- 1. Name of the medicinal product
- 2. Qualitative and quantitative composition
- 3. Pharmaceutical form
- 4. Clinical particulars
- 4.1 Therapeutic indications
- 4.2 Posology and method of administration
- 4.3 Contraindications
- 4.4 Special warnings and precautions for use
- 4.5 Interaction with other medicinal products and other forms of interaction
- 4.6 Fertility, pregnancy and lactation
- 4.7 Effects on ability to drive and use machines
- 4.8 Undesirable effects
- 4.9 Overdose
- 5. Pharmacological properties
- 5.1 Pharmacodynamic properties
- 5.2 Pharmacokinetic properties
- 5.3 Preclinical safety data
- 6. Pharmaceutical particulars
- 6.1 List of excipients
- 6.2 Incompatibilities
- 6.3 Shelf life
- 6.4 Special precautions for storage
- 6.5 Nature and contents of container
- 6.6 Special precautions for disposal and other handling
- 7. Marketing authorisation holder
- 8. Marketing authorisation number(s)
- 9. Date of first authorisation/renewal of the authorisation
- 10. Date of revision of the text
PosologyThe recommended dose of Prolia is 60 mg administered as a single subcutaneous injection once every 6 months into the thigh, abdomen or upper arm.Patients must be adequately supplemented with calcium and vitamin D (see section 4.4).
Patients with renal impairmentNo dose adjustment is required in patients with renal impairment (see sections 4.4 for recommendations relating to monitoring of calcium).
Patients with hepatic impairmentThe safety and efficacy of denosumab have not been studied in patients with hepatic impairment (see section 5.2).
Elderly Patients (age ≥ 65)No dose adjustment is required in elderly patients.
Paediatric populationProlia is not recommended in paediatric patients (age < 18) as the safety and efficacy of Prolia in these patients have not been established. Inhibition of RANK/RANK ligand (RANKL) in animal studies has been coupled to inhibition of bone growth and lack of tooth eruption (see also section 5.3).
Method of administrationAdministration should be performed by an individual who has been adequately trained in injection techniques. For subcutaneous use.The instructions for use, handling and disposal are given in section 6.6.
Calcium and Vitamin D supplementationAdequate intake of calcium and vitamin D is important in all patients.
Precautions for use
HypocalcaemiaIt is important to identify patients at risk for hypocalcaemia. Hypocalcaemia must be corrected by adequate intake of calcium and vitamin D before initiating therapy. Clinical monitoring of calcium levels is recommended before each dose and, in patients predisposed to hypocalcaemia within two weeks after the initial dose. If any patient presents with suspected symptoms of hypocalcaemia during treatment (see section 4.8 for symptoms) calcium levels should be measured. Patients should be encouraged to report symptoms indicative of hypocalcaemia.In the post-marketing setting, severe symptomatic hypocalcaemia has been reported (see section 4.8), with most cases occurring in the first weeks of initiating therapy, but it can occur later.
Skin InfectionsPatients receiving Prolia may develop skin infections (predominantly cellulitis) leading to hospitalisation (see section 4.8). Patients should be advised to seek prompt medical attention if they develop signs or symptoms of cellulitis.
Osteonecrosis of the Jaw (ONJ)ONJ has been reported rarely in clinical studies and in the post marketing setting in patients receiving denosumab at a dose of 60 mg every 6 months for osteoporosis. ONJ has been reported commonly in clinical studies in patients with advanced cancer treated with denosumab at the studied dose of 120 mg administered monthly. Known risk factors for ONJ include previous treatment with bisphosphonates, older age, poor oral hygiene, invasive dental procedures (e.g. tooth extractions, dental implants, oral surgery), and co-morbid disorders (e.g. pre-existing dental disease, anaemia, coagulopathy, infection), smoking, a diagnosis of cancer with bone lesions, concomitant therapies (e.g., chemotherapy, antiangiogenic biologics, corticosteroids, radiotherapy to head and neck).It is important to evaluate patients for risk factors for ONJ before starting treatment. A dental examination with appropriate preventive dentistry is recommended prior to treatment with Prolia in patients with concomitant risk factors. All patients should be encouraged to maintain good oral hygiene, receive routine dental check-ups, and immediately report any oral symptoms such as dental mobility, pain or swelling during treatment with Prolia.While on treatment, patients should avoid invasive dental procedures if possible. For patients who develop ONJ while on Prolia therapy, dental surgery may exacerbate the condition. The management plan of the individual patients who develop ONJ should be set up in close collaboration between the treating physician and a dentist or oral surgeon with expertise in ONJ. Temporary interruption of treatment should be considered until the condition resolves and contributing risk factors are mitigated where possible
Atypical fractures of the femurAtypical femoral fractures have been reported in patients receiving Prolia (see section 4.8). Atypical femoral fractures may occur with little or no trauma in the subtrochanteric and diaphyseal regions of the femur. Specific radiographic findings characterize these events. Atypical femoral fractures have also been reported in patients with certain comorbid conditions (e.g. vitamin D deficiency, rheumatoid arthritis, hypophosphatasia) and with use of certain pharmaceutical agents (e.g. bisphosphonates, glucocorticoids, proton pump inhibitors). These events have also occurred without antiresorptive therapy. Similar fractures reported in association with bisphosphonates are often bilateral; therefore the contralateral femur should be examined in Prolia-treated patients who have sustained a femoral shaft fracture. Discontinuation of Prolia therapy in patients suspected to have an atypical femur fracture should be considered pending evaluation of the patient based on an individual benefit risk assessment. During Prolia treatment, patients should be advised to report new or unusual thigh, hip, or groin pain. Patients presenting with such symptoms should be evaluated for an incomplete femoral fracture.
Dry natural rubberThe needle cover of the pre-filled syringe contains dry natural rubber (a derivative of latex), which may cause allergic reactions.
Concomitant treatment with other denosumab-containing medicinal productsPatients being treated with Prolia should not be treated concomitantly with other denosumab-containing medicinal products (for prevention of skeletal related events in adults with bone metastases from solid tumours).
Renal impairmentPatients with severe renal impairment (creatinine clearance < 30 ml/min) or receiving dialysis are at greater risk of developing hypocalcaemia. The risks of developing hypocalcaemia and accompanying parathyroid hormone elevations increase with increasing degree of renal impairment. Adequate intake of calcium, vitamin D and regular monitoring of calcium is especially important in these patients, see above.
Warnings for ExcipientsPatients with rare hereditary problems of fructose intolerance should not use Prolia.This medicinal product contains less than 1 mmol sodium (23 mg) per 60 mg i.e. essentially 'sodium-free'.
PregnancyThere are no adequate data from the use of Prolia in pregnant women. Reproductive toxicity was shown in a study of cynomolgus monkeys, dosed throughout pregnancy with denosumab at AUC exposures 119-fold higher than the human dose (see section 5.3).Prolia is not recommended for use in pregnant women.Women who become pregnant during Prolia treatment are encouraged to enrol in Amgen's Pregnancy Surveillance programme. Contact details are provided in section 6 of the Package Leaflet Information for the user.
Breast-feedingIt is unknown whether denosumab is excreted in human milk. In genetically engineered mice in which RANKL has been turned off by gene removal (a knockout mouse), studies suggest absence of RANKL (the target of denosumab see section 5.1) during pregnancy may interfere with maturation of the mammary gland leading to impaired lactation post-partum (see section 5.3). A decision on whether to abstain from breast-feeding or to abstain from therapy with Prolia should be made, taking into account the benefit of breast-feeding to the newborn/infant and the benefit of Prolia therapy to the woman.Women who are nursing during Prolia treatment are encouraged to enrol in Amgen's Lactation Surveillance Program. Contact details are provided in section 6 of the Package Leaflet Information for the user.
FertilityNo data are available on the effect of denosumab on human fertility. Animal studies do not indicate direct or indirect harmful effects with respect to fertility (see section 5.3).
Summary of the safety profileThe overall safety profile of Prolia was similar in patients with osteoporosis and in breast or prostate cancer patients receiving hormone ablation in five Phase III placebo-controlled clinical trials. Uncommon cases of cellulitis; rare cases of hypocalcaemia, hypersensitivity, osteonecrosis of the jaw and atypical femoral fractures (see sections 4.4 and section 4.8 - description of selected adverse reactions) have been observed with Prolia.
Tabulated list of adverse reactionsThe data in Table 1 below describe adverse reactions reported from Phase II and III clinical trials in patients with osteoporosis and breast or prostate cancer patients receiving hormone ablation; and/or spontaneous reporting.The following convention has been used for the classification of the adverse reactions (see table 1): very common (≥ 1/10), common (≥ 1/100 to < 1/10), uncommon (≥ 1/1,000 to < 1/100), rare (≥ 1/10,000 to < 1/1,000) and very rare (< 1/10,000) based on crude incidence rates. Within each frequency grouping and system organ class, undesirable effects are presented in order of decreasing seriousness.
Table 1 Adverse reactions reported in patients with osteoporosis and breast or prostate cancer patients receiving hormone ablation
|MedDRA system organ class||Frequency category||Adverse reactions|
|Infections and infestations||Common Common Uncommon Uncommon Uncommon||Urinary tract infection Upper respiratory tract infection Diverticulitis1Cellulitis1Ear infection|
|Immune system disorders||Rare Rare||Drug hypersensitivity1Anaphylactic reaction1|
|Metabolism and nutrition disorders||Rare||Hypocalcaemia1|
|Nervous system disorders||Common||Sciatica|
|Gastrointestinal disorders||Common Common||Constipation Abdominal discomfort|
|Skin and subcutaneous tissue disorders||Common Common||Rash Eczema|
|Musculoskeletal and connective tissue disorders||Very common Very common Rare Rare||Pain in extremity Musculoskeletal pain1Osteonecrosis of the jaw1Atypical femoral fractures1|
Description of selected adverse reactions
HypocalcaemiaIn two phase III placebo-controlled clinical trials in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis, approximately 0.05% (2 out of 4,050) of patients had declines of serum calcium levels (less than 1.88 mmol/l) following Prolia administration. Declines of serum calcium levels (less than 1.88 mmol/l) were not reported in either the two phase III placebo-controlled clinical trials in patients receiving hormone ablation or the phase III placebo-controlled clinical trial in men with osteoporosis. In the post-marketing setting, rare cases of severe symptomatic hypocalcaemia have been predominantly reported in patients at increased risk of hypocalcaemia receiving Prolia, with most cases occurring in the first weeks of initiating therapy. Examples of the clinical manifestations of severe symptomatic hypocalcaemia have included QT interval prolongation, tetany, seizures and altered mental status (see section 4.4). Symptoms of hypocalcaemia in denosumab clinical studies included paresthesias or muscle stiffness, twitching, spasms and muscle cramps.
Skin infectionsIn phase III placebo-controlled clinical trials, the overall incidence of skin infections was similar in the placebo and the Prolia groups in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis (placebo [1.2%, 50 out of 4,041] versus Prolia [1.5%, 59 out of 4,050]); in men with osteoporosis (placebo [0.8%, 1 out of 120] versus Prolia [0%, 0 out of 120]) and in breast or prostate cancer patients receiving hormone ablation (placebo [1.7%, 14 out of 845] versus Prolia [1.4%, 12 out of 860]). Skin infections leading to hospitalisation were reported in 0.1% (3 out of 4,041) of postmenopausal women with osteoporosis receiving placebo versus 0.4% (16 out of 4,050) of women receiving Prolia. These cases were predominantly cellulitis. Skin infections reported as serious adverse reactions were similar in the placebo (0.6%, 5 out of 845) and the Prolia (0.6%, 5 out of 860) groups in the breast and prostate cancer studies.
Osteonecrosis of the jawIn clinical trials in osteoporosis and in breast or prostate cancer patients receiving hormone ablation (12347 patients, 9912 treated ≥ 1 year), ONJ was reported rarely with Prolia (see section 4.4).
Atypical fractures of the femurIn the osteoporosis clinical trial program, atypical femoral fractures were reported rarely in patients treated with Prolia (see section 4.4).
CataractsIn a single phase III placebo-controlled clinical trial in patients with prostate cancer receiving androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) an imbalance in cataract adverse events was observed (4.7% denosumab, 1.2% placebo). No imbalance was observed in postmenopausal women or men with osteoporosis or in women undergoing aromatase inhibitor therapy for nonmetastatic breast cancer.
DiverticulitisIn a single phase III placebo-controlled clinical trial in patients with prostate cancer receiving ADT an imbalance in diverticulitis adverse events was observed (1.2% denosumab, 0% placebo). The incidence of diverticulitis was comparable between treatment groups in postmenopausal women or men with osteoporosis and in women undergoing aromatase inhibitor therapy for nonmetastatic breast cancer.
Drug-related hypersensitivity reactionsIn the post-marketing setting, rare events of drug-related hypersensitivity, including rash, urticaria, facial swelling, erythema, and anaphylactic reactions have been reported in patients receiving Prolia.
Musculoskeletal painMusculoskeletal pain, including severe cases, has been reported in patients receiving Prolia in the post-marketing setting. In clinical trials, musculoskeletal pain was very common in both denosumab and placebo groups. Musculoskeletal pain leading to discontinuation of study treatment was uncommon.
Other special populationsIn clinical studies, patients with severe renal impairment (creatinine clearance < 30 ml/min) or receiving dialysis were at greater risk of developing hypocalcaemia in the absence of calcium supplementation. Adequate intake of calcium and vitamin D is important in patients with severe renal impairment or receiving dialysis (see section 4.4).
Reporting of suspected adverse reactionsReporting suspected adverse reactions after authorisation of the medicinal product is important. It allows continued monitoring of the benefit/risk balance of the medicinal product. Healthcare professionals are asked to report any suspected adverse reactions via:
United KingdomYellow Card SchemeWebsite: www.mhra.gov.uk/yellowcard
IrelandHPRA PharmacovigilanceEarlsfort Terrace IRL - Dublin 2Tel: +353 1 6764971Fax: +353 1 6762517Website: www.hpra.iee-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Mechanism of actionDenosumab is a human monoclonal antibody (IgG2) that targets and binds with high affinity and specificity to RANKL, preventing activation of its receptor, RANK, on the surface of osteoclast precursors and osteoclasts. Prevention of the RANKL/RANK interaction inhibits osteoclast formation, function and survival, thereby decreasing bone resorption in cortical and trabecular bone.
Pharmacodynamic effectsProlia treatment rapidly reduced the rate of bone turnover, reaching a nadir for the bone resorption marker serum type 1 C-telopeptides (CTX) (85% reduction) by 3 days, with reductions maintained over the dosing interval. At the end of each dosing interval, CTX reductions were partially attenuated from maximal reduction of ≥ 87% to approximately ≥ 45% (range 45-80%), reflecting the reversibility of Prolia's effects on bone remodelling once serum levels diminish. These effects were sustained with continued treatment. Bone turnover markers generally reached pre-treatment levels within 9 months after the last dose. Upon re-initiation, reductions in CTX by denosumab were similar to those observed in patients initiating primary denosumab treatment.
ImmunogenicityIn clinical studies, neutralising antibodies have not been observed for Prolia. Using a sensitive immunoassay < 1% of patients treated with denosumab for up to 5 years tested positive for non neutralising binding antibodies with no evidence of altered pharmacokinetics, toxicity, or clinical response.
Treatment of osteoporosis in postmenopausal womenEfficacy and safety of Prolia administered once every 6 months for 3 years were investigated in post-menopausal women (7,808 women aged 60-91 years, of which 23.6% had prevalent vertebral fractures) with baseline bone mineral density (BMD) T-scores at the lumbar spine or total hip between 2.5 and 4.0 and a mean absolute 10-year fracture probability of 18.60% (deciles: 7.9-32.4%) for major osteoporotic fracture and 7.22% (deciles: 1.4-14.9%) for hip fracture. Women with other diseases or on therapies that may affect bone were excluded from this study. Women received calcium (at least 1,000 mg) and vitamin D (at least 400 IU) supplementation daily.
Effect on vertebral fracturesProlia significantly reduced the risk of new vertebral fractures at 1, 2 and 3 years (p < 0.0001) (see table 2).
Table 2 The effect of Prolia on the risk of new vertebral fractures
|Proportion of women with fracture (%)||Absolute risk reduction (%) (95% CI)||Relative risk reduction (%) (95% CI)|
|Placebo n = 3,906||Prolia n = 3,902|
|0-1 year||2.2||0.9||1.4 (0.8, 1.9)||61 (42, 74)**|
|0-2 years||5.0||1.4||3.5 (2.7, 4.3)||71 (61,79)**|
|0-3 years||7.2||2.3||4.8 (3.9, 5.8)||68 (59, 74)*|
Effect on hip fracturesProlia demonstrated a 40% relative reduction (0.5% absolute risk reduction) in the risk of hip fracture over 3 years (p < 0.05). The incidence of hip fracture was 1.2% in the placebo group compared to 0.7% in the Prolia group at 3 years. In a post-hoc analysis in women > 75 years, a 62% relative risk reduction was observed with Prolia (1.4% absolute risk reduction, p < 0.01).
Effect on all clinical fracturesProlia significantly reduced fractures across all fracture types/groups (see table 3).
Table 3 The effect of Prolia on the risk of clinical fractures over 3 years
|Proportion of women with fracture (%)+||Absolute risk reduction (%) (95% CI)||Relative risk reduction (%) (95% CI)|
|Placebo n = 3,906||Prolia n = 3,902|
|Any clinical fracture1||10.2||7.2||2.9 (1.6, 4.2)||30 (19, 41)***|
|Clinical vertebral fracture||2.6||0.8||1.8 (1.2, 2.4)||69 (53, 80)***|
|Non-vertebral fracture2||8.0||6.5||1.5 (0.3, 2.7)||20 (5, 33)**|
|Major non-vertebral fracture3||6.4||5.2||1.2 (0.1, 2.2)||20 (3, 34)*|
|Major osteoporotic fracture4||8.0||5.3||2.7 (1.6, 3.9)||35 (22, 45)***|
Effect on bone mineral densityProlia significantly increased BMD at all clinical sites measured, versus placebo at 1, 2 and 3 years. Prolia increased BMD by 9.2% at the lumbar spine, 6.0% at the total hip, 4.8% at the femoral neck, 7.9% at the hip trochanter, 3.5% at the distal 1/3 radius and 4.1% at the total body over 3 years (all p < 0.0001). In clinical studies examining the effects of discontinuation of Prolia, BMD returned to approximately pre-treatment levels and remained above placebo within 18 months of the last dose. These data indicate that continued treatment with Prolia is required to maintain the effect of the medicinal product. Re-initiation of Prolia resulted in gains in BMD similar to those when Prolia was first administered.
Open-label Extension Study in the Treatment of Postmenopausal OsteoporosisA total of 4550 women (2343 Prolia & 2207 placebo) who missed no more than one dose of investigational product in the pivotal study described above and completed the month 36 study visit agreed to enrol in a 7-year, multinational, multicentre, open-label, single-arm extension study to evaluate the long-term safety and efficacy of Prolia. All women in the extension study received Prolia 60 mg every 6 months, as well as daily calcium (at least 1 g) and vitamin D (at least 400 IU). At month 60 of the extension study, after 8 years of Prolia treatment, the long-term group (n = 1542) had increased in BMD by 18.4% at the lumbar spine, 8.3% at the total hip, 7.8% at the femoral neck and 11.6% at the trochanter from the original pivotal study baseline. Fracture incidence was evaluated as a safety endpoint. In years 4 through 8, the rates of new vertebral and non-vertebral fractures did not increase over time; annualised rates were approximately 1.1% and 1.3% respectively. Eight adjudicated cases of osteonecrosis of the jaw (ONJ) and two atypical fractures of the femur have occurred during the extension study.
Treatment of osteoporosis in menEfficacy and safety of Prolia once every 6 months for 1 year were investigated in 242 men aged 31-84 years. Subjects with an eGFR < 30 ml/min/1.73 m2 were excluded from the study. All men received calcium (at least 1,000 mg) and vitamin D (at least 800 IU) supplementation daily. The primary efficacy variable was percent change in lumbar spine BMD, fracture efficacy was not evaluated. Prolia significantly increased BMD at all clinical sites measured, relative to placebo at 12 months: 4.8% at lumbar spine, 2.0% at total hip, 2.2% at femoral neck, 2.3% at hip trochanter, and 0.9% at distal 1/3 radius (all p < 0.05). Prolia increased lumbar spine BMD from baseline in 94.7% of men at 1 year. Significant increases in BMD at lumbar spine, total hip, femoral neck and hip trochanter were observed by 6 months (p < 0.0001).
Bone histologyBone histology was evaluated in 62 postmenopausal women with osteoporosis or with low bone mass who were either naïve to osteoporosis therapies or had transitioned from previous alendronate therapy following 1-3 years treatment with Prolia. Forty-one women participated in the bone biopsy sub-study at month 24 of the extension study. Bone histology was also evaluated in 17 men with osteoporosis following 1 year treatment with Prolia. Bone biopsy results showed bone of normal architecture and quality with no evidence of mineralisation defects, woven bone or marrow fibrosis.
Treatment of bone loss associated with androgen deprivationEfficacy and safety of Prolia once every 6 months for 3 years were investigated in men with histologically confirmed non-metastatic prostate cancer receiving ADT (1,468 men aged 48-97 years) who were at increased risk of fracture (defined as > 70 years, or < 70 years with a BMD T-score at the lumbar spine, total hip, or femoral neck < -1.0 or a history of an osteoporotic fracture.) All men received calcium (at least 1,000 mg) and vitamin D (at least 400 IU) supplementation daily. Prolia significantly increased BMD at all clinical sites measured, relative to treatment with placebo at 3 years: 7.9% at the lumbar spine, 5.7% at the total hip, 4.9% at the femoral neck, 6.9% at the hip trochanter, 6.9% at the distal 1/3 radius and 4.7% at the total body (all p < 0.0001). In a prospectively planned exploratory analysis, significant increases in BMD were observed at the lumbar spine, total hip, femoral neck and the hip trochanter 1 month after the initial dose.Prolia demonstrated a significant relative risk reduction of new vertebral fractures: 85% (1.6% absolute risk reduction) at 1 year, 69% (2.2% absolute risk reduction) at 2 years and 62% (2.4% absolute risk reduction) at 3 years (all p < 0.01).
Treatment of bone loss associated with adjuvant aromatase inhibitor therapyEfficacy and safety of Prolia once every 6 months for 2 years was investigated in women with non-metastatic breast cancer (252 women aged 35-84 years) and baseline BMD T-scores between -1.0 to -2.5 at the lumbar spine, total hip or femoral neck. All women received calcium (at least 1,000 mg) and vitamin D (at least 400 IU) supplementation daily. The primary efficacy variable was percent change in lumbar spine BMD, fracture efficacy was not evaluated. Prolia significantly increased BMD at all clinical sites measured, relative to treatment with placebo at 2 years: 7.6% at lumbar spine, 4.7% at total hip, 3.6% at femoral neck, 5.9% at hip trochanter, 6.1% at distal 1/3 radius and 4.2% at total body (all p < 0.0001).
Paediatric populationThe European Medicines Agency has waived the obligation to submit the results of studies with Prolia in all subsets of the paediatric population in the treatment of bone loss associated with sex hormone ablative therapy, and in subsets of the paediatric population below the age of 2 in the treatment of osteoporosis. See section 4.2 for information on paediatric use.
AbsorptionFollowing subcutaneous administration of a 1.0 mg/kg dose, which approximates the approved 60 mg dose, exposure based on AUC was 78% as compared to intravenous administration at the same dose level. For a 60 mg subcutaneous dose, maximum serum denosumab concentrations (Cmax) of 6 μg/ml (range 1-17 μg/ml) occurred in 10 days (range 2-28 days).
BiotransformationDenosumab is composed solely of amino acids and carbohydrates as native immunoglobulin and is unlikely to be eliminated via hepatic metabolic mechanisms. Its metabolism and elimination are expected to follow the immunoglobulin clearance pathways, resulting in degradation to small peptides and individual amino acids.
EliminationAfter Cmax, serum levels declined with a half-life of 26 days (range 6-52 days) over a period of 3 months (range 1.5-4.5 months). Fifty-three percent (53%) of patients had no measurable amounts of denosumab detected at 6 months post-dose.No accumulation or change in denosumab pharmacokinetics with time was observed upon subcutaneous multiple-dosing of 60 mg once every 6 months. Denosumab pharmacokinetics was not affected by the formation of binding antibodies to denosumab and was similar in men and women. Age (28-87 years), race and disease state (low bone mass or osteoporosis; prostate or breast cancer) do not appear to significantly affect the pharmacokinetics of denosumab.A trend was observed between higher body weight and lower exposure based on AUC and Cmax. However, the trend is not considered clinically important, since pharmacodynamic effects based on bone turnover markers and BMD increases were consistent across a wide range of body weight.
Linearity/non-linearityIn dose ranging studies, denosumab exhibited non-linear, dose-dependent pharmacokinetics, with lower clearance at higher doses or concentrations, but approximately dose-proportional increases in exposures for doses of 60 mg and greater.
Renal impairmentIn a study of 55 patients with varying degrees of renal function, including patients on dialysis, the degree of renal impairment had no effect on the pharmacokinetics of denosumab.
Hepatic impairmentNo specific study in patients with hepatic impairment was performed. In general, monoclonal antibodies are not eliminated via hepatic metabolic mechanisms. The pharmacokinetics of denosumab is not expected to be affected by hepatic impairment.
Paediatric populationThe pharmacokinetic profile in paediatric populations has not been assessed.
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