposed to non-study interventions following discontinuation of study medication). Total number of patients randomised, n= 17412 on etoricoxib and 17289 on diclofenac.|
Additional Thrombotic Cardiovascular Safety DataIn clinical studies excluding the MEDAL Programme Studies, approximately 3100 patients were treated with etoricoxib ≥60 mg daily for 12 weeks or longer. There was no discernible difference in the rate of confirmed serious thrombotic cardiovascular events between patients receiving etoricoxib ≥60 mg, placebo, or non-naproxen NSAIDs. However, the rate of these events was higher in patients receiving etoricoxib compared with those receiving naproxen 500 mg twice daily. The difference in antiplatelet activity between some COX-1 inhibiting NSAIDs and selective COX-2 inhibitors may be of clinical significance in patients at risk of thrombo-embolic events. Selective COX-2 inhibitors reduce the formation of systemic (and therefore possibly endothelial) prostacyclin without affecting platelet thromboxane. The clinical relevance of these observations has not been established.
Additional Gastrointestinal Safety DataIn two 12-week double-blind endoscopy studies, the cumulative incidence of gastroduodenal ulceration was significantly lower in patients treated with etoricoxib 120 mg once daily than in patients treated with either naproxen 500 mg twice daily or ibuprofen 800 mg three times daily. Etoricoxib had a higher incidence of ulceration as compared to placebo.
Renal Function Study in the ElderlyA randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study evaluated the effects of 15 days of treatment of etoricoxib (90 mg), celecoxib (200 mg bid), naproxen (500 mg bid) and placebo on urinary sodium excretion, blood pressure, and other renal function parameters in subjects 60 to 85 years of age on a 200-mEq/day sodium diet. Etoricoxib, celecoxib, and naproxen had similar effects on urinary sodium excretion over the 2 weeks of treatment. All active comparators showed an increase relative to placebo with respect to systolic blood pressures; however, etoricoxib was associated with a statistically significant increase at Day 14 when compared to celecoxib and naproxen (mean change from baseline for systolic blood pressure: etoricoxib 7.7 mmHg, celecoxib 2.4 mmHg, naproxen 3.6 mmHg).
AbsorptionOrally administered etoricoxib is well absorbed. The absolute bioavailability is approximately 100%. Following 120 mg once-daily dosing to steady state, the peak plasma concentration (geometric mean Cmax = 3.6 µg/ml) was observed at approximately 1 hour (Tmax) after administration to fasted adults. The geometric mean area under the curve (AUC0-24hr) was 37.8 µghr/ml. The pharmacokinetics of etoricoxib are linear across the clinical dose range.Dosing with food (a high-fat meal) had no effect on the extent of absorption of etoricoxib after administration of a 120-mg dose. The rate of absorption was affected, resulting in a 36% decrease in Cmax and an increase in Tmax by 2 hours. These data are not considered clinically significant. In clinical trials, etoricoxib was administered without regard to food intake.
DistributionEtoricoxib is approximately 92% bound to human plasma protein over the range of concentrations of 0.05 to 5 µg/ml. The volume of distribution at steady state (Vdss) was approximately 120 l in humans.Etoricoxib crosses the placenta in rats and rabbits, and the blood-brain barrier in rats.
MetabolismEtoricoxib is extensively metabolised with <1% of a dose recovered in urine as the parent drug. The major route of metabolism to form the 6'-hydroxymethyl derivative is catalyzed by CYP enzymes. CYP3A4 appears to contribute to the metabolism of etoricoxib in vivo. In vitro studies indicate that CYP2D6, CYP2C9, CYP1A2 and CYP2C19 also can catalyse the main metabolic pathway, but their quantitative roles in vivo have not been studied.Five metabolites have been identified in man. The principal metabolite is the 6'-carboxylic acid derivative of etoricoxib formed by further oxidation of the 6'-hydroxymethyl derivative. These principal metabolites either demonstrate no measurable activity or are only weakly active as COX-2 inhibitors. None of these metabolites inhibit COX-1.
EliminationFollowing administration of a single 25-mg radiolabeled intravenous dose of etoricoxib to healthy subjects, 70% of radioactivity was recovered in urine and 20% in faeces, mostly as metabolites. Less than 2% was recovered as unchanged drug.Elimination of etoricoxib occurs almost exclusively through metabolism followed by renal excretion. Steady state concentrations of etoricoxib are reached within seven days of once daily administration of 120 mg, with an accumulation ratio of approximately 2, corresponding to a half-life of approximately 22 hours. The plasma clearance after a 25-mg intravenous dose is estimated to be approximately 50 ml/min.
Characteristics in patientsElderly: Pharmacokinetics in the elderly (65 years of age and older) are similar to those in the young.Gender: The pharmacokinetics of etoricoxib are similar between men and women.Hepatic insufficiency: Patients with mild hepatic dysfunction (Child-Pugh score 5-6) administered etoricoxib 60 mg once daily had an approximately 16% higher mean AUC as compared to healthy subjects given the same regimen. Patients with moderate hepatic dysfunction (Child-Pugh score 7-9) administered etoricoxib 60 mg every other day had similar mean AUC to the healthy subjects given etoricoxib 60 mg once daily; etoricoxib 30 mg once daily has not been studied in this population. There are no clinical or pharmacokinetic data in patients with severe hepatic dysfunction (Child-Pugh score ≥10). (See sections 4.2 and 4.3.)Renal insufficiency: The pharmacokinetics of a single dose of etoricoxib 120 mg in patients with moderate to severe renal insufficiency and patients with end-stage renal disease on haemodialysis were not significantly different from those in healthy subjects. Haemodialysis contributed negligibly to elimination (dialysis clearance approximately 50 ml/min). (See sections 4.3 and 4.4.)Paediatric patients: The pharmacokinetics of etoricoxib in paediatric patients (<12 years old) have not been studied.In a pharmacokinetic study (n=16) conducted in adolescents (aged 12 to 17) the pharmacokinetics in adolescents weighing 40 to 60 kg given etoricoxib 60 mg once daily and adolescents >60 kg given etoricoxib 90 mg once daily were similar to the pharmacokinetics in adults given etoricoxib 90 mg once daily. Safety and effectiveness of etoricoxib in paediatric patients have not been established (see section 4.2).
Core:Calcium hydrogen phosphate (anhydrous) Croscarmellose sodium Magnesium stearate Microcrystalline cellulose
Tablet coating:Carnauba wax Lactose monohydrate Hypromellose Titanium dioxide (E171) Triacetin The 30-, 60- and 120-mg tablets also contain indigo carmine lake (E132) and yellow ferric oxide (E172).
30 mgAluminum/aluminium blisters in packs containing 2, 7, 14, 20, 28, 49 tablets or multi-packs containing 98 (2 packs of 49) tablets.
60, 90 and 120 mgAluminum/aluminium blisters in packs containing 2, 5, 7, 10, 14, 20, 28, 30, 50, 84, 100 tablets or multi-packs containing 98 (2 packs of 49) tablets.Aluminum/aluminium blisters (unit doses) in packs of 5, 50 or 100 tablets.White, round, HDPE bottles with a white, polypropylene closure containing 30 tablets and two 1-gram desiccant containers or 90 tablets and one 1-gram desiccant container.Not all pack sizes may be marketed.
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