eMC - trusted, up to date and comprehensive information about medicines

This page has been designed specifically for printing. The full document can be found on the eMC - where you will find trusted, up to date and comprehensive information about medicines.

The eMC provides the latest approved prescribing information (SPCs) and patient information leaflets (PILs) for UK licensed medicines.


Accord Healthcare Limited

Sage House, 319 Pinner Road, North Harrow, Middlesex, HA1 4HF, UK
Telephone: +44 (0)208 8631 427
Fax: +44 (0)208 863 1426
WWW: http://www.accord-healthcare.eu
Medical Information Direct Line: +44 (0)208 901 3370
Medical Information e-mail: uk@accord-healthcare.com
Customer Care direct line: +44 (0)208 863 1427
Medical Information Fax: +44 (0)208 863 1426

Before you contact this company: often several companies will market medicines with the same active ingredient. Please check that this is the correct company before contacting them. Why?


Summary of Product Characteristics last updated on the eMC: 13/08/2012

Aceclofenac 100 mg film-coated Tablets



1. Name of the medicinal product

Aceclofenac 100 mg film-coated Tablets


2. Qualitative and quantitative composition

Each film-coated tablet contains 100 mg Aceclofenac.

For a full list of excipients, see section 6.1.


3. Pharmaceutical form

Film-coated tablet

White to off-white, round shaped, biconvex, film-coated tablet debossed with “100” on one side and plain on the other side.


4. Clinical particulars

4.1 Therapeutic indications

Aceclofenac is indicated for the relief of pain and inflammation in osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis and ankylosing spondylitis.


4.2 Posology and method of administration

Aceclofenac film-coated tablets are supplied for oral administration and should be swallowed whole with a sufficient quantity of liquid.

To be taken preferably with or after food. When Aceclofenac was administered to fasting and fed healthy volunteers only the rate and not the extent of aceclofenac absorption was affected.

Undesirable effects may be minimized by using the lowest effective dose for the shortest duration necessary to control symptoms (see section 4.4).

Adults

The recommended dose is 200 mg daily, taken as two separate 100 mg doses, one tablet in the morning and one in the evening.

Paediatric population

There are no clinical data on the use of Aceclofenac in children and therefore it is not recommended for use in children under 18 years of age.

Elderly

The elderly, who are more likely to be suffering from impaired renal, cardiovascular or hepatic function and receiving concomitant medication, are at increased risk of serious consequences of adverse reactions. If an NSAID is considered necessary, the lowest effective dose should be used and for the shortest possible duration. The patient should be monitored regularly for GI bleeding during NSAID therapy.

The pharmacokinetics of Aceclofenac are not altered in elderly patients, therefore it is not considered necessary to modify the dose or dose frequency.

Renal insufficiency

There is no evidence that the dosage of Aceclofenac needs to be modified in patients with mild renal impairment, but as with other NSAIDs caution should be exercised (see Section 4.4).

Hepatic insufficiency

There is some evidence that the dose of Aceclofenac should be reduced in patients with hepatic impairment and it is suggested that an initial daily dose of 100 mg be used.


4.3 Contraindications

Hypersensitivity to Aceclofenac or to any of the excipients.

Active, or history of recurrent peptic ulcer/haemorrhage (two or more distinct episodes of proven ulceration or bleeding).

NSAIDS are contraindicated in patients who have previously shown hypersensitivity reactions (eg. Asthma, rhinitis, angioedema or urticaria) in response to ibuprofen, aspirin, or other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.

Severe heart failure, hepatic failure and renal failure (see section 4.4).

History of gastrointestinal bleeding or perforation, related to previous NSAIDS therapy.

Aceclofenac should not be prescribed during pregnancy, especially during the last trimester of pregnancy, unless there are compelling reasons for doing so. The lowest effective dosage should be used (see section 4.6).


4.4 Special warnings and precautions for use

Undesirable effects may be minimised by using the lowest effective dose for the shortest duration necessary to control symptoms (see section 4.2, and GI and cardiovascular risks below).

The use of Aceclofenac with concomitant NSAIDs including cyclooxygenase- 2 selective inhibitors should be avoided (see section 4.5).

Elderly:

The elderly have an increased frequency of adverse reactions to NSAIDs especially gastrointestinal bleeding and perforation which may be fatal (see section 4.2).

Respiratory disorders:

Caution is required if administered to patients suffering from, or with a previous history of, bronchial asthma since NSAIDs have been reported to precipitate bronchospasm in such patients.

Cardiovascular, Renal and Hepatic Impairment:

The administration of an NSAID may cause a dose dependent reduction in prostaglandin formation and precipitate renal failure. Patients at greatest risk of this reaction are those with impaired renal function, cardiac impairment, liver dysfunction, those taking diuretics and the elderly. Renal function should be monitored in these patients (see also section 4.3).

Renal:

The importance of prostaglandins in maintaining renal blood flow should be taken into account in patients with impaired cardiac or renal function, those being treated with diuretics or recovering from major surgery. Effects on renal function are usually reversible on withdrawal of Aceclofenac Tablets.

Hepatic:

If abnormal liver function tests persist or worsen, clinical signs or symptoms consistent with liver disease develop or if other manifestations occur (eosinophilia, rash), Aceclofenac Tablets should be discontinued. Close medical surveillance is necessary in patients suffering from mild to moderate impairment of hepatic function. Hepatitis may occur without prodromal symptoms.

Use of Aceclofenac Tablets in patients with hepatic porphyria may trigger an attack.

Cardiovascular and cerebrovascular effects:

Appropriate monitoring and advice are required for patients with a history of hypertension and/or mild to moderate congestive heart failure as fluid retention and oedema have been reported in association with NSAID therapy.

Clinical trial and epidemiological data suggest that use of some NSAIDs (particularly at high doses and in long term treatment) may be associated with a small increased risk of arterial thrombotic events (for example myocardial infarction or stroke). There are insufficient data to exclude such a risk for aceclofenac.

Patients with uncontrolled hypertension, congestive heart failure, established ischaemic heart disease, peripheral arterial disease, and/or cerebrovascular disease should only be treated with aceclofenac after careful consideration. Similar consideration should be made before initiating longer-term treatment of patients with risk factors for cardiovascular disease (e.g. hypertension, hyperlipidaemia, diabetes mellitus, smoking).

Gastrointestinal bleeding, ulceration and perforation:

GI bleeding, ulceration or perforation, which can be fatal, has been reported with all NSAIDs at any time during treatment, with or without warning symptoms or a previous history of serious GI events.

Close medical surveillance is imperative in patients with symptoms indicative of gastro-intestinal disorders, with a history suggestive of gastro-intestinal ulceration, with ulcerative colitis or with Crohn's disease, bleeding diathesis or haematological abnormalities.

The risk of GI bleeding, ulceration or perforation is higher with increasing NSAID doses, in patients with a history of ulcer, particularly if complicated with haemorrhage or perforation (see section 4.3), and in the elderly. These patients should commence treatment on the lowest dose available. Combination therapy with protective agents (e.g. misoprostol or proton pump inhibitors) should be considered for these patients, and also for patients requiring concomitant low dose aspirin, or other drugs likely to increase gastrointestinal risk (see below and section 4.5).

Patients with a history of GI toxicity, particularly when elderly, should report any unusual abdominal symptoms (especially GI bleeding) particularly in the initial stages of treatment.

Caution should be advised in patients receiving concomitant medications which could increase the risk of ulceration or bleeding, such as oral corticosteroids, anticoagulants such as warfarin, selective serotonin-reuptake inhibitors or antiplatelet agents such as aspirin (see section 4.5).

When GI bleeding or ulceration occurs in patients receiving aceclofenac, the treatment should be withdrawn.

NSAIDs should be given with care to patients with a history of gastrointestinal disease (ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease) as these conditions may be exacerbated (see section 4.8).

SLE and mixed connective tissue disease:

In patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and mixed connective tissue disorders there may be an increased risk of aseptic meningitis (see section 4.8).

Dermatological:

Serious skin reactions, some of them fatal, including exfoliative dermatitis, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, and toxic epidermal necrolysis, have been reported very rarely in association with the use of NSAIDs (see section 4.8). Patients appear to be at highest risk for these reactions early in the course of therapy: the onset of the reaction occurring in the majority of cases within the first month of treatment. Aceclofenac Tablets should be discontinued at the first appearance of skin rash, mucosal lesions, or any other sign of hypersensitivity.

Impaired female fertility:

The use of Aceclofenac Tablets may impair female fertility and is not recommended in women attempting to conceive. In women who have difficulties conceiving or who are undergoing investigation of infertility, withdrawal of Aceclofenac Tablets should be considered.

Hypersensitivity reactions:

As with other NSAIDs, allergic reactions, including anaphylactic/anaphylactoid reactions, can also occur without earlier exposure to the drug.

Haematological:

Aceclofenac Tablets may reversibly inhibit platelet aggregation (see anticoagulants under 'Interactions').

Long-term treatment:

All patients who are receiving NSAIDs should be monitored as a precautionary measure e.g. renal failure, hepatic function (elevation of liver enzymes may occur) and blood counts.


4.5 Interaction with other medicinal products and other forms of interaction

Other analgesics including cyclooxygenase-2 selective inhibitors: Avoid concomitant use of two or more NSAIDs (including aspirin) as this may increase the risk of adverse effects (see section 4.4).

Anti-hypertensives: Reduced anti-hypertensive effect.

Diuretics: Reduced diuretic effect. Diuretics can increase the risk of nephrotoxicity of NSAIDs. Although it was not shown to affect blood pressure control when co-administered with bendrofluazide, interactions with other diuretics cannot be ruled out. When concomitant administration with potassium-sparing diuretics is employed, serum potassium should be monitored.

Cardiac glycosides: NSAIDs may exacerbate cardiac failure, reduce GFR (glomerular filtration rate) and increase plasma glycoside levels.

Lithium: Decreased elimination of lithium.

Methotrexate: Decreased elimination of methotrexate. Caution should be exercised if NSAIDs and methotrexate are administered within 24 hours of each other, since NSAIDs may increase plasma levels, resulting in increased toxicity.

Ciclosporin: Increased risk of nephrotoxicity.

Mifepristone: NSAIDs should not be used for 8-12 days after mifepristone administration as NSAIDs can reduce the effect of mifepristone.

Corticosteroids: Increased risk of gastrointestinal ulceration or bleeding (see section 4.4).

Anti-coagulants: NSAIDs may enhance the effects of anti-coagulants, such as warfarin (see section 4.4). Close monitoring of patients on combined anti-coagulants and Aceclofenac Tablets therapy should be undertaken.

Quinolone antibiotics: Animal data indicate that NSAIDs can increase the risk of convulsions associated with quinolone antibiotics. Patients taking NSAIDs and quinolones may have an increased risk of developing convulsions.

Anti-platelet agents and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs): Increased risk of gastrointestinal bleeding (see section 4.4).

Tacrolimus: Possible increased risk of nephrotoxicity when NSAIDs are given with tacrolimus.

Zidovudine: Increased risk of haematological toxicity when NSAIDs are given with zidovudine. There is evidence of an increased risk of haemarthroses and haematoma in HIV(+) haemophiliacs receiving concurrent treatment with zidovudine and ibuprofen.

Antidiabetic agents: Clinical studies have shown that diclofenac can be given together with oral antidiabetic agents without influencing their clinical effect. However, there have been isolated reports of hypoglycaemic and hyperglycaemic effects. Thus with Aceclofenac Tablets, consideration should be given to adjustment of the dosage of hypoglycaemic agents.

Other NSAIDs: Concomitant therapy with aspirin or other NSAIDs may increase the frequency of adverse reactions, including the risk of GI bleeding.


4.6 Fertility, pregnancy and lactation

Pregnancy:

Congenital abnormalities have been reported in association with NSAID administration in man; however, these are low in frequency and do not appear to follow any discernible pattern. In view of the known effects of NSAIDs on the foetal cardiovascular system (risk of closure of the ductus arteriosus) and on the possible risk of persistent pulmonary hypertension of the new born, use in the last trimester of pregnancy is contraindicated. The regular use of NSAIDs during the last trimester of pregnancy may decrease uterine tone and contraction. The onset of labour may be delayed and the duration increased with an increased bleeding tendency in both mother and child (see section 4.3). NSAIDs should not be used during the first two trimesters of pregnancy or labour unless the potential benefit to the patient outweighs the potential risk to the foetus.

Animal studies indicate that there was no evidence of teratogenesis in rats although the systemic exposure was low and in rabbits, treatment with aceclofenac (10 mg/kg/day) resulted in a series of morphological changes in some foetuses.

Lactation:

In limited studies so far available, NSAIDs can appear in breast milk in very low concentrations. NSAIDs should, if possible, be avoided when breastfeeding.

See section 4.4 Special warnings and precautions for use, regarding female fertility.

The use of Aceclofenac Tablets should therefore be avoided in pregnancy and lactation unless the potential benefits to the other outweigh the possible risks to the foetus.


4.7 Effects on ability to drive and use machines

Undesirable effects such as dizziness, drowsiness, fatigue and visual disturbances are possible after taking NSAIDs. If affected, patients should not drive or operate machinery.


4.8 Undesirable effects

Gastrointestinal:

The most commonly-observed adverse events are gastrointestinal in nature. Peptic ulcers, perforation or GI bleeding, sometimes fatal, particularly in the elderly, may occur (see section 4.4). Nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea, flatulence, constipation, dyspepsia, abdominal pain, melaena, haematemesis, ulcerative stomatitis, exacerbation of colitis and Crohn's disease (See section 4.4) have been reported following administration. Less frequently, gastritis has been observed. Pancreatitis has been reported very rarely.

Hypersensitivity:

Hypersensitivity reactions have been reported following treatment with NSAIDs. These may consist of (a) non-specific allergic reactions and anaphylaxis (b) respiratory tract reactivity comprising asthma, aggravated asthma, bronchospasm or dyspnoea, or (c) assorted skin disorders, including rashes of various types, pruritus, urticaria, purpura, angiodema and, more rarely exfoliative and bullous dermatoses (including epidermal necrolysis and erythema multiforme).

Cardiovascular:

Oedema, hypertension and cardiac failure have been reported in association with NSAID treatment.

Clinical trial and epidemiological data suggest that use of some NSAIDs (particularly at high doses and in long term treatment) may be associated with an increased risk of arterial thrombotic events (for example myocardial infarction or stroke) (see section 4.4).

Other adverse reactions reported less commonly include:

Renal:

Nephrotoxicity in various forms, including interstitial nephritis, nephritic syndrome and renal failure.

Hepatic:

abnormal liver function, hepatitis and jaundice.

Neurological and special senses:

Visual disturbances, optic neuritis, headaches, paraesthesia, reports of aseptic meningitis (especially in patients with existing auto-immune disorders, such as systemic lupus erythematosus, mixed connective tissue disease), with symptoms such as stiff neck, headache, nausea, vomiting, fever or disorientation (See section 4.4) , depression, confusion, hallucinations, tinnitus, vertigo, dizziness, malaise, fatigue and drowsiness.

Haematological:

Thrombocytopenia, neutropenia, agranulocytosis, aplastic anaemia and haemolytic anaemia.

Dermatological:

Bullous reactions including Stevens Johnson Syndrome and Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis (very rare). Photosensitivity.

Within the system organ classes, undesirable effects are listed under headings of frequency, using the following categories: very common (≥1/10); common (≥1/100 to <1/10); uncommon (≥1/1,000 to <1/100); rare (≥1/10,000 to <1/1,000); very rare (<1/10,000), not known (cannot be estimated from the available data). Within each frequency grouping, undesirable effects are presented in order of decreasing seriousness.

System organ class

Common

(≥1/100 to <1/10)

Uncommon

(≥1/1,000 to <1/100)

Rare

(≥1/10,000 to <1/1,000)

Very rare/ isolated reports (<1/10,000)

Blood and lymphatic system disorders

 

 

Anaemia

Granulocytopenia

Thrombocytopenia

Neutropenia

Haemolytic anaemia

Immune system disorders

 

 

Anaphylactic reaction (including shock)

Hypersensitivity

 

Metabolism and nutrition disorders

 

 

 

Hyperkalemia

Psychiatric disorders

 

 

 

Depression

Abnormal dreams

Insomnia

Nervous system disorders

Dizziness

 

 

Paraesthesia

Tremor

Somnolence

Headache

Dysgeusia (abnormal taste)

Eye disorders

 

 

Visual disturbance

 

Ear and labyrinth disorders

 

 

 

Vertigo

Cardiac disorders

 

 

 

Palpitations

Vascular disorders

 

 

 

Flushing

Hot flush

Respiratory, thoracic and mediastinal disorders

 

 

Dyspnoea

Bronchospasm

Stridor

Gastrointestinal disorders

Dyspepsia

Abdominal pain

Nausea

Diarrhoea

Flatulence

Gastritis

Constipation

Vomiting

Mouth ulceration

Melaena

Stomatitis

Haematemesis

Gastrointestinal haemorrhage

Gastric ulcer

Pancreatitis

Hepatobiliary disorders

 

 

 

Hepatitis

Jaundice

Skin and subcutaneous tissue disorders

 

Pruritus

Rash

Dermatitis

Urticaria

Face oedema

Purpura

Dermatitis bullous

Musculoskeletal and connective tissue disorders

 

 

 

Cramps in the leg

Renal and urinary disorders

 

 

 

Renal insufficiency

Nephrotic syndrome

General disorders and administration site conditions

 

 

 

Oedema

Fatigue

Cramps in legs

Investigations

Hepatic enzyme increased

Blood urea increased

Blood creatinine increased

 

Blood alkanine phosphatase increased

Weight increase


4.9 Overdose

a) Symptoms

Symptoms include headache, nausea, vomiting, epigastric pain, gastrointestinal irritation, gastrointestinal bleeding, rarely diarrhoea, disorientation, excitation, coma, drowsiness, dizziness, tinnitus, hypotension, respiratory depression, fainting, occasionally convulsions. In cases of significant poisoning acute renal failure and liver damage are possible.

b) Therapeutic measure :

Patients should be treated symptomatically as required. Within one hour of ingestion of a potentially toxic amount, activated charcoal should be considered. Alternatively, in adults, gastric lavage should be considered within one hour of ingestion of a potentially life-threatening overdose.

Specific therapies such as dialysis or haemoperfusion are probably of no help in eliminating NSAIDs due to their high rate of protein binding and extensive metabolism. Good urine output should be ensured.

Renal and liver function should be closely monitored. Patients should be observed for at least four hours after ingestion of potentially toxic amounts. In case of frequent or prolonged convulsions, patients should be treated with intravenous diazepam. Other measures may be indicated by the patient's clinical condition.

Management of acute poisoning with NSAIDs essentially consists of supportive and symptomatic measures.


5. Pharmacological properties

5.1 Pharmacodynamic properties

ATC code: M01A B16

Aceclofenac is a non-steroidal agent with marked anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties.

The mode of action of aceclofenac is largely based on the inhibition to prostaglandin synthesis. Aceclofenac is a potent inhibitor of the enzyme cyclo-oxygenase, which is involved in the production of prostaglandins.


5.2 Pharmacokinetic properties

After oral administration, aceclofenac is rapidly and completely absorbed as unchanged drug. Peak plasma concentrations are reached approximately 1.25 to 3.00 hours following ingestion. Aceclofenac penetrates into the synovial fluid, where the concentrations reach approximately 57% of those in plasma. The volume of distribution is approximately 25 L.

The mean plasma elimination half-life is around 4 hours. Aceclofenac is highly protein- bound (>99%). Aceclofenac circulates mainly as unchanged drug. 4'- hydroxyaceclofenac is the main metabolite detected in plasma. Approximately two- thirds of the administered dose is excreted via the urine, mainly as hydroxymetabolites.

No changes in the pharmacokinetics of aceclofenac have been detected in the elderly.


5.3 Preclinical safety data

The results from preclinical studies conducted with aceclofenac are consistent with those expected for NSAIDs. The principal target organ was the gastro-intestinal tract.

No unexpected findings were recorded.

Aceclofenac was not considered to have any mutagenic activity in three in vitro studies and an in vivo study in the mouse.

Aceclofenac was not found to be carcinogenic in either the mouse or rat.


6. Pharmaceutical particulars

6.1 List of excipients

Core Tablet:

Cellulose microcrystalline

Croscarmellose sodium

Povidone K-30

Glyceryl palmitostearate

Tablet coating:

Hypromellose 15 cps

Macrogol 400

Titanium dioxide (E171).


6.2 Incompatibilities

Not applicable


6.3 Shelf life

4 years.


6.4 Special precautions for storage

“Store below 25°C”.


6.5 Nature and contents of container

Aceclofenac Tablets 100 mg are packed in aluminium -aluminium blister packs.

The aluminium blister foil is soft temper, plain, one side bright, dull side lacquer laminated to 25 μm OPA, bright side lacquer laminated to 60 μm PVC.

The aluminium foil is 0.025 mm thick aluminium alloy hard temper foil with mat finish.

The blisters are further pack in to carton along with leaflet in pack sizes of 10, 20, 30, 40, 60 and 100 tablets per pack.

Not all pack sizes may be marketed.


6.6 Special precautions for disposal and other handling

Any unused product or waste material should be disposed of in accordance with local requirements.


7. Marketing authorisation holder

Accord Healthcare Limited

Sage House

319, Pinner Road

North Harrow

Middlesex HA1 4 HF

United Kingdom


8. Marketing authorisation number(s)

PL 20075/0350


9. Date of first authorisation/renewal of the authorisation

14/09/2011


10. Date of revision of the text

07/07/2012