- 1. Name of the medicinal product
- 2. Qualitative and quantitative composition
- 3. Pharmaceutical form
- 4. Clinical particulars
- 4.1 Therapeutic indications
- 4.2 Posology and method of administration
- 4.3 Contraindications
- 4.4 Special warnings and precautions for use
- 4.5 Interaction with other medicinal products and other forms of interaction
- 4.6 Fertility, pregnancy and lactation
- 4.7 Effects on ability to drive and use machines
- 4.8 Undesirable effects
- 4.9 Overdose
- 5. Pharmacological properties
- 5.1 Pharmacodynamic properties
- 5.2 Pharmacokinetic properties
- 5.3 Preclinical safety data
- 6. Pharmaceutical particulars
- 6.1 List of excipients
- 6.2 Incompatibilities
- 6.3 Shelf life
- 6.4 Special precautions for storage
- 6.5 Nature and contents of container
- 6.6 Special precautions for disposal and other handling
- 7. Marketing authorisation holder
- 8. Marketing authorisation number(s)
- 9. Date of first authorisation/renewal of the authorisation
- 10. Date of revision of the text
PosologyThe recommended dose is 2 mg exenatide once weekly. Patients switching from immediate-release (Byetta) to prolonged-release (Bydureon) exenatide, may experience transient elevations in blood glucose concentrations, which generally improve within the first two weeks after initiation of therapy.When prolonged-release exenatide is added to existing metformin and/or thiazolidinedione therapy, the current dose of metformin and/or thiazolidinedione can be continued. When prolonged-release exenatide is added to sulphonylurea therapy, a reduction in the dose of sulphonylurea should be considered to reduce the risk of hypoglycaemia (see section 4.4).Prolonged-release exenatide should be administered once a week on the same day each week. The day of weekly administration can be changed if necessary as long as the next dose is administered at least one day (24 hours) later. Prolonged-release exenatide can be administered at any time of day, with or without meals. If a dose is missed, it should be administered as soon as practical. For the next injection patients can return to their chosen injection day. However, only one injection should be taken in a 24-hour period.The use of prolonged-release exenatide does not require additional self-monitoring. Blood glucose self-monitoring may be necessary to adjust the dose of sulphonylurea. If a different glucose-lowering treatment is started after the discontinuation of prolonged-release exenatide, consideration should be given to the prolonged release of the product (see section 5.2).
ElderlyNo dose adjustment is required based on age. However, as renal function generally declines with age, consideration should be given to the patient's renal function (see patients with renal impairment). The clinical experience in patients > 75 years is very limited (see section 5.2).
Renal impairmentNo dose adjustment is necessary for patients with mild renal impairment (creatinine clearance 50 to 80 ml/min). Clinical experience in patients with moderate renal impairment (creatinine clearance 30 to 50 ml/min) is very limited (see section 5.2). Prolonged-release exenatide is not recommended in these patients.Prolonged-release exenatide is not recommended for use in patients with end-stage renal disease or severe renal impairment (creatinine clearance < 30 ml/min) (see section 4.4).
Hepatic impairmentNo dose adjustment is necessary for patients with hepatic impairment (see section 5.2).
Paediatric populationThe safety and efficacy of prolonged-release exenatide in children and adolescents aged under 18 years have not yet been established. Currently available data are described in section 5.2 but no recommendation on a posology can be made.
Method of administrationProlonged-release exenatide is for self-administration by the patient. Each kit should be used by one person only and is for single use. Prior to initiation of prolonged-release exenatide, it is strongly recommended that patients and caregivers be trained by their healthcare professional. The Instructions for the User, provided in the carton, must be followed carefully.Each dose should be administered in the abdomen, thigh, or the back of the upper arm as a subcutaneous injection immediately after suspension of the powder in the solvent. For instructions on the suspension of the medicinal product before administration, see section 6.6 and the Instructions for the User.
Renal impairmentIn patients with end-stage renal disease receiving dialysis, single doses of immediate-release exenatide increased frequency and severity of gastrointestinal adverse reactions; therefore, prolonged-release exenatide is not recommended for use in patients with end-stage renal disease or severe renal impairment (creatinine clearance < 30 ml/min). The clinical experience in patients with moderate renal impairment is very limited and the use of prolonged-release exenatide is not recommended.There have been uncommon events of altered renal function with exenatide, including increased serum creatinine, renal impairment, worsened chronic renal failure and acute renal failure, sometimes requiring haemodialysis. Some of these events occurred in patients experiencing events that may affect hydration, including nausea, vomiting, and/or diarrhoea and/or receiving medicinal products known to affect renal function/hydration status. Concomitant medicinal products included angiotensin converting enzymes inhibitors, angiotensin-II antagonists, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory medicinal products and diuretics. Reversibility of altered renal function has been observed with supportive treatment and discontinuation of potentially causative agents, including exenatide.
Severe gastrointestinal diseaseProlonged-release exenatide has not been studied in patients with severe gastrointestinal disease, including gastroparesis. Its use is commonly associated with gastrointestinal adverse reactions, including nausea, vomiting, and diarrhoea. Therefore, the use of prolonged-release exenatide is not recommended in patients with severe gastrointestinal disease.
Acute pancreatitisUse of GLP-1 receptor agonists has been associated with a risk of developing acute pancreatitis. There have been spontaneously reported events of acute pancreatitis with prolonged-release exenatide. Resolution of pancreatitis has been observed with supportive treatment, but very rare cases of necrotising or haemorrhagic pancreatitis and/or death have been reported. Patients should be informed of the characteristic symptom of acute pancreatitis: persistent, severe abdominal pain. If pancreatitis is suspected, prolonged-release exenatide should be discontinued; if acute pancreatitis is confirmed, prolonged-release exenatide should not be restarted. Caution should be exercised in patients with a history of pancreatitis.
Concomitant medicinal productsThe concurrent use of prolonged-release exenatide with insulin, D-phenylalanine derivatives (meglitinides), alpha-glucosidase inhibitors, dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors or other GLP-1 receptor agonists has not been studied. The concurrent use of prolonged-release and immediate-release exenatide has not been studied and is not recommended.
Interaction with warfarinThere have been spontaneously reported cases of increased INR (International Normalized Ratio), sometimes associated with bleeding, with concomitant use of warfarin and exenatide (see section 4.5).
HypoglycaemiaThe risk of hypoglycaemia was increased when prolonged-release exenatide was used in combination with a sulphonylurea in clinical trials. Furthermore in the clinical studies, patients on a sulphonylurea combination, with mild renal impairment had an increased incidence of hypoglycaemia compared to patients with normal renal function. To reduce the risk of hypoglycaemia associated with the use of a sulphonylurea, reduction in the dose of sulphonylurea should be considered.
Rapid weight lossRapid weight loss at a rate of > 1.5 kg per week has been reported in patients treated with exenatide. Weight loss of this rate may have harmful consequences. Patients with rapid weight loss should be monitored for signs and symptoms of cholelithiasis.
Discontinuation of treatmentAfter discontinuation, the effect of prolonged-release exenatide may continue as plasma levels of exenatide decline over 10 weeks. Choice of other medicinal products and dose selection should be considered accordingly, as adverse reactions may continue and efficacy may, at least partly, persist until exenatide levels decline.
ExcipientsSodium content: This medicine contains less than 1 mmol sodium (23 mg) per dose, i.e. essentially sodium-free.
SulphonylureasThe dose of a sulphonylurea may require adjustment due to the increased risk of hypoglycaemia associated with sulphonylurea therapy (see sections 4.2 and 4.4). Gastric emptying The results of a study using paracetamol as a marker of gastric emptying suggest that the effect of prolonged-release exenatide to slow gastric emptying is minor and not expected to cause clinically significant reductions in the rate and extent of absorption of concomitantly administered oral medicinal products. Therefore, no dose adjustments for medicinal products sensitive to delayed gastric emptying are required. When 1,000 mg paracetamol tablets were administered, either with or without a meal, following 14 weeks of prolonged-release exenatide therapy, no significant changes in paracetamol AUC were observed compared to the control period. Paracetamol Cmax decreased by 16 % (fasting) and 5 % (fed) and tmax was increased from approximately 1 hour in the control period to 1.4 hours (fasting) and 1.3 hours (fed). The following interaction studies have been conducted using 10 mcg immediate-release exenatide but not prolonged-release exenatide:
WarfarinA delay in tmax of about 2 h was observed when warfarin was administered 35 min after immediate-release exenatide. No clinically relevant effects on Cmax or AUC were observed. Increased INR has been spontaneously reported during concomitant use of warfarin and prolonged-release exenatide. INR should be monitored during initiation of prolonged-release exenatide therapy in patients on warfarin and/or cumarol derivatives (see sections 4.4 and 4.8).
Hydroxy methyl glutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitorsLovastatin AUC and Cmax were decreased approximately 40 % and 28 %, respectively, and tmax was delayed about 4 h when immediate-release exenatide was administered concomitantly with a single dose of lovastatin (40 mg) compared with lovastatin administered alone. In 30-week placebo-controlled clinical trials with immediate-release exenatide, concomitant use of exenatide and HMG CoA reductase inhibitors was not associated with consistent changes in lipid profiles (see section 5.1). No predetermined dose adjustment is required; however lipid profiles should be monitored as appropriate.
Digoxin and lisinoprilIn interaction studies of the effect of immediate-release exenatide on digoxin and lisinopril there were no clinical relevant effects on Cmax or AUC, however, a delay in tmax of about 2 h was observed.
Ethinyl estradiol and levonorgestrelAdministration of a combination oral contraceptive (30 mcg ethinyl estradiol plus 150 mcg levonorgestrel) one hour before immediate-release exenatide did not alter the AUC, Cmax or Cmin of either ethinyl estradiol or levonorgestrel. Administration of the oral contraceptive 35 minutes after exenatide did not affect AUC but resulted in a reduction of the Cmax of ethinyl estradiol by 45 %, and Cmax of levonorgestrel by 27-41 %, and a delay in tmax by 2-4 h due to delayed gastric emptying. The reduction in Cmax is of limited clinical relevance and no adjustment of dosing of oral contraceptives is required.
Paediatric populationInteraction studies with exenatide have only been performed in adults.
Women of childbearing potentialDue to the long washout period of prolonged-release exenatide, women of childbearing potential should use contraception during treatment with prolonged-release exenatide. Prolonged-release exenatide should be discontinued at least 3 months before a planned pregnancy.
PregnancyThere are no adequate data from the use of prolonged-release exenatide in pregnant women. Studies in animals have shown reproductive toxicity (see section 5.3). The potential risk for humans is unknown. Prolonged-release exenatide should not be used during pregnancy and the use of insulin is recommended.
Breast-feedingIt is unknown whether exenatide is excreted in human milk. Prolonged-release exenatide should not be used during breast-feeding.
FertilityNo fertility studies in humans have been conducted.
Summary of the safety profileThe most frequent adverse reactions were mainly gastrointestinal related (nausea which was the most frequent reaction and associated with the initiation of treatment and decreased over time, and diarrhoea). In addition, injection site reactions (pruritus, nodules, erythema), hypoglycaemia (with a sulphonylurea), and headache occurred. Most adverse reactions associated with prolonged-release exenatide were mild to moderate in intensity.Since immediate-release exenatide has been marketed, acute pancreatitis has been reported with a frequency not known and acute renal failure has been reported uncommonly (see section 4.4).
Tabulated summary of adverse reactionsThe frequency of adverse reactions of prolonged-release exenatide identified from clinical trials and spontaneous reports (not observed in clinical trials, frequency not known) are summarised in Table 1 below. The exenatide clinical trials data source comprises 18 placebo controlled trials, 21 active comparator and 2 open-label trials. Background therapies included diet and exercise, metformin, a sulphonylurea, a thiazolidinedione or a combination of oral glucose-lowering agents. The reactions are listed below as MedDRA preferred term by system organ class and absolute frequency. Frequencies are defined as: very common (≥ 1/10), common (≥ 1/100 to < 1/10), uncommon (≥ 1/1000 to < 1/100), rare (≥ 1/10000 to < 1/1000), very rare (< 1/10000) and not known (cannot be estimated from the available data).Table 1: Adverse reactions of prolonged-release exenatide identified from clinical trials and spontaneous reports
|System organ class /adverse reaction terms||Frequency of occurrence|
|Very common||Common||Uncommon||Rare||Very rare||Not known|
|Immune system disorders|
|Metabolism and nutrition disorders|
|Hypoglycaemia (with a sulphonylurea)||X1|
|Nervous system disorders|
|Acute pancreatitis (see section 4.4)||X2|
|Gastroesophageal reflux disease||X1|
|Skin and subcutaneous tissue disorders|
|Macular and papular rash||X2|
|Pruritus, and/ or urticaria||X1|
|Injection site abscesses and cellulitis||X2|
|Renal and urinary disorders|
|Altered renal function, including acute renal failure, worsened chronic renal failure, renal impairment, increased serum creatinine (see section 4.4).||X1|
|General disorders and administration site conditions|
|Injection site pruritus||X1|
|Injection site erythema||X1|
|Injection site rash||X1|
|International normalised ratio increased (see section 4.4)||X2|
Description of selected adverse reactions
HypoglycaemiaThe incidence of hypoglycaemia was increased when prolonged-release exenatide was used in combination with a sulphonylurea (24.0 % versus 5.4 %) (see section 4.4). To reduce the risk of hypoglycaemia associated with the use of a sulphonylurea, reduction in the dose of sulphonylurea may be considered (see sections 4.2 and 4.4). Prolonged-release exenatide was associated with a significantly lower incidence of episodes of hypoglycaemia than basal insulin in patients also receiving metformin therapy (3 % versus 19 %) and in patients also receiving metformin plus sulphonylurea therapy (20 % versus 42 %). Across 11 studies of prolonged-release exenatide most episodes (99.9 % n=649) of hypoglycaemia were minor, and resolved with oral administration of carbohydrate. One patient was reported with major hypoglycaemia since he had a low blood glucose value (2.2 mmol/l) and requested assistance with oral carbohydrate treatment which resolved the event.
NauseaThe most frequently reported adverse reaction was nausea. In patients treated with prolonged-release exenatide, generally 20 % reported at least one episode of nausea compared to 34 % of immediate-release exenatide patients. Most episodes of nausea were mild to moderate. With continued therapy, the frequency decreased in most patients who initially experienced nausea. The incidence of withdrawal due to adverse events during the 30-week controlled trial was 6 % for prolonged-release exenatide-treated patients, 5 % for immediate-release exenatide treated patients. The most common adverse events leading to withdrawal in either treatment group were nausea and vomiting. Withdrawal due to nausea or vomiting each occurred in < 1 % for prolonged-release exenatide-treated patients and 1 % for immediate-release exenatide treated patients.
Injection site reactionsInjection site reactions were observed more frequently in prolonged-release exenatide-treated patients versus comparator-treated patients (16 % versus range of 2-7 %) during the 6-month controlled phase of studies. These injection site reactions were generally mild and usually did not lead to withdrawal from studies. Patients may be treated to relieve symptoms, while continuing treatment. Subsequent injections should use a different site of injection each week. In post marketing experiences, cases with injection site abscesses and cellulitis have been reported.Small subcutaneous injection site nodules were observed very frequently in clinical trials, consistent with the known properties of poly (D,L-lactide co-glycolide) polymer microsphere formulations. Most individual nodules were asymptomatic, did not interfere with study participation and resolved over 4 to 8 weeks.
ImmunogenicityConsistent with the potentially immunogenic properties of protein and peptide pharmaceuticals, patients may develop antibodies to exenatide following treatment with prolonged-release exenatide. In most patients who develop antibodies, antibody titres diminish over time. The presence of antibodies (high or low titres) is not predictive of glycaemic control for an individual patient. In clinical studies of prolonged-release exenatide, approximately 45 % of patients had low titre antibodies to exenatide at study endpoint. Overall the percentage of antibody positive patients was consistent across clinical trials. Overall, the level of glycaemic control (HbA1c) was comparable to that observed in those without antibody titres. On average in the phase 3 studies, 12 % of the patients had higher titre antibodies. In a proportion of these the glycaemic response to prolonged-release exenatide was absent at the end of the controlled period of studies; 2.6 % of patients showed no glucose improvement with higher titre antibodies whereas 1.6 % showed no improvement while antibody negative.Patients who developed antibodies to exenatide tend to have more injection site reactions (for example: redness of skin and itching), but otherwise similar rates and types of adverse events as those with no antibodies to exenatide. For prolonged-release exenatide-treated patients, the incidence of potentially immunogenic injection site reactions (most commonly pruritus with or without erythema) during the 30-week and the two 26-week studies, was 9 %. These reactions were less commonly observed in antibody-negative patients (4 %) compared with antibody-positive patients (13 %), with a greater incidence in those with higher titre antibodies.Examination of antibody-positive specimens revealed no significant cross-reactivity with similar endogenous peptides (glucagon or GLP-1).
Rapid weight lossIn a 30-week study, approximately 3 % (n=4/148) of prolonged-release exenatide-treated patients experienced at least one time period of rapid weight loss (recorded body weight loss between two consecutive study visits of greater than 1.5 kg/week).
Increased heart rateA mean increase in heart rate (HR) of 2.6 beats per minute (bpm) from baseline (74 bpm) was observed in pooled prolonged-release exenatide clinical studies. Fifteen percent of prolonged-release exenatide treated patients had mean increases in HR of ≥ 10 bpm; approximately 5% to 10% of subjects within the other treatment groups had mean increases in HR of ≥ 10 bpm.
Reporting of suspected adverse reactionsReporting suspected adverse reactions after authorisation of the medicinal product is important. It allows continued monitoring of the benefit/risk balance of the medicinal product. Healthcare professionals are asked to report any suspected adverse reactions via:
United KingdomYellow Card SchemeWebsite: www.mhra.gov.uk/yellowcard
IrelandHPRA Pharmacovigilance Earlsfort Terrace IRL - Dublin 2Tel: +353 1 6764971Fax: +353 1 6762517Website: www.hpra.iee-mail: email@example.com
MaltaADR ReportingWebsite: www.medicinesauthority.gov.mt/adrportal
Mechanism of actionExenatide is a glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonist that exhibits several antihyperglycaemic actions of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). The amino acid sequence of exenatide partially overlaps that of human GLP-1. Exenatide has been shown to bind to and activate the known human GLP-1 receptor in vitro, its mechanism of action mediated by cyclic AMP and/or other intracellular signalling pathways. Exenatide increases, on a glucose-dependent basis, the secretion of insulin from pancreatic beta cells. As blood glucose concentrations decrease, insulin secretion subsides. When exenatide was used in combination with metformin and/or a thiazolidinedione, no increase in the incidence of hypoglycaemia was observed over that of placebo in combination with metformin and/or a thiazolidinedione which may be due to this glucose-dependent insulinotropic mechanism (see section 4.4).Exenatide suppresses glucagon secretion which is known to be inappropriately elevated in patients with type 2 diabetes. Lower glucagon concentrations lead to decreased hepatic glucose output. However, exenatide does not impair the normal glucagon response and other hormone responses to hypoglycaemia. Exenatide slows gastric emptying thereby reducing the rate at which meal-derived glucose appears in the circulation. Administration of exenatide has been shown to reduce food intake, due to decreased appetite and increased satiety.
Pharmacodynamic effectsExenatide improves glycaemic control through the sustained effects of lowering both postprandial and fasting glucose concentrations in patients with type 2 diabetes. Unlike native GLP-1, prolonged-release exenatide has a pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profile in humans suitable for once weekly administration.A pharmacodynamic study with exenatide demonstrated in patients with type 2 diabetes (n=13) a restoration of first phase insulin secretion and improved second phase insulin secretion in response to an intravenous bolus of glucose.
Clinical efficacy and safetyThe results of long-term clinical studies of prolonged-release exenatide are presented below; these studies comprised 1628 subjects (804 treated with prolonged-release exenatide), 54 % men and 46 % women, 281 subjects (141 treated with prolonged-release exenatide) were ≥ 65 years of age.
Glycaemic controlIn two studies prolonged-release exenatide 2 mg once weekly has been compared to immediate-release exenatide 5 mcg given twice daily for 4 weeks followed by immediate-release exenatide 10 mcg given twice daily. One study was of 24 weeks in duration (n= 252) and the other of 30 weeks (n= 295) followed by an open labelled extension where all patients were treated with prolonged-release exenatide 2 mg once weekly for a further 22 weeks (n= 243). In both studies, decreases in HbA1c were evident in both treatment groups as early as the first post-treatment HbA1c measurement (weeks 4 or 6). Prolonged-release exenatide resulted in a statistically significant reduction in HbA1c compared to patients receiving immediate-release exenatide (Table 2). A clinically relevant effect of prolonged-release exenatide and immediate-release exenatide treated subjects was observed on HbA1c, regardless of the background anti-diabetic therapy in both studies.Clinically and statistically significantly more subjects on prolonged-release compared to immediate-release exenatide patients achieved an HbA1c reduction of ≤ 7 % or < 7 % in the two studies (p < 0.05 and p ≤ 0.0001 respectively). Both prolonged-release and immediate-release exenatide patients achieved a reduction in weight compared to baseline, although the difference between the two treatment arms was not significant. Further reductions in HbA1c and sustained weight loss were observed for at least 52 weeks in the patients completing both the controlled 30-week study and the uncontrolled study extension. The evaluable patients who switched from immediate-release to prolonged-release exenatide (n= 121) achieved the same improvement in HbA1c of - 2.0%, at the end of the 22 week extension compared to the initial baseline, as the patients treated with prolonged-release exenatide for 52 weeks.Table 2: Results of two trials of prolonged-release versus immediate-release exenatide in combination with diet and exercise alone, metformin and/or sulphonylurea and metformin and/or thiazolidinedione (intent to treat patients)
|24-Week Study||Prolonged-release exenatide 2 mg||Immediate-release exenatide 10 mcg twice daily|
|Mean HbA1c (%)|
|Change from baseline ( ± SE)||-1.6 (±0.1)**||-0.9 (±0.1)|
|Mean difference change from baseline between treatments(95 % CI)||-0.67 (-0.94, -0.39) **|
|Patients (%) achieving HbA1c < 7 %||58||30|
|Change in fasting plasma glucose (mmol/l) ( ± SE)||-1.4 (±0.2)||-0.3 (±0.2)|
|Mean body weight (kg)|
|Change from baseline ( ± SE)||-2.3 (±0.4)||-1.4 ( ± 0.4)|
|Mean difference change from baseline between treatments(95 % CI)||-0.95 (-1.91, 0.01)|
|Mean HbA1c (%)|
|Change from baseline( ± SE)||-1.9 (±0.1)*||-1.5 (±0.1)|
|Mean difference change from baseline between treatments(95 % CI)||-0.33 (-0.54, -0.12) *|
|Patients (%) achieving HbA1c ≤ 7 %||73||57|
|Change in fasting plasma glucose (mmol/l) ( ± SE)||-2.3 (±0.2)||-1.4( ±0.2)|
|Mean body weight (kg)|
|Change from baseline( ± SE)||-3.7 (±0.5)||-3.6 (±0.5)|
|Mean difference change from baseline between treatments(95 % CI)||-0.08 (-1.29, 1.12)|
|Prolonged-release exenatide 2 mg||Insulin glargine1|
|Mean HbA1c (%)|
|Change from baseline ( ± SE)||-1.5 ( ± 0.1)*||-1.3 ( ± 0.1)*|
|Mean difference change from baseline between treatments(95 % CI)||-0.16 (-0.29, -0.03)*|
|Patients (%) achieving HbA1c ≤ 7 %||62||54|
|Change in fasting serum glucose (mmol/l) ( ± SE)||-2.1 ( ± 0.2)||-2.8 ( ± 0.2)|
|Mean body weight (kg)|
|Change from baseline( ± SE)||-2.6 ( ± 0.2)||+1.4 ( ±0.2)|
|Mean difference change from baseline between treatments(95 % CI)||-4.05 (-4.57, -3.52)*|
|Prolonged-release exenatide 2 mg||Sitagliptin 100 mg||Pioglitazone 45 mg|
|Mean HbA1c (%)|
|Change from baseline( ± SE)||-1.6 (± 0.1)*||-0.9 (± 0.1)*||-1.2 (± 0.1)*|
|Mean difference change from baseline between treatments(95 % CI) versus sitagliptin||-0.63 (, -0.89, -0.37)**|
|Mean difference change from baseline between treatments(95 % CI) versus pioglitazone||-0.32 (-0.57, -0.06)*|
|Patients (%) achieving HbA1c ≤ 7 %||62||36||49|
|Change in fasting serum glucose (mmol/l) ( ± SE)||-1.8 (± 0.2)||-0.9 (± 0.2)||-1.5 (± 0.2)|
|Mean body weight (kg)|
|Change from baseline( ± SE)||-2.3 (± 0.3)||-0.8 (± 0.3)||+2.8 (± 0.3)|
|Mean difference change from baseline between treatments(95 % CI) versus sitagliptin||-1.54 (-2.35, -0.72)*|
|Mean difference change from baseline between treatments(95 % CI) versus pioglitazone||-5.10 (-5.91, -4.28)**|
Body weightA reduction in body weight compared to baseline has been observed in all prolonged-release exenatide studies. This reduction in body weight was seen in patients treated with prolonged-release exenatide irrespective of the occurrence of nausea although the reduction was larger in the group with nausea (mean reduction - 2.9 kg to - 5.2 kg with nausea versus - 2.2 kg to -2.9 kg without nausea). The proportion of patients who had both a reduction in weight and HbA1c ranged from 70 to 79 % (the proportion of patients who had a reduction of HbA1c ranged from 88 to 96 %).
Plasma/serum glucoseTreatment with prolonged-release exenatide resulted in significant reductions in fasting plasma/serum glucose concentrations, these reductions were observed as early as 4 weeks. Additional reductions in postprandial concentrations were also observed. The improvement in fasting plasma glucose concentrations was durable through 52 weeks.
Beta-cell functionClinical studies with prolonged-release exenatide have indicated improved beta-cell function, using measures such as the homeostasis model assessments (HOMA-B). The durability of effect on beta-cell function was maintained through 52 weeks.
Blood pressureA reduction in systolic blood pressure was observed in prolonged-release exenatide studies (2.9 mmHg to 4.7 mmHg). In the 30- week immediate-release exenatide comparator study both prolonged-release exenatide and immediate-release exenatide significantly reduced systolic blood pressure from base line (4.7±1.1 mmHg and 3.4±1.1 mmHg respectively) the difference between the treatments was not significant. Improvements in blood pressure were maintained through 52 weeks.
Fasting lipidsProlonged-release exenatide has shown no adverse effects on lipid parameters.
Paediatric populationThe European Medicines Agency has deferred the obligation to submit the results of studies with prolonged-release exenatide in one or more subsets of the paediatric population in type 2 diabetes mellitus (see section 4.2 for information on paediatric use).
AbsorptionFollowing weekly administration of 2 mg prolonged-release exenatide, mean exenatide concentrations exceeded minimal efficacious concentrations (~ 50 pg/ml) in 2 weeks with gradual increase in the average plasma exenatide concentration over 6 to 7 weeks. Subsequently, exenatide concentrations of approximately 300 pg/ml were maintained indicating that steady-state was achieved. Steady-state exenatide concentrations are maintained during the one-week interval between doses with minimal peak to trough fluctuation from this average therapeutic concentration.
DistributionThe mean apparent volume of distribution of exenatide following subcutaneous administration of a single dose of exenatide is 28 l.
Biotransformation and eliminationNonclinical studies have shown that exenatide is predominantly eliminated by glomerular filtration with subsequent proteolytic degradation. The mean apparent clearance of exenatide is 9 l/h. These pharmacokinetic characteristics of exenatide are independent of the dose. Approximately 10 weeks after discontinuation of prolonged-release exenatide therapy, mean plasma exenatide concentrations fell below minimal detectable concentrations.
Renal impairmentPopulation pharmacokinetic analysis of renal impaired patients receiving 2 mg prolonged-release exenatide indicate that there may be an increase in systemic exposure of approximately 74 % and 23 % (median prediction in each group) in moderate (N=10) and mild (N=56) renal impaired patients, respectively as compared to normal (N=84) renal function patients.
Hepatic insufficiencyNo pharmacokinetic study has been performed in patients with hepatic insufficiency. Exenatide is cleared primarily by the kidney; therefore hepatic dysfunction is not expected to affect blood concentrations of exenatide.
Gender, race and body weightGender, race and body weight have no clinically relevant influence on exenatide pharmacokinetics.
ElderlyData in elderly are limited, but suggest no marked changes in exenatide exposure with increased age up to about 75 years old. In a pharmacokinetic study of immediate-release exenatide in patients with type 2 diabetes, administration of exenatide (10 mcg) resulted in a mean increase of exenatide AUC by 36 % in 15 elderly subjects aged 75 to 85 years compared to 15 subjects aged 45 to 65 years likely related to reduced renal function in the older age group (see section 4.2).
Paediatric populationIn a single-dose pharmacokinetic study of immediate-release exenatide in 13 patients with type 2 diabetes and between the ages of 12 and 16 years, administration of exenatide (5 mcg) resulted in slightly lower mean AUC (16 % lower) and Cmax (25 % lower) compared to those observed in adults. No pharmacokinetics study of prolonged-release exenatide has been conducted in the paediatric population.
Solventcarmellose sodium sodium chloridepolysorbate 20sodium dihydrogen phosphate monohydratedisodium phosphate heptahydratewater for injections
After suspensionThe suspension must be injected immediately after mixing the powder and the solvent.
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