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Pfizer Limited

Ramsgate Road, Sandwich, Kent, CT13 9NJ
Telephone: +44 (0)1304 616 161
Fax: +44 (0)1304 656 221

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Summary of Product Characteristics last updated on the eMC: 30/04/2013

Accuretic 10/12.5mg Tablets



1. Name of the medicinal product

Accuretic 10/12.5 mg


2. Qualitative and quantitative composition

Quinapril/Hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) 10/12.5 are pink, oval, biconvex, film-coated tablets scored on both sides.

Each tablet contains:

Quinapril hydrochloride 10.85 mg

(Equivalent to 10 mg quinapril base)

and

hydrochlorothiazide PhEur 12.5 mg


3. Pharmaceutical form

Film-coated tablet


4. Clinical particulars

4.1 Therapeutic indications

For the treatment of all grades of essential hypertension in patients who have been stabilised on the individual components given in the same proportions.


4.2 Posology and method of administration

For oral use

Adults:

For patients currently not receiving a diuretic, whether or not they have been receiving quinapril monotherapy, the recommended initial dosage of quinapril/HCTZ is 10/12.5mg. Following initial therapy, the dosage may be increased to 20/25mg. Effective blood pressure control is usually achieved with a dosage of 10/12.5mg.

Take either with or without food. The dose should always be taken at about the same time of day to help increase compliance.

In patients with congestive heart failure, with or without associated renal insufficiency, ACE inhibitor therapy for hypertension may cause an excessive drop in blood pressure. Accuretic therapy should be started under close medical supervision. Patients should be followed closely for the first two weeks of treatment and whenever the dosage is increased.

Renal Impairment:

Accuretic is not recommended for use in patients with creatinine clearance of less than 40 ml/min.

Elderly:

The dose should be kept as low as possible commensurate with achievement of adequate blood pressure control.

Children:

Not recommended. Safety and efficacy in children has not been established.


4.3 Contraindications

Accuretic is contra-indicated in women who are pregnant, intend to become pregnant, or of childbearing potential who are not using adequate contraceptive measures (see Sections 4.4 and 4.6).

Accuretic is contraindicated in patients with hypersensitivity to any of the ingredients including patients with a history of angioedema related to previous treatment with ACE inhibitors.

Accuretic is contraindicated in patients with anuria or with severe renal dysfunction.

Accuretic is contraindicated in patients with hypersensitivity to quinapril, thiazides or other sulphonamide-derived drugs.

Accuretic is contraindicated in patients with ventricular outflow obstruction.

Accuretic is contra-indicated in patients with hereditary/idiopathic angioneurotic oedema.


4.4 Special warnings and precautions for use

Accuretic should be used with caution in selected patients with patients with aortic stenosis.

Hypotension:

Accuretic can cause symptomatic hypotension, usually not more frequently than either drug as monotherapy. Symptomatic hypotension is rarely seen in uncomplicated hypertensive patients treated with quinapril. In hypertensive patients receiving quinapril, hypotension is more likely to occur if the patient has been volume-depleted e.g. by diuretic therapy, dietary salt restriction, dialysis, diarrhoea or vomiting, or has severe renin-dependent hypertension (see Section 4.5). Accuretic should be used cautiously in patients receiving concomitant therapy with other antihypertensive agents. The thiazide component of Accuretic may potentiate the action of other antihypertensive drugs, especially ganglionic or peripheral adrenergic-blocking drugs. The antihypertensive effects of the thiazide component may also be enhanced in postsympathectomized patients. If symptomatic hypotension occurs, the patient should be placed in the supine position and, if necessary, receive an intravenous infusion of normal saline. A transient hypotensive response is not a contraindication to further doses; however, lower doses of quinapril or of any concomitant diuretic therapy should be considered if this event occurs.

In patients with congestive heart failure, with or without associated renal insufficiency, ACE inhibitor therapy for hypertension may cause an excessive drop in blood pressure, which may be associated with oliguria, azotemia, and in rare instances, with acute renal failure and death in such patients. Accuretic therapy should be started under close medical supervision. Patients should be followed closely for the first two weeks of treatment and whenever the dosage is increased.

Sensitivity reactions:

Sensitivity reactions may occur in patients with or without a history of allergy or bronchial asthma, e.g. purpura, photosensitivity, urticaria, necrotising angiitis, respiratory distress including pneumonitis and pulmonary oedema, anaphylactic reactions.

Heart Failure/Heart Disease:

As a consequence of inhibiting the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, changes in renal function may be anticipated in susceptible individuals. In patients with severe heart failure, whose renal function may depend on the activity of the renin- angiotensin-aldosterone system, treatment with ACE inhibitors including quinapril, may be associated with oliguria and/or progressive azotemia and rarely acute renal failure and/or death.

Cough:

Cough has been reported with the use of ACE inhibitors including quinapril. Characteristically, the cough is non-productive, persistent, and resolves after discontinuation of therapy. ACE inhibitor-induced cough should be considered as part of the differential diagnosis of cough.

Renal Disease:

Accuretic should be used with caution in patients with renal disease. In severe renal disease thiazides may precipitate azotemia and in moderate renal impairment (creatinine clearance 10-20ml/min) thiazides are generally ineffective in such patients, and the effects of repeated dosing may be cumulative.

There is insufficient experience in patients with severe renal impairment (creatinine clearance <10 ml/min).

The half-life of quinaprilat (the main active metabolite of quinipril) is prolonged as creatinine clearance falls. Patients with a creatinine clearance of <40 ml/min require a lower initial dosage of quinapril. (see section 4.2). These patients' dosage should be titrated upwards based upon therapeutic response, and renal function should be closely monitored although initial studies do not indicate that quinapril produces further deterioration in renal function.

In clinical studies in hypertensive patients with unilateral or bilateral renal artery stenosis, increases in blood urea nitrogen and serum creatinine have been observed in some patients following ACE inhibitor therapy. These increases were almost always reversible upon discontinuation of the ACE inhibitor and/or diuretic therapy. In such patients, renal function should be monitored during the first few weeks of therapy.

Some patients with hypertension or heart failure with no apparent pre-existing renal vascular disease have developed increases (>1.25 times the upper limit of normal) in blood urea and serum creatinine, usually minor and transient, especially when quinapril has been given concomitantly with a diuretic and has been observed in 4% and 3% respectively of patients on monotherapy. This is more likely to occur in patients with pre-existing renal impairment. Dosage reduction and/or discontinuation of a diuretic and/or quinapril may be required.

Impaired Hepatic Function:

Accuretic should be used with caution in patients with impaired hepatic function or progressive liver disease since minor alterations of fluid and electrolyte balance may result from thiazide treatment and may precipitate hepatic coma. Quinapril is rapidly deesterified to quinaprilat, (quinapril diacid, the principal metabolite), which, in human and animal studies, is a potent angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor. The metabolism of quinapril is normally dependent upon hepatic esterase. Quinaprilat concentrations are reduced in patients with alcoholic cirrhosis due to impaired deesterification of quinapril.

Rarely, ACE inhibitors have been associated with a syndrome beginning as a cholestatic jaundice and progressing to a fulminant hepatic necrosis (in some cases fatal). Patients who during ACE inhibitor therapy experience jaundice or clearly elevated hepatic enzymes should discontinue quinapril/HCTZ and receive appropriate medical follow-up.

Immune-mediated drug reactions/Anaphylactoid reactions:

Desensitisation: Patients receiving ACE inhibitors during desensitising treatment with hymenoptera venom have sustained life-threatening anaphylactoid reactions. In the same patients, these reactions have been avoided when ACE inhibitors were temporarily withheld, but they have reappeared upon inadvertant rechallenge.

Stevens-Johnson syndrome and exacerbations or activation of systemic lupus erythematosus have been reported with thiazides.

Angioedema:

Angioedema has been reported in patients treated with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors. If laryngeal stridor or angioedema of the face, tongue or glottis occurs, treatment with Accuretic should be discontinued immediately; the patient should be treated in accordance with accepted medical care and carefully observed until the swelling disappears. In instances where the swelling is confined to the face and lips, the condition generally resolves without treatment; antihistamines may be useful in relieving symptoms. Angioedema associated with laryngeal involvement may be fatal. Where there is involvement of the tongue, glottis or larynx likely to cause airway obstruction, appropriate emergency therapy including e.g. subcutaneous adrenaline solution 1:1000 (0.3 to 0.5 ml) should be promptly administered.

Patients with a history of angioedema unrelated to ACE inhibitor therapy may be at increased risk of angioedema while receiving an ACE inhibitor (see Section 4.3).

Intestinal angioedema:

Intestinal angioedema has been reported in patients treated with ACE inhibitors. These patients presented with abdominal pain (with or without nausea or vomiting); in some cases there was no prior history of facial angioedema and C-1 esterase levels were normal. The angioedema was diagnosed by procedures including abdominal CT scan or ultrasound, or at surgery, and symptoms resolved after stopping the ACE inhibitor. Intestinal angioedema should be included in the differential diagnosis of patients on ACE inhibitors presenting with abdominal pain.

Ethnic Differences:

Black patients receiving ACE inhibitor therapy have been reported to have a higher incidence of angioedema compared to non-black patients. It should also be noted that in controlled clinical trials, ACE inhibitors have an effect on blood pressure that is less in black patients than in non-blacks.

Haemodialysis and LDL Apheresis:

Patients haemodialysed using high-flux polyacrylonitrile ('AN69') membranes are highly likely to experience anaphylactoid reactions if they are treated with ACE inhibitors. This combination should therefore be avoided, either by use of alternative antihypertensive drugs or alternative membranes for haemodialysis. Patients undergoing low-density lipoprotein apheresis with dextran-sulfate absorption when treated concomitantly with an ACE inhibitor, have reported anaphylactoid reactions. This method should therefore not be used in patients treated with ACE inhibitors.

Derangements of Serum Electrolytes:

Patients receiving Accuretic should be observed for clinical signs of thiazide induced fluid or electrolyte imbalance. In such patients periodic determination of serum electrolytes (sodium and potassium in particular) should be performed. Because quinapril reduces the production of aldosterone, its combination with hydrochlorothiazide may minimise diuretic induced hypokalaemia.

The opposite effects of quinapril and hydrochlorothiazide on serum potassium will approximately balance each other in many patients so that no net effect upon serum potassium will be seen. In other patients, one or the other effect may be dominant and some patients may still require potassium supplements. Initial and periodic determinations of serum electrolytes to detect possible electrolyte imbalance should be performed at appropriate intervals.

Hypokalemia:

Conversely, treatment with thiazide diuretics has been associated with hypokalaemia, hyponatremia, and hypochloremic alkalosis. These disturbances have sometimes been manifest as one or more of the following: dryness of mouth, thirst, weakness, lethargy, drowsiness, restlessness, muscle pains or cramps, muscular fatigue, hypotension, oliguria, tachycardia, nausea, confusion, seizures and vomiting. Hypokalaemia can also sensitize or exaggerate the response of the heart to the toxic effects of digitalis. The risk of hypokalaemia is greatest in patients with cirrhosis of the liver, in patients experiencing a brisk diuresis, in patients who are receiving inadequate oral intake of electrolytes, and in patients receiving concomitant therapy with corticosteroids or adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) (see Section 4.5).

Hyperkalaemia:

Patients should be told not to use potassium supplements or salt substitutes containing potassium without consulting their physician (see Section 4.5).

Hypoglycaemia and Diabetes:

In diabetic patients ACE inhibitors may enhance insulin sensitivity and have been associated with hypoglycaemia in patients treated with oral antidiabetic agents or insulin. Glycaemic control should be closely monitored (see Section 4.5).

Neutropenia/Agranulocytosis:

ACE inhibitors have been rarely associated with agranulocytosis and bone marrow depression in patients with uncomplicated hypertension, but more frequently in patients with renal impairment, especially if they also have a connective disease with the concomitant use of immunosuppressive or other agents which may be associated with neutropenia/agranulocytosis. Patients should be told to report promptly any indication of infection (e.g., sore throat, fever) as this could be a sign of neutropenia (see Section 4.5).

Agranulocytosis has been rarely reported during treatment with quinapril. As with other ACE inhibitors, periodic monitoring of the white blood cell counts in quinapril-treated patients with collagen vascular disease and/or renal disease should be considered.

Surgery/Anaesthesia:

In patients undergoing major surgery or during anaesthesia with agents that produce hypotension, quinapril may block angiotensin II formation secondary to compensatory renin release. If hypotension occurs and is considered to be due to this mechanism, it can be corrected by volume expansion.

Acute Myopia and Secondary Angle-Closure Glaucoma: Hydrochlorothiazide, a sulfonamide, can cause an idiosyncratic reaction, resulting in acute transient myopia and acute angle-closure glaucoma. Symptoms include acute onset of decreased visual acuity or ocular pain and typically occur within hours to weeks of drug initiation. Untreated acute angle-closure glaucoma can lead to permanent vision loss. The primary treatment is to discontinue hydrochlorothiazide as rapidly as possible. Prompt medical or surgical treatments may need to be considered if the intraocular pressure remains uncontrolled. Risk factors for developing acute angle-closure glaucoma may include a history of sulfonamide or penicillin allergy.37

Pregnancy:

Accuretic is contraindicated in pregnancy. Accuretic should be administered to women of childbearing age only when such patients are highly unlikely to conceive and have been informed of the potential hazards to the fetus (see Sections 4.3 and 4.6).

Lactation:

ACE inhibitors, including quinapril, are secreted in human milk to a limited extent. Thiazides appear in human milk.Because of the potential for serious reactions in nursing infants, a decision should be made whether to discontinue Accuretic or discontinue nursing, taking into account the importance of the drug to the mother (see Section 4.6).

Lactose:

Patients with rare hereditary problems of galactose intolerance, the Lapp lactase deficiency or glucose/galactose malabsorption should not use this medicine.


4.5 Interaction with other medicinal products and other forms of interaction

Tetracycline and other drugs that interact with magnesium:

Because of the presence of magnesium carbonate in the formulation, quinapril has been shown in healthy volunteers to reduce the absorption of tetracycline in concomitant administration by 28-37%. It is recommended that concomitant administration with tetracycline be avoided. This interaction should be considered if coprescribing quinapril and tetracycline.

Agents increasing serum potassium:

Accuretic contains a thiazide diuretic, which tends to increase the urinary excretion of potassium but it also contains an ACE inhibitor, which tends to conserve potassium by lowering aldosterone levels. It is not advisable to routinely add potassium sparing diuretics or potassium supplements as this may result in elevated serum potassium

Other diuretics:

Accuretic contains a diuretic. Concomitant use of another diuretic may have an additive effect. Also, patients on diuretics, especially those who are volume and/or salt depleted, may experience an excessive reduction of blood pressure on initiation of therapy, or with increased dosage of an ACE inhibitor.

Other antihypertensive drugs:

There may be an additive effect or potentiation when Accuretic is combined with other antihypertensive drugs such as nitrates or vasodilators.

Surgery/anaesthesia:

Although no data are available to indicate there is an interaction between Accuretic and anaesthetic agents that produce hypotension, caution should be exercised when patients undergo major surgery or anaesthesia since ACE inhibitors have been shown to block angiotensin II formation secondary to compensatory renin release. This may lead to hypotension which can be corrected by volume expansion. (see Section 4.4)

Thiazides may decrease the arterial response to noradrenaline. In emergency surgery pre-anaesthetic and anaesthetic agents should be administered in reduced doses. Thiazides may increase the response to tubocurarine.

Lithium:

Lithium generally should not be given with diuretics. Diuretic agents reduce the renal clearance of lithium and add a high risk of lithium toxicity. Increased serum lithium levels and symptoms of lithium toxicity have been reported in patients receiving concomitant lithium and ACE inhibitor therapy due to the sodium-losing effect of these agents. With Accuretic, the risk of lithium toxicity may be increased. Accuretic should be administered with caution and frequent monitoring of serum lithium levels is recommended.

Corticosteroids, ACTH:

Intensified electrolyte depletion, particularly hypokalaemia has been observed.

Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs:

Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents including selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors (COX-2 inhibitors): In patients who are elderly, volume-depleted (including those on diuretic therapy), or with compromised renal function, co-administration of NSAIDs, including selective COX-2 inhibitors, with ACE inhibitors, including quinapril, may result in deterioration of renal function, including possible acute renal failure. These effects are usually reversible. Monitor renal function periodically in patients receiving quinapril and NSAID therapy.

The antihypertensive effect of ACE inhibitors, including quinapril may be attenuated by NSAIDs.

In some patients, the administration of a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent can reduce the diuretic, natriuretic, and antihypertensive effects of loop, potassium sparing, and thiazide diuretics. Therefore, when Accuretic and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents are used concomitantly the patients should be observed closely to determine if the desired effect of Accuretic is obtained. Furthermore, it has been described that NSAIDs and ACE inhibitors exert an additive effect on the increase in serum potassium. These effects are in principle reversible and occur especially in patients with compromised renal function.

Allopurinol, cytostatic and immunosuppressive agents, systemic corticosteroids or procainamide:

Concomitant administration with ACE inhibitors may lead to an increased risk for leucopenia.

Alcohol, barbiturates or narcotics:

Potentiation of orthostatic hypotension may occur.

Drugs associated with torsades de pointes:

Due to the potential risk of hypokalemia, caution should be used when hydrochlorothiazide is co-administered with medicines such as digitalis glycosides or agents associated with torsades de pointes.

Antacids:

Antacids may decrease the bioavailability of Accuretic.

Antidiabetic drugs (oral hypoglycaemic agents and insulin):

In diabetic patients ACE inhibitors may enhance insulin sensitivity and have been associated with hypoglycaemia in patients treated with oral antidiabetic agents or insulin. Glycaemic control should be closely monitored (see Section 4.4). Dosage adjustments of the antidiabetic drug may be required.


4.6 Fertility, pregnancy and lactation

Pregnancy:

Accuretic is contraindicated in pregnancy (see Section 4.3). ACE inhibitors can cause fetal and neonatal morbidity and mortality when administered to pregnant women. When pregnancy is detected, Accuretic should be discontinued.

Infants exposed to ACE inhibitors during pregnancy may be at increased risk for malformations of the cardiovascular system and central nervous system. There have also been reports of prematurity, hypotension, renal system disorders (including renal failure), skull hypoplasia, oligohydramnios, limb contractures, craniofacial deformities, hypoplastic lung development, intrauterine growth retardation, patent ductus arteriosus, fetal death and/or death in the newborn in association with the maternal use of ACE inhibitors.

Patients and physicians should be aware that oligohydramnios may not appear until after the fetus has sustained irreversible injury.

Infants who may have been exposed in utero to ACE inhibitors should be closely observed for hypotension, oliguria, and hyperkalaemia. If oliguria occurs, attention should be directed toward support of blood pressure and renal perfusion.

Thiazides cross the placental barrier and appear in cord blood. Nonteratogenic effects to the fetus may include fetal or neonatal jaundice, thrombocytopenia, and possibly other adverse reactions that have occurred in the adult.

There are no adequate and well-controlled studies of Accuretic in pregnant women.

Lactation:

ACE inhibitors, including quinapril, are secreted in human milk to a limited extent. Thiazides appear in human milk.Because of the potential for serious reactions in nursing infants, a decision should be made whether to discontinue Accuretic or discontinue nursing, taking into account the importance of the drug to the mother.


4.7 Effects on ability to drive and use machines

The ability to engage in activities such as operating machinery or operating a motor vehicle may be impaired due to dizziness and fatigue, especially when initiating quinapril therapy


4.8 Undesirable effects

The following undesirable effects have been observed and reported during treatment with quinapril/HCTZ with the following frequencies: very common (≥1/10); common (≥1/100 to <1/10); uncommon (≥1/1,000 to ≤1/100); rare (≥1/10,000 to ≤1/1,000); very rare (≤1/10,000), not known (cannot be estimated form the available data).

System Organ Class

Frequency

Undesirable effects

Blood and the lymphatic system disorders

Not known

Agranulocytosis##, haemolytic anemia#, neutropenia##, thrombocytopenia#

Immune system disorders

Not known

Anaphylactoid reaction#

Metabolism and nutrition disorders

Common

Hyperkalaemia##

Psychiatric disorders

Common

Insomnia#

Uncommon

Confusion#, depression#, nervousness#

Nervous system disorders

Common

Dizziness#, headache#, somnolence#

Uncommon

Paraesthesia#, transient ischaemic attacks#

Rare

Balance disorder

Not known

Cerebral haemorrhage#

Eye disorders

Uncommon

Amblyopia#

Very Rare

Blurred vision#

Ear and labyrinth disorders

Uncommon

Tinnitus#, vertigo#

Cardiac disorders

Uncommon

Angina pectoris##, tachycardia#, palpitations#

Common

Myocardial infarction#

Not known

Arrhythmia

Vascular disorders

Common

Vasodilation#

Uncommon

Hypotension#, syncope#

Not known

Postural hypotension#

Respiratory, thoracic and mediastinal disorders

Common

Bronchitis, cough#, pharyngitis#, rhinitis#, upper respiratory tract infection

Uncommon

Dyspnoea#, sinusitis

Rare

Eosiniphilic pneumonitis##, angioneurotic oedema#

Not known

Bronchospasm#

Gastrointestinal disorders

Common

Abdominal pain#, diarrhoea#, dyspepsia#, nausea#, vomiting#

Uncommon

Flatulence#, dry mouth or throat#, altered taste#

Rare

Constipation, glossitis

Very Rare

Ileus#, intestinal angioedema

Not known

Pancreatitis#

Hepato-biliary disorders

Not known

Hepatitis#, cholestatic icterus#

Skin and subcutaneous tissue disorders

Uncommon

Alopecia#, photosensitivity# pruritus#, rash#, angioedema##, increased perspiration##

Rare

Skin changes may be associated with fever, muscle and joint pain (myalgias, arthralgias, arthritis), vascular inflammation (vasculitis), psoriasis-like efflorescence#

Very Rare

Urticaria#

Not known

Toxic epidermal necrolysis#, erythema multiforme#, exfoliative dermatitis#, pemphigus#, purpura, Stevens Johnson syndrome#, inflammations of serous tissues and certain changes in laboratory values (eosinophilia# and/or elevated ANA titers#, elevated ESR)

Musculoskeletal, connective tissue and bone disorders

Common

Back pain#, myalgia#, hyperuricaemia#, gout#

Uncommon

Arthralgia#

Renal and urinary disorders

Uncommon

Renal dysfunction#, proteinuria, urinary tract infection

Not known

Interstitial nephritis

Reproductive system and breast disorders

Uncommon

Impotence#

General disorders and administration site conditions

Common

Asthenia#, Chest pain#, fatigue#

Uncommon

Fever#, generalised oedema#,#, peripheral oedema#

Investigations

Common

Increased serum creatinine#, increased blood urea nitrogen#*

Not known

Increases in cholesterol# and triglyceride levels#.

Decreases in hematocrit# and WCC# as well as elevation in liver enzymes and serum bilirubin. In patients with a congenital G-6-PDH deficiency, individual cases of haemolytic anaemia# have been reported

Infections and infestations

Uncommon

Viral infection

Endocrine disorders

Uncommon

Insulin requirements in diabetic patients may be altered by thiazides and latent diabetes mellitus may occur#

* Such increases are more likely to occur in patients receiving concomitant diuretic therapy than those on monotherapy with quinapril. These observed increases will often reverse on continued therapy.

# Adverse reactions associated with quinapril component, frequencies observed when taking quinapril/HCTZ.

## Adverse reactions associated with quinapril component, frequencies observed in quinapril, adverse reactions not associated with quinapril/HCTZ component.

Clinical Laboratory Test Findings:

Serum Electrolytes: (See section 4.4).

Serum Uric Acid, Glucose, Magnesium, PBI, Parathyroid Function tests and Calcium: (See section 4.4).

Haematology test: (See section 4.4).


4.9 Overdose

No data are available for Accuretic with respect to overdosage in humans.

The most likely clinical manifestation would be symptoms attributable to quinapril monotherapy overdosage such as severe hypotension, which would usually be treated by infusion of intravenous normal saline.

The most common signs and symptoms observed for HCTZ monotherapy overdosage are those caused by electrolyte depletion (hypokalemia, hypochloremia, hyponatremia) and dehydration resulting from excessive diuresis. If digitalis has also been administered, hypokalemia may accentuate cardiac arrythmias.

No specific information is available on the treatment of overdosage with quinapril/HCTZ.

Haemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis have little effect on the elimination of quinapril and quinaprilat. Treatment is symptomatic and supportive consistent with established medical care.


5. Pharmacological properties

5.1 Pharmacodynamic properties

Quinapril is rapidly de-esterified to quinaprilat (quinapril diacid, the principal metabolite), which is a potent angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor.

Quinapril and hydrochlorothiazide lower blood pressure by different, though complementary mechanisms. With diuretic treatment, blood pressure and blood volume fall, resulting in a rise in angiotensin II levels which tend to blunt the hypotensive effect. Quinapril blocks this rise in angiotensin II. The antihypertensive effects of quinapril and hydrochlorothiazide are additive.

It should be noted that in controlled clinical trials, ACE inhibitors have an effect on blood pressure that is less in black patients than in non-blacks, although this difference is reported to disappear when a diuretic is added.


5.2 Pharmacokinetic properties

Quinapril:

Peak plasma quinapril concentrations are observed within 1 hour of oral administration. The extent of absorption is approximately 60%, and is not influenced by food. Following absorption, quinapril is deesterified to its major active metabolite, quinaprilat, and to minor inactive metabolites. Quinapril has an apparent half-life of approximately one hour. Peak plasma quinaprilat concentrations are observed approximately 2 hours following an oral dose of quinapril. Quinaprilat is eliminated primarily by renal excretion and has an effective accumulation half-life of 7 hours. In patients with renal insufficiency and creatinine clearance of <40ml/min, peak and trough quinaprilat concentrations increase, time to peak concentration increases, apparent half-life increases, and time to steady state may be delayed. The elimination of quinaprilat is also reduced in elderly patients (>65 years) and correlates well with the impaired renal function which frequently occurs in the elderly (see section 4.2 Posology and method of administration). Studies in rats indicate that Accuretic and its metabolites do not cross the blood-brain barrier.

Hydrochlorothiazide:

After oral administration of hydrochlorothiazide, diuresis begins within 2 hours, peaks in about 4 hours, and lasts about 6 to 12 hours. Hydrochlorothiazide is excreted unchanged by the kidney. When plasma levels have been followed for at least 24 hours, the plasma half-life has been observed to vary between 4 to 15 hours. At least 61% of the oral dose is eliminated unchanged within 24 hours. Hydrochlorothiazide crosses the placenta but not the blood-brain barrier.


5.3 Preclinical safety data

The results of the preclinical tests do not add anything of further significance to the prescriber.


6. Pharmaceutical particulars

6.1 List of excipients

Accuretic tablets contain the following excipients:

Magnesium carbonate, lactose, povidone, crospovidone, magnesium stearate, candelilla wax, colourings: opadry pink OY-S-6937 (contains iron dioxide E172 and titanium dioxide E171 hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose, hydroxypropyl cellulose and polyethylene glycol).


6.2 Incompatibilities

None known.


6.3 Shelf life

3 years .


6.4 Special precautions for storage

Do not store above 25°C.

Store in the original package.


6.5 Nature and contents of container

Double sided aluminium foil blister enclosed in printed carton. Available in pack sizes of 7, 28, 30, 100 and 156.


6.6 Special precautions for disposal and other handling

No special instructions needed.


7. Marketing authorisation holder

Pfizer Limited

Ramsgate Road

Sandwich

Kent

CT13 9NJ

United Kingdom


8. Marketing authorisation number(s)

PL 00057/0518


9. Date of first authorisation/renewal of the authorisation

1st May 2003.


10. Date of revision of the text

04/2013

Ref: AH 9_1 UK