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Xeomin 100 Units

Last Updated on eMC 30-Jun-2014 View changes  | Merz Pharma UK Ltd Contact details

1. Name of the medicinal product

XEOMIN 100 LD50 units powder for solution for injection

2. Qualitative and quantitative composition

One vial contains 100 LD50 units* of Clostridium Botulinum neurotoxin type A (150 kD), free from complexing proteins**.

* One unit corresponds to the median lethal dose (LD50) when the reconstituted product is injected intraperitoneally into mice under defined conditions

** Botulinum neurotoxin type A, purified from cultures of Clostridium Botulinum (Hall strain)

For the full list of excipients, see section 6.1.

3. Pharmaceutical form

Powder for solution for injection

White powder

4. Clinical particulars
4.1 Therapeutic indications

XEOMIN is indicated for the symptomatic treatment of blepharospasm, cervical dystonia of a predominantly rotational form (spasmodic torticollis) and of post-stroke spasticity of the upper limb presenting with flexed wrist and clenched fist in adults.

4.2 Posology and method of administration

Due to unit differences in the LD50 assay, XEOMIN units are specific to XEOMIN.

Therefore unit doses recommended for XEOMIN are not interchangeable with those for other preparations of Botulinum toxin.

For detailed information regarding clinical studies with XEOMIN in comparison to conventional Botulinum toxin type A complex (900kD) see section 5.1.

XEOMIN may only be administered by physicians with suitable qualifications and proven experience in the application of Botulinum toxin and in the use of the necessary equipment, e.g. electromyography (EMG).

Reconstituted XEOMIN is intended for intramuscular injection.

The optimum dosage and number of injection sites in the treated muscle should be determined by the physician individually for each patient. A titration of the dose should be performed.

For instructions on reconstitution / dilution of the vials, see section 6.6. After reconstitution, XEOMIN should be used for only one injection session and for only one patient.

A decrease or increase in the XEOMIN dose is possible by administering a smaller or larger injection volume. The smaller the injection volume the less pressure sensation and the less spread of Botulinum neurotoxin type A in the injected muscle occurs. This is of benefit in reducing effects on nearby muscles when small muscle groups are being injected.

Blepharospasm

Posology

The initial recommended dose is 1.25 to 2.5 U (0.05-0.1 ml volume) per injection site. The initial dose should not exceed 25 U per eye. In the management of blepharospasm, total dosing should not exceed 100 U every 12 weeks.

The median time to first onset of effect is observed within four days after injection. The effect of each treatment generally lasts approximately 3-4 months, however, it may last significantly longer or shorter. The treatment can be repeated if required.

At repeat treatment sessions, the dose may be increased up to two-fold if the response to the initial treatment is considered insufficient – usually defined as an effect that does not last longer than two months. However, there appears to be no additional benefit obtainable from injecting more than 5.0 U per site. Normally, no additional benefit is conferred by treating more frequently than every three months.

Method of administration

After reconstitution, the XEOMIN solution is injected using a suitable sterile needle (e.g. 27-30 gauge / 0.30-0.40 mm). Electromyographic guidance is not necessary. An injection volume of approximately 0.05 to 0.1 ml is recommended.

XEOMIN is injected into the medial and lateral orbicularis oculi of the upper lid and the lateral orbicularis oculi of the lower lid. Additional sites in the brow area, the lateral orbicularis and in the upper facial area may also be injected if spasms here interfere with vision.

Injections near the levator palpebrae superioris should be avoided to reduce the occurrence of ptosis. Diplopia may develop as a result of Botulinum neurotoxin type A diffusion into the inferior oblique. Avoiding medial injections into the lower lid may reduce this adverse reaction.

Spasmodic torticollis

Posology

In the management of spasmodic torticollis, XEOMIN dosing must be tailored to the individual patient, based on the patient's head and neck position, location of possible pain, muscle hypertrophy, patient's body weight, and response to the injection.

Normally, in practice, the total dose administered does not exceed 200 U. Doses of up to 300 U may be given. No more than 50 U should be given at any one injection site.

The median first onset of effect is observed within seven days after injection. The effect of each treatment generally lasts approximately 3-4 months, however, it may last significantly longer or shorter. The period between each treatment session should be at least 10 weeks.

Method of administration

A suitable sterile needle (e.g. 25-30 gauge / 0.30-0.50 mm) is used for injections into superficial muscles, and an e.g. 22 gauge / 0.70 mm needle may be used for injections into deeper musculature. An injection volume of approximately 0.1 to 0.5 ml per injection site is recommended.

In the management of spasmodic torticollis, XEOMIN is usually injected into the sternocleidomastoid, levator scapulae, scalenus, splenius capitis, and/or the trapezius muscle(s). This list is not exhaustive as any of the muscles responsible for controlling head position may be involved and therefore require treatment. If difficulties arise isolating single muscles, injections should be performed using electromyographic guidance. The muscle mass and the degree of hypertrophy or atrophy are factors to be taken into consideration when selecting the appropriate dose.

Multiple injection sites permit XEOMIN more uniform coverage of the innervated areas of the dystonic muscle and are especially useful in larger muscles. The optimum number of injection sites is dependent upon the size of the muscle to be chemically denervated.

The sternocleidomastoid should not be injected bilaterally as there is an increased risk of adverse reactions (in particular dysphagia) when bilateral injections or doses in excess of 100 U are administered into this muscle.

Post-stroke spasticity of the upper limb

Posology

The exact dosage and number of injection sites should be tailored to the individual patient based on the size, number and location of muscles involved, the severity of spasticity, and the presence of local muscle weakness.

In the management of post-stroke spasticity of the upper limb the following initial doses (units) were administered in the pivotal clinical trial:

Clinical Pattern

Muscle

Units

Flexed Wrist

 

Flexor carpi radialis

50

Flexor carpi ulnaris

40

Clenched Fist

 

Flexor digitorum superficialis

40

Flexor digitorum profundus

40

Flexed Elbow

 

Brachioradialis

60

Biceps

80

Brachialis

50

Pronated Forearm

 

Pronator quadratus

25

Pronator teres

40

Thumb-in-Palm

 

Flexor pollicis longus

20

Adductor pollicis

10

Flexor pollicis brevis/Opponens pollicis

10

In the pivotal clinical trial, the minimum and maximum total doses were 170 U and 400 U per treatment session, respectively.

For repeated treatments dosing should be tailored to the individual patient's need. The recommended dose ranges per muscle are provided in the following table:

Clinical Pattern

Muscle

Units (Range)

Number of injection sites per muscle

Flexed Wrist

  

Flexor carpi radialis

25-100

1-2

Flexor carpi ulnaris

20-100

1-2

Clenched Fist

  

Flexor digitorum superficialis

40-100

2

Flexor digitorum profundus

40-100

2

Flexed Elbow

  

Brachioradialis

25-100

1-3

Biceps

75-200

1-4

Brachialis

25-100

1-2

Pronated Forearm

  

Pronator quadratus

10-50

1

Pronator teres

25-75

1-2

Thumb-in-Palm

  

Flexor pollicis longus

10-50

1

Adductor pollicis

5-30

1

Flexor pollicis brevis/Opponens pollicis

5-30

1

The maximum total recommended dose is up to 400 units per treatment session.

Patients reported the onset of action 4 days after treatment. The maximum effect as an improvement of muscle tone was perceived within 4 weeks. In general, the treatment effect lasted 12 weeks. Reinjections should not be performed within intervals of less than 12 weeks.

Method of administration

Reconstituted XEOMIN is injected using a suitable sterile needle (e.g. 26 gauge / 0.45 mm diameter / 37 mm length, for superficial muscles and a longer needle, e.g. 22 gauge / 0.7 mm diameter / 75 mm length, for deeper musculature).

Localisation of the involved muscles with electromyographic guidance or nerve stimulation techniques may be useful. Multiple injection sites may allow XEOMIN to have more uniform contact with the innervation areas of the muscle and are especially useful when larger muscles are injected.

All indications

If no treatment effect occurs within one month after the initial injection, the following measures should be taken:

- Clinical verification of the neurotoxin effect on the injected muscle: e.g. an electromyographic investigation in a specialised facility

- Analysis of the reason for non-response, e.g. poor isolation of the muscles intended to be injected, too low dose, poor injection technique, fixed contracture, too weak antagonist, possible development of antibodies

- Review of Botulinum neurotoxin type A treatment as an adequate therapy

- If no adverse reactions have occurred during the initial treatment, an additional course of treatment can be performed under the following conditions: 1) dose adjustment with regard to analysis of the most recent therapy failure, 2) EMG-guidance, 3) the recommended minimum interval between the initial and repeat treatment is followed

Paediatric population

The safety and efficacy of XEOMIN in children aged 0-17 years has not yet been established. XEOMIN is thus not recommended in the paediatric population until further data become available.

4.3 Contraindications

Hypersensitivity to the active substance Botulinum neurotoxin type A or to any of the excipients listed in section 6.1.

Generalised disorders of muscle activity (e.g. myasthenia gravis, Lambert-Eaton syndrome).

Presence of infection at the proposed injection site.

4.4 Special warnings and precautions for use

Undesirable effects related to spread of Botulinum toxin distant from the site of administration have been reported (see section 4.8), sometimes resulting in death, which in some cases was associated with dysphagia, pneumonia and/or significant debility.

Patients treated with therapeutic doses may experience exaggerated muscle weakness. Patients with underlying neurological disorders including swallowing difficulties are at increased risk of these undesirable effects. The Botulinum toxin product should be used under specialist supervision in these patients and should only be used if the benefit of treatment is considered to outweigh the risk. Patients with a history of dysphagia and aspiration should be treated with extreme caution.

Patients or caregivers should be advised to seek immediate medical care if swallowing, speech or respiratory disorders arise.

Dysphagia has also been reported following injection to sites other than the cervical musculature (see section 4.4 “spasmodic torticollis”).

An anaphylactic reaction may occur rarely after injection of Botulinum neurotoxin type A (see section 4.8). Adrenaline and other medical aids for treating anaphylaxis should be available.

Prior to administering XEOMIN the physician must familiarise himself/herself with the patient's anatomy and any alterations to the anatomy due to prior surgical procedures. Extra caution is required when injecting at sites close to sensitive structures such as the carotid artery and lung apices.

XEOMIN should be used with caution:

• If bleeding disorders of any type occur

• In patients receiving anticoagulant therapy

• In patients suffering from amyotrophic lateral sclerosis or other diseases which result in peripheral neuromuscular dysfunction

• In targeted muscles which display pronounced weakness or atrophy.

The recommended single doses of XEOMIN should not be exceeded and the intervals between injections should not be shortened.

The clinical effects of Botulinum neurotoxin type A may increase or decrease by repeated injections. The possible reasons for changes in clinical effects are different techniques of reconstitution, the chosen injection intervals, the injected muscles and marginally varying toxin activity resulting from the biological testing procedure employed or secondary non-response.

Too frequent dosing of Botulinum toxin may result in antibody formation which may lead to treatment resistance (see section 4.2).

It should be considered that pre-treated patients might have been immunised by previously administered botulinum toxin injections. A treatment-naïve patient should be regarded as a primary non-responder in cases of first injection failure.

It has not been investigated whether secondary non-response due to the development of antibodies is less frequent under XEOMIN therapy than under treatment with conventional preparations containing the Botulinum toxin type A complex. In cases of non-response, alternative therapies should be considered.

Previously akinetic or sedentary patients should be reminded to gradually resume activities following the injection of XEOMIN.

XEOMIN contains albumin, a derivative of human blood. Standard measures to prevent infections resulting from the use of medicinal products prepared from human blood or plasma include careful selection of donors, screening of individual donations and plasma pools for specific markers of infection and the inclusion of effective manufacturing steps for the inactivation/removal of viruses. Despite this, when medicinal products prepared from human blood or plasma are administered, the possibility of transmitting infective agents cannot be totally excluded. This also applies to unknown or emerging viruses and other pathogens. There are no reports of viral transmissions with albumin manufactured to European Pharmacopoeia specifications by established processes.

Blepharospasm

Because of the anticholinergic effect of Botulinum neurotoxin type A, XEOMIN should be used with caution in patients at risk of developing an angle closure glaucoma.

In order to prevent ectropion, injections into the lower lid area should be avoided, and vigorous treatment of any epithelial defect is necessary. This may require protective drops, ointments, soft bandage contact lenses, or closure of the eye by patching or similar means.

Reduced blinking following XEOMIN injection into the orbicularis muscle can lead to corneal exposure, persistent epithelial defects and corneal ulceration, especially in patients with cranial nerve disorders (facial nerve). Careful testing of corneal sensation should be performed in patients with previous eye operations.

Ecchymosis easily occurs in the soft tissues of the eyelid. Immediate gentle pressure at the injection site can limit that risk.

Spasmodic torticollis

Patients should be informed that injections of XEOMIN for the management of spasmodic torticollis may cause mild to severe dysphagia with the risk of aspiration and dyspnoea. Medical intervention may be necessary (e.g. in the form of a gastric feeding tube) (see also section 4.8). Dysphagia can last for up to two to three weeks after injection, but a duration of up to five months has been reported in one case. Limiting the dose injected into the sternocleidomastoid muscle to less than 100 U may decrease the occurrence of dysphagia. Patients with smaller neck muscle mass, or patients who require bilateral injections into the sternocleidomastoid muscles are at greater risk. The occurrence of dysphagia is attributable to the spread of the pharmacological effect of XEOMIN as the result of the neurotoxin spread into the oesophageal musculature.

Post-stroke spasticity of the upper limb

XEOMIN as a treatment for focal spasticity has been studied in association with usual standard care regimens, and is not intended as a replacement for these treatment modalities. XEOMIN is not likely to be effective in improving range of motion at a joint affected by a fixed contracture.

4.5 Interaction with other medicinal products and other forms of interaction

No interaction studies have been performed.

Theoretically, the effect of Botulinum neurotoxin may be potentiated by aminoglycoside antibiotics or other medicinal products that interfere with neuromuscular transmission, e.g. tubocurarine-type muscle relaxants.

Therefore, the concomitant use of XEOMIN with aminoglycosides or spectinomycin requires special care. Peripheral muscle relaxants should be used with caution, if necessary reducing the starting dose of relaxant, or using an intermediate-acting substance such as vecuronium or atracurium rather than substances with longer lasting effects.

4-Aminochinolines may reduce the effect of XEOMIN.

4.6 Fertility, pregnancy and lactation

Pregnancy

There are no adequate data from the use of Botulinum neurotoxin type A in pregnant women. Studies in animals have shown reproductive toxicity (see section 5.3). The potential risk for humans is unknown.

Therefore, XEOMIN should not be used during pregnancy unless clearly necessary and unless the potential benefit justifies the risk.

Breast-feeding

It is not known whether Botulinum neurotoxin type A is excreted into the breast milk. Therefore, the use of XEOMIN during lactation cannot be recommended.

Fertility

There are no clinical data from the use of Botulinum neurotoxin type A. No adverse effects on male or female fertility were detected in rabbits (see section 5.3).

4.7 Effects on ability to drive and use machines

XEOMIN has a minor or moderate influence on the ability to drive and use machines.

XEOMIN may cause tiredness, muscle weakness, dizziness and visual disturbance, which may temporarily impair the ability to drive or operate machinery.

Due to the nature of the diseases being treated, the ability to drive and to operate machines may be reduced. Due to the latency of onset, some of the therapeutic and/or adverse effects of XEOMIN, which may also interfere with the ability to drive and operate machinery. Consequently affected persons should avoid these tasks until their faculties are fully recovered.

4.8 Undesirable effects

Undesirable effects may occur from misplaced injections of Botulinum neurotoxin type A that temporarily paralyse nearby muscle groups. Large doses may cause paralysis in muscles distant from the injection site. Usually, undesirable effects are observed within the first week after treatment and are temporary in nature. They may be restricted to the area around the injection site (e.g. local pain, tenderness at the injection site, and injection site haemorrhage).

As is expected for any injection procedure, localized pain, inflammation, paraesthesia, hypoesthesia, tenderness, swelling/oedema, erythema, localized infection bleeding and/or bruising may be associated with the injection.

Needle-related pain and/or anxiety may result in vasovagal responses, including transient symptomatic hypotension and syncope.

Tabulated list of adverse reactions

Based on clinical experience information on the frequency of adverse reactions for the individual indications is given below. The frequency categories are defined as follows: very common (≥1/10); common (≥1/100 to <1/10); uncommon (≥1/1,000 to <1/100), rare (≥1/10,000 to <1/1,000); very rare (<1/10,000).

Blepharospasm

The following adverse reactions were reported with XEOMIN:

Nervous system disorders

Uncommon:

paraesthesia, headache

Eye disorders

Common:

ptosis, dry eyes

Uncommon:

conjunctivitis

Gastrointestinal disorders

Uncommon:

dry mouth

Skin and subcutaneous tissue disorders

Uncommon:

skin rash

Musculoskeletal and connective tissue disorders

Uncommon:

muscle weakness

Injury, poisoning and procedural complications

Uncommon:

inflicted injury

Spasmodic torticollis

The following adverse reactions were reported with XEOMIN:

Nervous system disorders

Uncommon:

headache, tremor

Eye disorders

Uncommon:

eye pain

Respiratory, thoracic and mediastinal disorders

Uncommon:

dysphonia

Gastrointestinal disorders

Common:

dysphagia

Uncommon:

diarrhoea, dry mouth, vomiting, colitis

Skin and subcutaneous tissue disorders

Uncommon:

skin rash, erythema, pruritus, sweating increased

Musculoskeletal and connective tissue disorders

Common:

muscle weakness, back pain

Uncommon:

skeletal pain, myalgia

General disorders and administration site conditions

Uncommon:

asthenia, injection site inflammation, injection site tenderness

The management of spasmodic torticollis may cause dysphagia with varying degrees of severity with the potential for aspiration which may require medical intervention. Dysphagia may persist for two to three weeks after injection, but has been reported in one case to last five months. Dysphagia appears to be dose-dependent. In clinical trials with Botulinum toxin type A complex it was reported that dysphagia occurs less frequently with total doses below 200 U per treatment session.

Post-stroke spasticity of the upper limb

The following adverse reactions were reported with XEOMIN:

Nervous system disorders

Uncommon:

dysaesthesia, headache, hypoaesthesia

Vascular disorders

Uncommon:

haematoma

Respiratory, thoracic and mediastinal disorders

Uncommon:

cough

Gastrointestinal disorders

Uncommon:

dysphagia, nausea, dry mouth

Skin and subcutaneous tissue disorders

Uncommon:

erythema

Musculoskeletal and connective tissue disorders

Common:

muscular weakness

Uncommon:

pain in extremity, joint swelling, myalgia

General disorders and administration site conditions

Common:

injection site pain, injection site haematoma

Uncommon:

feeling hot, asthenia, oedema peripheral

Some of these undesirable effects may be disease related.

Post-Marketing Experience

Flu-like symptoms and hypersensitivity reactions like swelling, oedema (also apart from injection site), erythema, pruritus, rash (local and generalized) and breathlessness have been reported.

General

The following additional information is also based on publications on conventional preparations containing the Botulinum toxin type A complex.

Undesirable effects related to spread of toxin distant from the site of administration have been reported very rarely (exaggerated muscle weakness, dysphagia, and aspiration pneumonitis with fatal outcome in some cases) (see section 4.4).

Dysphagia has been reported following injection to sites other than the cervical musculature.

The following other adverse events have been reported following administration of conventional Botulinum toxin type A complex: dysarthria, abdominal pain, hyperhidrosis, anorexia, hypoacusis, tinnitus, radiculopathy.

There have been rare reports of undesirable effects related to the cardiovascular system, such as arrhythmia and myocardial infarction, some with fatal outcomes following treatment with botulinum toxins. It remains unclear whether these deaths were induced by botulinum toxin or whether these were caused by pre-existing cardiovascular disease. Serious and/or immediate hypersensitivity reactions have been rarely reported, including anaphylaxis, serum sickness, urticaria, soft tissue oedema, and dyspnoea. Some of these reactions have been reported following the use of conventional Botulinum toxin type A complex either alone or in combination with other agents known to cause similar reactions.

A case of peripheral neuropathy has been reported in a male after receiving four sets of injections of a conventional preparation containing the Botulinum toxin type A complex (for neck and back spasm, and severe pain) over an 11 week period.

Angle closure glaucoma has been reported very rarely following administration of conventional Botulinum toxin type A complex for blepharospasm.

New onset or recurrent seizures have been reported, typically in patients who are predisposed to experiencing these events. The exact relationship of these events to Botulinum toxin injection has not been established.

A female patient developed brachial plexopathy two days after injection of a conventional preparation containing the Botulinum toxin type A complex for the treatment of cervical dystonia, with recovery after five months.

Erythema multiforme, urticaria, and psoriasis-like rash have been described with the use of conventional preparations containing the Botulinum toxin type A complex, but their causal relationship remains unclear.

Following injection of conventional Botulinum toxin type A complex, EMG showed increased jitter in some distant muscles which was not associated with muscle weakness or other types of electrophysiological abnormalities.

4.9 Overdose

Symptoms of overdose:

Increased doses of Botulinum neurotoxin type A may result in pronounced neuromuscular paralysis distant from the injection site. Symptoms of overdose are not immediately apparent post-injection and may include general weakness, ptosis, diplopia, breathing, swallowing and speech difficulties, or paralysis of the respiratory muscles resulting in an aspiration pneumonia.

Measures in cases of overdose:

In case of an overdose the patient must be monitored medically for several days. If signs of intoxication appear, hospitalisation with general supportive measures is necessary. Intubation and assisted ventilation will become necessary until improvement if paralysis of the respiratory muscles occurs.

5. Pharmacological properties
5.1 Pharmacodynamic properties

Pharmacotherapeutic group: other muscle relaxants, peripherally acting agents, ATC code: M03AX01

Botulinum neurotoxin type A blocks cholinergic transmission at the neuromuscular junction by inhibiting the release of acetylcholine. The nerve terminals of the neuromuscular junction no longer respond to nerve impulses, and secretion of the neurotransmitter is prevented (chemical denervation). Recovery of impulse transmission is re-established by the formation of new nerve terminals and motor endplates.

Mechanism of action

The mechanism of action by which Botulinum neurotoxin type A exerts its effects on cholinergic nerve terminals can be described by a four-step sequential process which includes the following steps:

• Binding: The heavy chain of Botulinum neurotoxin type A binds with exceptionally high selectivity and affinity to receptors only found on cholinergic terminals.

• Internalisation: Constriction of the nerve terminal's membrane and absorption of the toxin into the nerve terminal (endocytosis).

• Translocation: The amino-terminal segment of the neurotoxin's heavy chain forms a pore in the vesicle membrane, the disulphide bond is cleaved and the neurotoxin's light chain passes through the pore into the cytosol.

• Effect: After the light chain is released, it very specifically cleaves a target protein (SNAP 25) that is essential for the release of acetylcholine.

Complete recovery of endplate function/impulse transmission after injection normally occurs within 3-4 months as nerve terminals sprout and reconnect with the endplate.

Results of the clinical studies

Non-inferiority of XEOMIN efficacy as compared to a comparator product containing the conventional Botulinum toxin type A complex onabotulinumtoxinA (900 kD) was shown in two comparative single-dosing Phase III studies, one in patients with blepharospasm (study MRZ 60201-0003, n=300) and one in patients with cervical dystonia (study MRZ 60201-0013, n=463). Study results also suggest that XEOMIN and this comparator product have a similar efficacy and safety profile in patients with blepharospasm or cervical dystonia when used in a dosing conversion ratio of 1:1 (see section 4.2).

In the pivotal study (double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicentre, EudraCT Number 2005-003951-11) conducted in patients with post-stroke spasticity of the upper limb, 148 patients were randomised to receive XEOMIN (N=73) or Placebo (N=75) in accordance with the dose recommendations for initial treatment presented in section 4.2 of the SmPC. The cumulative dose after up to 6 repeated treatments in a clinical trial was in average 1333 Units (maximum 2395 Units) over a period of up to 89 weeks.

As determined for the primary efficacy parameter (response rates for the wrist flexors Ashworth Scale score at Week 4, response defined as improvement of at least 1-point in the 5-point Ashworth Scale score), patients treated with XEOMIN (response rate: 68.5%) had a 3.97 fold higher chance of being responders relative to patients treated with placebo (response rate: 37.3%; 95% CI: 1.90 to 8.30; p < 0.001, ITT population).

This fixed dose study was not designed to differentiate between female and male patients, nevertheless in a post-hoc analysis the response rates were higher in female (89.3%) compared to male (55.6%) patients, the difference being statistically significant for women only. However, in male patients response rates in Ashworth Scale after 4 weeks in XEOMIN treated patients were consistently higher in all muscle groups treated compared to placebo.

Responder rates were similar in men compared to women in the open label extension period of the pivotal study (flexible dosing was possible in this trial period) in which 145 patients were enrolled and up to 5 injection cycles were performed, as well as in the observer-blind study (EudraCT Number 2006-003036-30) in which efficacy and safety of XEOMIN in two different dilutions in 192 patients were assessed in patients with upper limb spasticity of diverse etiology.

5.2 Pharmacokinetic properties

General characteristics of the active substance

Classic kinetic and distribution studies cannot be conducted with Botulinum neurotoxin type A because the active substance is applied in such small quantities (picograms per injection), and because it binds so rapidly and irreversibly to cholinergic nerve terminals.

Native Botulinum toxin is a high molecular weight complex, which, in addition to the neurotoxin (150 kD), contains other bacterial non-toxic proteins, like haemagglutinins and non-haemagglutinins. In contrast to conventional preparations containing the Botulinum toxin type A complex, XEOMIN contains pure (150 kD) neurotoxin since it is free from complexing proteins and thus has a low foreign protein content. The foreign protein content administered is considered as one of the factors for secondary therapy failure.

Like many other proteins of its size, Botulinum neurotoxin type A has been shown to undergo retrograde axonal transport after intramuscular injection. Retrograde transsynaptic passage of active Botulinum neurotoxin type A into the central nervous system however has not been found.

Receptor-bound Botulinum neurotoxin type A is endocytosed into the nerve terminal prior to reaching its target (SNAP 25) and is eventually degraded intracellularly. Free circulating Botulinum neurotoxin type A molecules that have not bound to presynaptic cholinergic nerve terminal receptors will be phagocytosed or pinocytosed and degraded like any other free circulating protein.

Distribution of the active substance in patients

Human pharmacokinetic studies with XEOMIN have not been performed for the reasons detailed above.

5.3 Preclinical safety data

Non-clinical data revealed no special hazard for humans based on conventional studies of cardiovascular safety pharmacology.

The findings made in repeat-dose toxicity studies conducted with XEOMIN were mainly related to its pharmacodynamic action.

No evidence of local intolerability was noted. Reproductive toxicity studies with XEOMIN performed in rabbits did not show adverse effects on male or female fertility nor direct effects on embryo-foetal development. However, the administration of XEOMIN at dose levels exhibiting clear maternal toxicity at weekly to biweekly intervals increased the number of abortions in a prenatal toxicity study in rabbits. A continuous systemic exposure of the dams during the (unknown) sensitive phase of the organogenesis as a pre-requisite for the induction of teratogenic effects cannot necessarily be assumed.

No genotoxicity, carcinogenicity or pre- and postnatal development studies have been conducted with XEOMIN.

6. Pharmaceutical particulars
6.1 List of excipients

Human albumin

Sucrose

6.2 Incompatibilities

This medicinal product must not be mixed with other medicinal products except those mentioned in section 6.6.

6.3 Shelf life

Unopened vial:

4 years

Reconstituted solution:

Chemical and physical in-use stability has been demonstrated for 24 hours at 2°C to 8°C.

From a microbiological point of view, the product should be used immediately. If not used immediately, in-use storage times and conditions prior to use are the responsibility of the user and would normally not be longer than 24 hours at 2°C to 8°C, unless reconstitution has taken place in controlled and validated aseptic conditions.

6.4 Special precautions for storage

Unopened vial: Do not store above 25°C.

For storage conditions after reconstitution of the medicinal product, see section 6.3.

6.5 Nature and contents of container

100 LD50 units of Clostridium Botulinum neurotoxin type A in a vial (type 1 glass) with a stopper (bromobutyl rubber) and tamper-proof seal (aluminium).

Pack sizes of 1, 2, 3, 4 or 6 vials.

Not all pack sizes may be marketed.

6.6 Special precautions for disposal and other handling

XEOMIN is reconstituted prior to use with sodium chloride 9 mg/ml (0.9%) solution for injection. Reconstitution and dilution should be performed in accordance with good clinical practice guidelines, particularly with respect to asepsis.

It is good practice to perform vial reconstitution and syringe preparation over plastic-lined paper towels to catch any spillage. An appropriate amount of solvent (see dilution table) is drawn up into a syringe. The exposed portion of the rubber stopper of the vial is cleaned with alcohol (70%) prior to insertion of the needle. The solvent must be injected gently into the vial. The vial must be discarded, if the vacuum does not pull the solvent into the vial. Reconstituted XEOMIN is a clear, colourless solution free of particulate matter.

XEOMIN should not be used if the reconstituted solution (prepared as above) has a cloudy appearance or contains floccular or particulate matter.

Possible dilutions are indicated in the following table:

Solvent added

(sodium chloride 9 mg/ml (0.9%) solution for injection)

Resulting dose in units per 0.1 ml

0.5 ml

1.0 ml

2.0 ml

4.0 ml

8.0 ml

20.0 U

10.0 U

5.0 U

2.5 U

1.25 U

Any solution for injection that has been stored for more than 24 hours as well as any unused solution for injection should be discarded.

PROCEDURE TO FOLLOW FOR A SAFE DISPOSAL OF VIALS, SYRINGES AND MATERIALS USED

For safe disposal, unused vials should be reconstituted with a small amount of water and then autoclaved. Any used vials, syringes, and spillage etc. should be autoclaved and any residual XEOMIN should be inactivated using diluted sodium hydroxide solution (0.1 N NaOH) or diluted sodium hypochlorite solution (0.5% or 1% NaOCl).

After inactivation used vials, syringes and materials should not be emptied and must be discarded into appropriate containers and disposed of in accordance with local requirements.

RECOMMENDATIONS SHOULD ANY INCIDENT OCCUR DURING THE HANDLING OF BOTULINUM TOXIN

• Any spills of the product must be wiped up: either using absorbent material impregnated with a solution of sodium hydroxide or sodium hypochlorite (bleach) in case of the powder, or with dry, absorbent material in case of reconstituted product.

• The contaminated surfaces should be cleaned using absorbent material impregnated with a solution of sodium hydroxide or sodium hypochlorite (bleach), then dried.

• If a vial is broken, proceed as mentioned above by carefully collecting the pieces of broken glass and wiping up the product, avoiding any cuts to the skin.

• If the product comes into contact with the skin, wash the affected area with a solution of sodium hydroxide or sodium hypochlorite (bleach) then rinse abundantly with water.

• If product enters into contact with the eyes, rinse thoroughly with plenty of water or with an ophthalmic eyewash solution.

• If product enters into contact with a wound, cut or broken skin, rinse thoroughly with plenty of water and take the appropriate medical steps according to the dose injected.

These instructions for use handling and disposal should be strictly followed.

7. Marketing authorisation holder

Merz Pharmaceuticals GmbH

Eckenheimer Landstraße 100

60318 Frankfurt/Main

Germany

P.O. Box 11 13 53

60048 Frankfurt/Main

Germany

8. Marketing authorisation number(s)

PL 29978/0001

9. Date of first authorisation/renewal of the authorisation

20 December 2007

10. Date of revision of the text

16/11/2012

Company contact details

Merz Pharma UK Ltd

Company image
Address

260 Centennial Park, Elstree Hill, South Elstree, Herts, WD6 3SR

Fax

+44 (0)208 236 3501

Medical Information e-mail
Medical Information Fax

+44 (0)333 200 4142

Telephone

+44 (0)208 236 0000

Medical Information Direct Line

+44 (0)333 200 4143

Customer Care direct line

+44 (0)333 200 4144

Before you contact this company: often several companies will market medicines with the same active ingredient. Please check that this is the correct company before contacting them. Why?

Active ingredients

botulinum toxin type a

Legal categories

POM - Prescription Only Medicine

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