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Pradaxa 110 mg hard capsules

Last Updated on eMC 05-Nov-2014 View changes  | Boehringer Ingelheim Limited Contact details

1. Name of the medicinal product

Pradaxa 110 mg hard capsules

2. Qualitative and quantitative composition

Each hard capsule contains 110 mg of dabigatran etexilate (as mesilate).

Excipient(s) with known effect:

Each hard capsule contains 3 micrograms of sunset yellow (E110).

For the full list of excipients, see section 6.1.

3. Pharmaceutical form

Hard capsule

Capsules with light blue, opaque cap and cream-coloured, opaque body of size 1 filled with yellowish pellets. The cap is imprinted with the Boehringer Ingelheim company symbol, the body with “R110”.

4. Clinical particulars
4.1 Therapeutic indications

Primary prevention of venous thromboembolic events in adult patients who have undergone elective total hip replacement surgery or total knee replacement surgery.

Prevention of stroke and systemic embolism in adult patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF), with one or more risk factors, such as prior stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA); age ≥ 75 years; heart failure (NYHA Class ≥ II); diabetes mellitus; hypertension.

Treatment of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE), and prevention of recurrent DVT and PE in adults

4.2 Posology and method of administration

Posology

Primary prevention of Venous Thromboembolism in Orthopaedic Surgery (pVTEp orthopaedic surgery)

Patients following elective knee replacement surgery

The recommended dose of Pradaxa is 220 mg once daily taken as 2 capsules of 110 mg. Treatment should be initiated orally within 1-4 hours of completed surgery with a single capsule of 110 mg and continuing with 2 capsules once daily thereafter for a total of 10 days.

Patients following elective hip replacement surgery

The recommended dose of Pradaxa is 220 mg once daily taken as 2 capsules of 110 mg. Treatment should be initiated orally within 1-4 hours of completed surgery with a single capsule of 110 mg and continuing with 2 capsules once daily thereafter for a total of 28-35 days.

For the following groups the recommended daily dose of Pradaxa is 150 mg taken once daily as 2 capsules of 75 mg.

Treatment should be initiated orally within 1-4 hours of completed surgery with a single capsule of 75 mg and continuing with 2 capsules once daily thereafter for a total of 10 days (knee replacement surgery) or 28-35 days (hip replacement surgery):

• Patients with moderate renal impairment (creatinine clearance (CrCL) 30-50 mL/min) [see Renal impairment (pVTEp orthopaedic surgery)]

• Patients who receive concomitant verapamil, amiodarone, quinidine [see Concomitant use of Pradaxa with mild to moderate P-glycoprotein (P-gp) inhibitors, i.e. amiodarone, quinidine or verapamil (pVTEp orthopaedic surgery)]

• Patients aged 75 or above [see Elderly (pVTEp orthopaedic surgery)]

For both surgeries, if haemostasis is not secured, initiation of treatment should be delayed. If treatment is not started on the day of surgery then treatment should be initiated with 2 capsules once daily.

Assessment of renal function (pVTEp orthopaedic surgery):

In all patients:

• Renal function should be assessed by calculating the creatinine clearance (CrCL) prior to initiation of treatment with Pradaxa to exclude patients with severe renal impairment (i.e. CrCL < 30 mL/min) (see sections 4.3, 4.4 and 5.2). Pradaxa is contraindicated in patients with severe renal impairment

• Renal function should also be assessed when a decline in renal function is suspected during treatment (e.g. hypovolaemia, dehydration, and in case of concomitant use of certain medicinal products)

The method used to estimate renal function (CrCL in mL/min) during the clinical development of Pradaxa was the Cockgroft-Gault method. (see section 4.2 Pradaxa 75 mg)

This method is recommended when assessing patients' CrCL prior to and during Pradaxa treatment.

Special populations

Renal impairment (pVTEp orthopaedic surgery)

Treatment with Pradaxa in patients with severe renal impairment (CrCL < 30 mL/min) is contraindicated (see section 4.3).

In patients with moderate renal impairment (CrCL 30-50 mL/min), there is limited clinical experience. These patients should be treated with caution. The recommended dose is 150 mg taken once daily as 2 capsules of 75 mg (see sections 4.4 and 5.1).

Concomitant use of Pradaxa with mild to moderate P-glycoprotein (P-gp) inhibitors, i.e. amiodarone, quinidine or verapamil (pVTEp orthopaedic surgery)

Dosing should be reduced to 150 mg taken once daily as 2 capsules of 75 mg Pradaxa in patients who receive concomitantly dabigatran etexilate and amiodarone, quinidine or verapamil (see sections 4.4 and 4.5). In this situation Pradaxa and these medicinal products should be taken at the same time.

In patients with moderate renal impairment and concomitantly treated with dabigatran etexilate and verapamil, a dose reduction of Pradaxa to 75 mg daily should be considered (see sections 4.4 and 4.5).

Elderly (pVTEp orthopaedic surgery)

In elderly patients (> 75 years) there is limited clinical experience. These patients should be treated with caution. The recommended dose is 150 mg taken once daily as 2 capsules of 75 mg (see sections 4.4 and 5.1).

As renal impairment may be frequent in the elderly (>75 years), renal function should be assessed by calculating the CrCL prior to initiation of treatment with Pradaxa to exclude patients with severe renal impairment (i.e. CrCL < 30 mL/min). While on treatment the renal function should also be assessed in certain clinical situations when it is suspected that the renal function could decline or deteriorate (such as hypovolemia, dehydration, and with certain comedications, etc) (see sections 4.3, 4.4 and 5.2).

Hepatic impairment (pVTEp orthopaedic surgery)

Patients with elevated liver enzymes > 2 upper limit of normal (ULN) were excluded in clinical trials investigating the VTE prevention following elective hip or knee replacement surgery. No treatment experience is available for this subpopulation of patients, and therefore the use of Pradaxa is not recommended in this population (see sections 4.4 and 5.2). Hepatic impairment or liver disease expected to have any impact on survival is contraindicated (see section 4.3).

Weight (pVTEp orthopaedic surgery)

There is very limited clinical experience in patients with a body weight < 50 kg or > 110 kg at the recommended posology. Given the available clinical and kinetic data no adjustment is necessary (see section 5.2), but close clinical surveillance is recommended (see section 4.4).

Gender (pVTEp orthopaedic surgery)

Given the available clinical and kinetic data, no dose adjustment is necessary (see section 5.2).

Switching (pVTEp orthopaedic surgery)

Pradaxa treatment to parenteral anticoagulant

It is recommended to wait 24 hours after the last dose before switching from Pradaxa to a parenteral anticoagulant (see section 4.5).

Parenteral anticoagulants to Pradaxa

Discontinue the parenteral anticoagulant and start dabigatran etexilate 0-2 hours prior to the time that the next dose of the alternate therapy would be due, or at the time of discontinuation in case of continuous treatment (e.g. intravenous Unfractionated Heparin (UFH)) (see section 4.5).

Paediatric population (pVTEp orthopaedic surgery)

There is no relevant use of Pradaxa in the paediatric population in the indication: primary prevention of venous thromboembolic events in patients who have undergone elective total hip replacement surgery or total knee replacement surgery.

Missed dose (pVTEp orthopaedic surgery)

It is recommended to continue with the remaining daily doses of dabigatran etexilate at the same time of the next day.

No double dose should be taken to make up for missed individual doses.

Posology (SPAF, DVT/PE)

Prevention of stroke and SEE in adult patients with NVAF with one or more risk factors (SPAF)

The recommended daily dose of Pradaxa is 300 mg taken as one 150 mg capsule twice daily. Therapy should be continued long term.

Treatment of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE), and prevention of recurrent DVT, and PE in adults (DVT/PE)

The recommended daily dose of Pradaxa is 300 mg taken as one 150 mg capsule twice daily following treatment with a parenteral anticoagulant for at least 5 days. The duration of therapy should be individualised after careful assessment of the treatment benefit against the risk for bleeding (see section 4.4). Short duration of therapy (at least 3 months) should be based on transient risk factors (e.g. recent surgery, trauma, imobilisation) and longer durations should be based on permanent risk factors or idiopathic DVT or PE.

SPAF, DVT/PE

For the following groups the recommended daily dose of Pradaxa is 220 mg taken as one 110 mg capsule twice daily:

• Patients aged 80 years or above

• Patients who receive concomitant verapamil

For the following groups the daily dose of Pradaxa of 300 mg or 220 mg should be selected based on an individual assessment of the thromboembolic risk and the risk of bleeding:

• Patients between 75-80 years

• Patients with moderate renal impairment

• Patients with gastritis, esophagitis or gastroesophageal reflux

• Other patients at increased risk of bleeding

For DVT/PE the recommendation for the use of Pradaxa 220 mg taken as one 110 mg capsule twice daily is based on pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic analyses and has not been studied in this clinical setting.

See further down and sections 4.4, 4.5, 5.1 and 5.2.

In case of intolerability to dabigatran, patients should be instructed to immediately consult their treating physician in order to be switched to alternate acceptable treatment options for prevention of stroke and SEE associated with atrial fibrillation or for DVT/PE.

Elderly (SPAF, DVT/PE)

Patients between 75-80 years should be treated with a daily dose of 300 mg taken as one 150 mg capsule twice daily. A dose of 220 mg taken as one 110 mg capsule twice daily can be individually considered, at the discretion of the physician, when the thromboembolic risk is low and the bleeding risk is high (see section 4.4).

Patients aged 80 years or above should be treated with a daily dose of 220 mg taken as one 110 mg capsule twice daily due to the increased risk of bleeding in this population.

As renal impairment may be frequent in the elderly (>75 years), renal function should be assessed by calculating the CrCL prior to initiation of treatment with Pradaxa to exclude patients with severe renal impairment (i.e. CrCL < 30 mL/min). The renal function should also be assessed at least once a year in patients treated with Pradaxa or more frequently as needed in certain clinical situations when it is suspected that the renal function could decline or deteriorate (such as hypovolemia, dehydration, and with certain comedications, etc) (see sections 4.3, 4.4 and 5.2).

Patients at risk of bleeding (SPAF, DVT/PE)

Patients with an increased bleeding risk (see sections 4.4, 4.5, 5.1 and 5.2) should be closely monitored clinically (looking for signs of bleeding or anaemia). Dose adjustment should be decided at the discretion of the physician, following assessment of the potential benefit and risk to an individual patient. A coagulation test (see section 4.4) may help to identify patients with an increased bleeding risk caused by excessive dabigatran exposure. When excessive dabigatran exposure is identified in patients at high risk of bleeding, a dose of 220 mg taken as one 110 mg capsule twice daily is recommended. When clinically relevant bleeding occurs, treatment should be interrupted.

For subjects with gastritis, esophagitis, or gastroesophageal reflux, the dose of 220 mg taken as one 110 mg capsule twice daily may be considered due to the elevated risk of major gastro-intestinal bleeding (see section 4.4).

Assessment of renal function (SPAF, DVT/PE):

In all patients:

• Renal function should be assessed by calculating the creatinine clearance (CrCL) prior to initiation of treatment with Pradaxa to exclude patients with severe renal impairment (i.e. CrCL < 30 mL/min) (see sections 4.3, 4.4 and 5.2). Pradaxa is contraindicated in patients with severe renal impairment

• Renal function should also be assessed when a decline in renal function is suspected during treatment (e.g. hypovolaemia, dehydration, and in case of concomitant use of certain medicinal products)

Additional requirements in patients with mild to moderate renal impairment and in patients aged over 75 years:

• Renal function should be assessed during treatment with Pradaxa at least once a year or more frequently as needed in certain clinical situations when it is suspected that the renal function could decline or deteriorate (e.g. hypovolaemia, dehydration, and in case of concomitant use of certain medicinal products)

The method used to estimate renal function (CrCL in mL/min) during the clinical development of Pradaxa was the Cockgroft-Gault method (see section 4.2 Pradaxa 75 mg).

Renal impairment (SPAF, DVT/PE)

Treatment with Pradaxa in patients with severe renal impairment (CrCL < 30 mL/min) is contraindicated (see section 4.3).

No dose adjustment is necessary in patients with mild renal impairment (CrCL 50- ≤ 80 mL/min). For patients with moderate renal impairment (CrCL 30-50 mL/min) the recommended dose of Pradaxa is also 300 mg taken as one 150 mg capsule twice daily. However, for patients with high risk of bleeding, a dose reduction of Pradaxa to 220 mg taken as one 110 mg capsule twice daily should be considered (see sections 4.4 and 5.2). Close clinical surveillance is recommended in patients with renal impairment.

Concomitant use of Pradaxa with mild to moderate P-glycoprotein (P-gp) inhibitors, i.e. amiodarone, quinidine or verapamil (SPAF, DVT/PE)

No dose adjustment is necessary for concomitant use of amiodarone or quinidine (see sections 4.4, 4.5 and 5.2).

Dosing should be reduced to 220 mg taken as one 110 mg capsule twice daily in patients who receive concomitantly dabigatran etexilate and verapamil (see sections 4.4 and 4.5). In this situation Pradaxa and verapamil should be taken at the same time.

Weight (SPAF, DVT/PE)

Given the available clinical and kinetic data, no dose adjustment is necessary (see section 5.2), but close clinical surveillance is recommended in patients with a body weight < 50 kg (see section 4.4).

Gender (SPAF, DVT/PE)

Given the available clinical and kinetic data, no dose adjustment is necessary (see section 5.2).

Hepatic impairment (SPAF, DVT/PE)

Patients with elevated liver enzymes > 2 upper limit of normal (ULN) were excluded in the main trials. No treatment experience is available for this subpopulation of patients, and therefore the use of Pradaxa is not recommended in this population (see sections 4.4 and 5.2). Hepatic impairment or liver disease expected to have any impact on survival is contraindicated (see section 4.3).

Switching (SPAF, DVT/PE)

Pradaxa treatment to parenteral anticoagulant

It is recommended to wait 12 hours after the last dose before switching from dabigatran etexilate to a parenteral anticoagulant (see section 4.5).

Parenteral anticoagulants to Pradaxa

Discontinue the parenteral anticoagulant and start dabigatran etexilate 0-2 hours prior to the time that the next dose of the alternate therapy would be due, or at the time of discontinuation in case of continuous treatment (e.g. intravenous Unfractionated Heparin (UFH)) (see section 4.5).

Pradaxa treatment to Vitamin K antagonists (VKA)

Adjust the starting time of the VKA based on CrCL as follows:

• CrCL ≥ 50 mL/min, start VKA 3 days before discontinuing dabigatran etexilate

• CrCL ≥ 30-< 50 mL/min, start VKA 2 days before discontinuing dabigatran etexilate

Because Pradaxa can increase INR, the INR will better reflect VKA's effect only after Pradaxa has been stopped for at least 2 days. Until then, INR values should be interpreted with caution.

VKA to Pradaxa

The VKA should be stopped. Dabigatran etexilate can be given as soon as the International Normalized Ratio (INR) is < 2.0.

Cardioversion (SPAF, DVT/PE)

Patients can stay on dabigatran etexilate while being cardioverted.

Paediatric population (SPAF)

There is no relevant use of Pradaxa in the paediatric population in the indication: prevention of stroke and systemic embolism in patients with NVAF.

Paediatric population (DVT/PE)

The safety and efficacy of Pradaxa in children from birth to less than 18 years of age have not yet been established. Currently available data are described in section 4.8 and 5.1, but no recommendation on a posology can be made.

Missed dose (SPAF, DVT/PE)

A forgotten dabigatran etexilate dose may still be taken up to 6 hours prior to the next scheduled dose. From 6 hours prior to the next scheduled dose on, the missed dose should be omitted.

No double dose should be taken to make up for missed individual doses.

Method of administration (pVTEp orthopaedic surgery, SPAF, DVT/PE)

Pradaxa can be taken with or without food. Pradaxa should be swallowed as a whole with a glass of water, to facilitate delivery to the stomach.

Patients should be instructed not to open the capsule as this may increase the risk of bleeding (see sections 5.2 and 6.6).

4.3 Contraindications

• Hypersensitivity to the active substance or to any of the excipients listed in section 6.1

• Patients with severe renal impairment (CrCL < 30 mL/min) (see section 4.2)

• Active clinically significant bleeding

• Lesion or condition, if considered a significant risk factor for major bleeding. This may include current or recent gastrointestinal ulceration, presence of malignant neoplasms at high risk of bleeding, recent brain or spinal injury, recent brain, spinal or ophthalmic surgery, recent intracranial haemorrhage, known or suspected oesophageal varices, arteriovenous malformations, vascular aneurysms or major intraspinal or intracerebral vascular abnormalities

• Concomitant treatment with any other anticoagulants e.g. unfractionated heparin (UFH), low molecular weight heparins (enoxaparin, dalteparin etc), heparin derivatives (fondaparinux etc), oral anticoagulants (warfarin, rivaroxaban, apixaban etc) except under specific circumstances of switching anticoagulant therapy (see section 4.2) or when UFH is given at doses necessary to maintain an open central venous or arterial catheter (see section 4.5)

• Hepatic impairment or liver disease expected to have any impact on survival

• Concomitant treatment with systemic ketoconazole, cyclosporine, itraconazole and dronedarone (see section 4.5)

• Prosthetic heart valves requiring anticoagulant treatment (see section 5.1).

4.4 Special warnings and precautions for use

Hepatic impairment

Patients with elevated liver enzymes > 2 ULN were excluded in the main trials. No treatment experience is available for this subpopulation of patients, and therefore the use of Pradaxa is not recommended in this population.

Haemorrhagic risk

Dabigatran etexilate should be used with caution in conditions with an increased risk of bleeding and in situations with concomitant use of drugs affecting haemostasis by inhibition of platelet aggregation. Bleeding can occur at any site during therapy with dabigatran etexilate. An unexplained fall in haemoglobin and/or haematocrit or blood pressure should lead to a search for a bleeding site.

Factors, such as decreased renal function (30-50 mL/min CrCL), age ≥ 75 years, low body weight < 50 kg, or mild to moderate P-gp inhibitor co-medication (e.g. amiodarone, quinidine or verapamil) are associated with increased dabigatran plasma levels (see sections 4.2, 4.5 and 5.2).

The concomitant use of ticagrelor increases the exposure to dabigatran and may show pharmacodynamic interaction, which may result in an increased risk of bleeding (see section 4.5).

In a study of prevention of stroke and SEE in adult patients with NVAF, dabigatran etexilate was associated with higher rates of major gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding which was statistically significant for dabigatran etexilate 150 mg twice daily. This increased risk was seen in the elderly (≥ 75 years). Use of acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), clopidogrel or non steroidal antiinflammatory drug (NSAID), as well as the presence of esophagitis, gastritis or gastroesophageal reflux increase the risk of GI bleeding. In these atrial fibrillation patients a dosage of 220 mg dabigatran given as 110 mg capsule twice daily should be considered and posology recommendations in section 4.2 be followed. The administration of a PPI can be considered to prevent GI bleeding.

Bleeding risk may be increased in patients concomitantly treated with selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors (SSRIs) or selective serotonin norepinephrine re-uptake inhibitors (SNRIs) (see section 4.5).

Close clinical surveillance (looking for signs of bleeding or anaemia) is recommended throughout the treatment period, especially if risk factors are combined (see section 5.1).

Table 1 summarises factors which may increase the haemorrhagic risk. Please also refer to contraindications in section 4.3.

Pharmacodynamic and kinetic factors

Age ≥ 75 years

Factors increasing dabigatran plasma levels

Major:

• Moderate renal impairment (30-50 mL/min CrCL)

• P-gp inhibitor co-medication (some P-gp inhibitors are contraindicated, see section 4.3 and 4.5)

Minor:

Low body weight (< 50 kg)

Pharmacodynamic interactions

• ASA

• NSAID

• Clopidogrel

• SSRIs or SNRIs

• Other drugs which may impair haemostasis

Diseases / procedures with special haemorrhagic risks

• Congenital or acquired coagulation disorders

• Thrombocytopenia or functional platelet defects

• Recent biopsy, major trauma

• Bacterial endocarditis

• Esophagitis, gastritis and gastroesophageal reflux

The presence of lesions, conditions, procedures and/or pharmacological treatment (such as NSAIDs, antiplatelets, SSRIs and SNRIs, see section 4.5), which significantly increase the risk of major bleeding requires a careful benefit-risk assessment. Pradaxa should only be given if the benefit outweighs bleeding risks.

Pradaxa does not in general require routine anticoagulant monitoring. However, the measurement of dabigatran related anticoagulation may be helpful to avoid excessive high exposure to dabigatran in the presence of additional risk factors. The INR test is unreliable in patients on Pradaxa and false positive INR elevations have been reported. Therefore INR tests should not be performed. Diluted thrombin time (dTT), ecarin clotting time (ECT) and activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) may provide useful information, but the tests are not standardised, and results should be interpreted with caution (see section 5.1).

Table 2 shows coagulation test thresholds at trough that may be associated with an increased risk of bleeding (see section 5.1)

Test (trough value)

Indication

 

pVTEp orthopaedic surgery

SPAF and DVT/PE

dTT [ng/mL]

> 67

> 200

ECT [x-fold upper limit of normal]

No data

> 3

aPTT [x-fold upper limit of normal]

> 1.3

> 2

INR

Should not be performed

Should not be performed

Patients who develop acute renal failure must discontinue Pradaxa (see section 4.3).

Limited data is available in patients < 50 kg (see section 5.2).

When severe bleedings occur treatment must be discontinued and the source of bleeding investigated (see section 4.9).

Medicinal products that may enhance the risk of haemorrhage should not be administered concomitantly or should be administered with caution with Pradaxa (see section 4.5).

Use of fibrinolytic medicinal products for the treatment of acute ischemic stroke

The use of fibrinolytic medicinal products for the treatment of acute ischemic stroke may be considered if the patient presents with a dTT, ECT or aPTT not exceeding the ULN according to the local reference range.

Interaction with P-gp inducers

Concomitant administration of P-gp inducers (such as rifampicin, St. John`s wort (Hypericum perforatum), carbamazepine, or phenytoin) is expected to result in decreased dabigatran plasma concentrations, and should be avoided (see sections 4.5 and 5.2).

Surgery and interventions

Patients on dabigatran etexilate who undergo surgery or invasive procedures are at increased risk for bleeding. Therefore surgical interventions may require the temporary discontinuation of dabigatran etexilate.

Caution should be exercised when treatment is temporarily discontinued for interventions and anticoagulant monitoring is warranted. Clearance of dabigatran in patients with renal insufficiency may take longer (see section 5.2). This should be considered in advance of any procedures. In such cases a coagulation test (see sections 4.4 and 5.1) may help to determine whether haemostasis is still impaired.

Preoperative phase

Table 3 summarises discontinuation rules before invasive or surgical procedures.

Renal function

(CrCL in mL/min)

Estimated half-life

(hours)

Stop dabigatran before elective surgery

High risk of bleeding or major surgery

Standard risk

≥ 80

~ 13

2 days before

24 hours before

≥ 50-< 80

~ 15

2-3 days before

1-2 days before

≥ 30-< 50

~ 18

4 days before

2-3 days before (> 48 hours)

If an acute intervention is required, dabigatran etexilate should be temporarily discontinued. A surgery / intervention should be delayed if possible until at least 12 hours after the last dose. If surgery cannot be delayed the risk of bleeding may be increased. This risk of bleeding should be weighed against the urgency of intervention (for cardioversion see section 4.2).

Spinal anaesthesia/epidural anaesthesia/lumbar puncture

Procedures such as spinal anaesthesia may require complete haemostatic function.

The risk of spinal or epidural haematoma may be increased in cases of traumatic or repeated puncture and by the prolonged use of epidural catheters. After removal of a catheter, an interval of at least 2 hours should elapse before the administration of the first dose of dabigatran etexilate. These patients require frequent observation for neurological signs and symptoms of spinal or epidural haematoma.

Postoperative phase

Dabigatran etexilate should be restarted after the invasive procedure or surgical intervention as soon as possible provided the clinical situation allows and adequate haemostasis has been established.

Patients at risk for bleeding or patients at risk of overexposure, notably patients with moderate renal impairment (CrCL 30-50 mL/min), should be treated with caution (see sections 4.4 and 5.1).

Patients at high surgical mortality risk and with intrinsic risk factors for thromboembolic events

There are limited efficacy and safety data for dabigatran available in these patients and therefore they should be treated with caution.

Hip fracture surgery

There is no data on the use of Pradaxa in patients undergoing hip fracture surgery. Therefore treatment is not recommended.

Myocardial Infarction (SPAF)

In the phase III study RE-LY (see section 5.1.) the overall rate of myocardial infarction (MI) was 0.82, 0.81, and 0.64 % / year for dabigatran etexilate 110 mg twice daily, dabigatran etexilate 150 mg twice daily and warfarin, respectively, an increase in relative risk for dabigatran of 29 % and 27 % compared to warfarin. Irrespective of therapy, the highest absolute risk of MI was seen in the following subgroups, with similar relative risk: patients with previous MI, patients ≥ 65 years with either diabetes or coronary artery disease, patients with left ventricular ejection fraction < 40 %, and patients with moderate renal dysfunction. Furthermore a higher risk of MI was seen in patients concomitantly taking ASA plus clopidogrel or clopidogrel alone.

Myocardial Infarction (DVT/PE)

In the three active controlled studies, a higher rate of MI was reported in patients who received dabigatran etexilate than in those who received warfarin: 0.4% vs. 0.2% in the short-term RE-COVER and RE-COVER II studies; and 0.8% vs. 0.1% in the long-term RE-MEDY trial. The increase was statistically significant in this study (p=0.022).

In the RE-SONATE study, which compared dabigatran etexilate to placebo, the rate of MI was 0.1% for patients who received dabigatran etexilate and 0.2% for patients who received placebo

Active Cancer Patients (DVT/PE)

The efficacy and safety have not been established for DVT/PE patients with active cancer.

Colorants

Pradaxa hard capsules contain the colorant sunset yellow (E110), which may cause allergic reactions.

4.5 Interaction with other medicinal products and other forms of interaction

Anticoagulants and antiplatelet aggregation medicinal products

There is no or only limited experience with the following treatments which may increase the risk of bleeding when used concomitantly with Pradaxa: anticoagulants such as unfractionated heparin (UFH), low molecular weight heparins (LMWH), and heparin derivatives (fondaparinux, desirudin), thrombolytic medicinal products, and vitamin K antagonists, rivaroxaban or other oral anticoagulants (see section 4.3), and plateletet aggregation medicinal products such as GPIIb/IIIa receptor antagonists, ticlopidine, prasugrel, ticagrelor, dextran, and sulfinpyrazone (see section 4.4).

From the limited data collected in the phase III study RE LY in patients with atrial fibrillation it was observed that the concomitant use of other oral or parenteral anticoagulants increases major bleeding rates with both dabigatran etexilate and warfarin by approximately 2.5-fold, mainly related to situations when switching from one anticoagulant to another (see section 4.3).

UFH can be administered at doses necessary to maintain a patent central venous or arterial catheter (see section 4.3).

Clopidogrel and ASA: From the data collected in the phase III study RE-LY (see section 5.1) it was observed that the concomitant use of antiplatelets, ASA or clopidogrel approximately doubles major bleeding rates with both dabigatran etexilate and warfarin (see section 4.4).

Clopidogrel: In a phase I study in young healthy male volunteers, the concomitant administration of dabigatran etexilate and clopidogrel resulted in no further prolongation of capillary bleeding times compared to clopidogrel monotherapy. In addition, dabigatran AUC,ss and Cmax,ss and the coagulation measures for dabigatran effect or the inhibition of platelet aggregation as measure of clopidogrel effect remained essentially unchanged comparing combined treatment and the respective mono-treatments. With a loading dose of 300 mg or 600 mg clopidogrel, dabigatran AUC,ss and Cmax,ss were increased by about 30-40 % (see section 4.4) (see also subsection on ASA below).

ASA: The effect of concomitant administration of dabigatran etexilate and ASA on the risk of bleeds was studied in patients with atrial fibrillation in a phase II study in which a randomized ASA co-administration was applied. Based on logistic regression analysis, co-administration of ASA and 150 mg dabigatran etexilate twice daily may increase the risk for any bleeding from 12 % to 18 % and 24 % with 81 mg and 325 mg ASA, respectively (see section 4.4).

NSAIDs: NSAIDs given for short-term perioperative analgesia have been shown not to be associated with increased bleeding risk when given in conjunction with dabigatran etexilate. With chronic use in the RE-LY study, NSAIDs increased the risk of bleeding by approximately 50 % on both dabigatran etexilate and warfarin. Therefore, due to the risk of haemorrhage, notably with NSAIDs with elimination half-lives > 12 hours, close observation for signs of bleeding is recommended (see section 4.4).

LMWH: The concomitant use of LMWHs, such as enoxaparin and dabigatran etexilate has not been specifically investigated. After switching from 3-day treatment of once daily 40 mg enoxaparin s.c., 24 hours after the last dose of enoxaparin the exposure to dabigatran was slightly lower than that after administration of dabigatran etexilate (single dose of 220 mg) alone. A higher anti-FXa/FIIa activity was observed after dabigatran etexilate administration with enoxaparin pre-treatment compared to that after treatment with dabigatran etexilate alone. This is considered to be due to the carry-over effect of enoxaparin treatment, and regarded as not clinically relevant. Other dabigatran related anti-coagulation tests were not changed significantly by the pre-treatment of enoxaparin.

Interactions linked to dabigatran etexilate and dabigatran metabolic profile

Dabigatran etexilate and dabigatran are not metabolised by the cytochrome P450 system and have no in vitro effects on human cytochrome P450 enzymes. Therefore, related medicinal product interactions are not expected with dabigatran.

Transporter interactions

P-gp inhibitors

Dabigatran etexilate is a substrate for the efflux transporter P-gp. Concomitant administration of P-gp inhibitors (such as amiodarone, verapamil, quinidine, ketoconazole, dronedarone, clarithromycin and ticagrelor) is expected to result in increased dabigatran plasma concentrations.

If not otherwise specifically described, close clinical surveillance (looking for signs of bleeding or anaemia) is required when dabigatran is co-administered with strong P-gp inhibitors. A coagulation test helps to identify patients with an increased bleeding risk due to increased dabigatran exposure (see sections 4.2, 4.4 and 5.1).

The following strong P-gp inhibitors are contraindicated: systemic ketoconazole, cyclosporine, itraconazole and dronedarone (see section 4.3). Concomitant treatment with tacrolimus is not recommended. Caution should be exercised with mild to moderate P-gp inhibitors (e.g. amiodarone, posaconazole, quinidine, verapamil and ticagrelor) (see sections 4.2 and 4.4).

Ketoconazole: Ketoconazole increased total dabigatran AUC0-∞ and Cmax values by 138 % and 135 %, respectively, after a single oral dose of 400 mg, and 153 % and 149 %, respectively, after multiple oral dosing of 400 mg ketoconazole once daily. The time to peak, terminal half-life and mean residence time were not affected by ketoconazole (see section 4.4). Concomitant treatment with systemic ketoconazole is contraindicated (see section 4.3).

Dronedarone: When dabigatran etexilate and dronedarone were given at the same time total dabigatran AUC0-∞ and Cmax values increased by about 2.4-fold and 2.3-fold (+136 % and 125 %), respectively, after multiple dosing of 400 mg dronedarone bid, and about 2.1-fold and 1.9-fold (+114 % and 87 %), respectively, after a single dose of 400 mg. The terminal half-life and renal clearance of dabigatran were not affected by dronedarone. When single and multiple doses of dronedarone were given 2 h after dabigatran etexilate, the increases in dabigatran AUC0-∞ were 1.3-fold and 1.6-fold, respectively. Concomitant treatment with dronedarone is contraindicated.

Amiodarone: When Pradaxa was co-administered with a single oral dose of 600 mg amiodarone, the extent and rate of absorption of amiodarone and its active metabolite DEA were essentially unchanged. The dabigatran AUC and Cmax were increased by about 60 % and 50 %, respectively. The mechanism of the interaction has not been completely clarified. In view of the long half-life of amiodarone the potential for drug interaction may exist for weeks after discontinuation of amiodarone (see sections 4.2 and 4.4).

Patients treated for prevention of VTEs after hip or knee replacement surgery, dosing should be reduced to 150 mg taken once daily as 2 capsules of 75 mg Pradaxa if they receive concomitantly dabigatran etexilate and amiodarone (see section 4.2). Close clinical surveillance is recommended when dabigatran etexilate is combined with amiodarone and particularly in the occurrence of bleeding, notably in patients having a mild to moderate renal impairment.

Quinidine: Quinidine was given as 200 mg dose every 2nd hour up to a total dose of 1,000 mg. Dabigatran etexilate was given twice daily over 3 consecutive days, on the 3rd day either with or without quinidine. Dabigatran AUC,ss and Cmax,ss were increased on average by 53 % and 56 %, respectively with concomitant quinidine (see sections 4.2 and 4.4).

Patients treated for prevention of VTEs after hip or knee replacement surgery, dosing should be reduced to 150 mg taken once daily as 2 capsules of 75 mg Pradaxa if they receive concomitantly dabigatran etexilate and quinidine (see section 4.2). Close clinical surveillance is recommended when dabigatran etexilate is combined with quinidine and particularly in the occurrence of bleeding, notably in patients having a mild to moderate renal impairment.

Verapamil: When dabigatran etexilate (150 mg) was co-administered with oral verapamil, the Cmax and AUC of dabigatran were increased but magnitude of this change differs depending on timing of administration and formulation of verapamil (see sections 4.2 and 4.4).

The greatest elevation of dabigatran exposure was observed with the first dose of an immediate release formulation of verapamil administered one hour prior to dabigatran etexilate intake (increase of Cmax by about 180 % and AUC by about 150 %). The effect was progressively decreased with administration of an extended release formulation (increased of Cmax by about 90 % and AUC by about 70 %) or administration of multiple doses of verapamil (increased of Cmax by about 60 % and AUC by about 50 %).

Therefore, close clinical surveillance (looking for signs of bleeding or anaemia) is required when dabigatran is co-administered with verapamil. In patients with normal renal function after hip or knee replacement surgery, receiving dabigatran etexilate and verapamil concomitantly, the dose of Pradaxa should be reduced to 150 mg taken once daily as 2 capsules of 75 mg. In patients with moderate renal impairment and concomitantly treated with dabigatran etexilate and verapamil, a dose reduction of Pradaxa to 75 mg daily should be considered (see sections 4.2 and 4.4).

For patients with NVAF treated for prevention of stroke and SEE and for DVT/PE patients, concomitantly receiving dabigatran etexilate and verapamil, the dose of Pradaxa should be reduced to 220 mg taken as one 110 mg capsule twice daily (see section 4.2).

Close clinical surveillance is recommended when dabigatran etexilate is combined with verapamil and particularly in the occurrence of bleeding, notably in patients having a mild to moderate renal impairment.

There was no meaningful interaction observed when verapamil was given 2 hours after dabigatran etexilate (increased of Cmax by about 10 % and AUC by about 20 %). This is explained by completed dabigatran absorption after 2 hours (see section 4.4).

Clarithromycin: When clarithromycin (500 mg twice daily) was administered together with dabigatran etexilate in healthy volunteers, increase of AUC by about 19 % and Cmax by about 15 % was observed without any clinical safety concern. However, in patients receiving dabigatran, a clinically relevant interaction cannot be excluded when combined with clarithromycin. Therefore, a close monitoring should be exercised when dabigatran etexilate is combined with clarithromycin and particularly in the occurrence of bleeding, notably in patients having a mild to moderate renal impairment.

Ticagrelor: When a single dose of 75mg dabigatran etexilate was coadministered simultaneously with a loading dose of 180 mg ticagrelor, the dabigatran AUC and Cmaxwere increased by 1.73-fold and 1.95-fold (+73% and 95 %), respectively. After multiple doses of ticagrelor 90 mg b.i.d. the increase of dabigatran exposure is 1.56-fold and 1.46-fold (+56% and 46%) for Cmax and AUC, respectively.

Concomitant administration of a loading dose of 180 mg ticagrelor and 110 mg dabigatran etexilate (in steady state) increased the dabigatran AUC,ss and Cmax,ss by 1.49-fold and 1.65-fold (+49% and 65%), respectively, compared with dabigatran etexilate given alone. When a loading dose of 180 mg ticagrelor was given 2 hours after 110 mg dabigatran etexilate (in steady state), the increase of dabigatran AUC,ss and Cmax,ss was reduced to 1.27-fold and 1.23-fold (+27% and 23%), respectively, compared with dabigatran etexilate given alone. This staggered intake is the recommended administration for start of ticagrelor with a loading dose.

Concomitant administration of 90 mg ticagrelor BID (maintenance dose) with 110 mg dabigatran etexilate increased the adjusted dabigatran AUC,ss and Cmax,ss 1.26-fold and 1.29-fold, respectively, compared with dabigatran etexilate given alone.

The following potent P-gp inhibitors have not been clinically studied but from in vitro results a similar effect as with ketoconazole may be expected:

Itraconazole and cyclosporine, which are contra-indicated (see section 4.3).

Tacrolimus has been found in vitro to have a similar level of inhibitory effect on P-gp as that seen with itraconazole and cyclosporine. Dabigatran etexilate has not been clinically studied together with tacrolimus. However, limited clinical data with another P-gp substrate (everolimus) suggest that the inhibition of P-gp with tacrolimus is weaker than that observed with strong P-gp inhibitors. Based on these data concomitant treatment with tacrolimus is not recommended.

Posaconazole also inhibits P-gp to some extent but has not been clinically studied. Caution should be exercised when Pradaxa is co-administered with posaconazole.

P-gp inducers

Concomitant administration of a P-gp inducer (such as rifampicin, St. John´s wort (Hypericum perforatum), carbamazepine, or phenytoin) is expected to result in decreased dabigatran concentrations and should be avoided (see sections 4.4 and 5.2).

Rifampicin: Pre-dosing of the probe inducer rifampicin at a dose of 600 mg once daily for 7 days decreased total dabigatran peak and total exposure by 65.5 and 67 %, respectively. The inducing effect was diminished resulting in dabigatran exposure close to the reference by day 7 after cessation of rifampicin treatment. No further increase in bioavailability was observed after another 7 days.

Other medicinal products affecting P-gp

Protease inhibitors including ritonavir and its combinations with other protease inhibitors affect P-gp (either as inhibitor or as inducer). They have not been studied and are therefore not recommended for concomitant treatment with Pradaxa.

P-gp substrate

Digoxin: In a study performed with 24 healthy subjects, when Pradaxa was co-administered with digoxin, no changes on digoxin and no clinical relevant changes on dabigatran exposure have been observed.

Co-medication with selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors (SSRIs) or selective serotonin norepinephrine re-uptake inhibitors (SNRIs)

SSRIs and SNRIs increased the risk of bleeding in RE-LY in all treatment groups.

Gastric pH

Pantoprazole: When Pradaxa was co-administered with pantoprazole, a decrease in the dabigatran area under the plasma concentration-time curve of approximately 30 % was observed. Pantoprazole and other proton-pump inhibitors (PPI) were co-administered with Pradaxa in clinical trials, and concomitant PPI treatment did not appear to reduce the efficacy of Pradaxa.

Ranitidine: Ranitidine administration together with Pradaxa had no clinically relevant effect on the extent of absorption of dabigatran.

4.6 Fertility, pregnancy and lactation

Women of childbearing potential / Contraception in males and females

Women of childbearing potential should avoid pregnancy during treatment with dabigatran etexilate.

Pregnancy

There are limited amount of data from the use of dabigatran etexilate in pregnant women.

Studies in animals have shown reproductive toxicity (see section 5.3). The potential risk for humans is unknown.

Pradaxa should not be used during pregnancy unless clearly necessary.

Breast-feeding

There are no clinical data of the effect of dabigatran on infants during breast-feeding.

Breast-feeding should be discontinued during treatment with Pradaxa.

Fertility

No human data available.

In animal studies an effect on female fertility was observed in the form of a decrease in implantations and an increase in pre-implantation loss at 70 mg/kg (representing a 5-fold higher plasma exposure level compared to patients). No other effects on female fertility were observed. There was no influence on male fertility. At doses that were toxic to the mothers (representing a 5- to 10-fold higher plasma exposure level to patients), a decrease in foetal body weight and embryofoetal viability along with an increase in foetal variations were observed in rats and rabbits. In the pre- and post-natal study, an increase in foetal mortality was observed at doses that were toxic to the dams (a dose corresponding to a plasma exposure level 4-fold higher than observed in patients).

4.7 Effects on ability to drive and use machines

Pradaxa has no or negligible influence on the ability to drive and use machines.

4.8 Undesirable effects

Summary of the safety profile

A total of 10,795 patients were treated in 6 actively controlled VTE prevention trials with at least one dose of the medicinal product. Of these 6,684 were treated with 150 mg or 220 mg daily of Pradaxa.

In the pivotal study investigating the prevention of stroke and SEE in patients with atrial fibrillation, a total of 12,042 patients were treated with dabigatran etexilate. Of these 6,059 were treated with 150 mg twice daily of dabigatran etexilate, while 5,983 received doses of 110 mg twice daily.

In the 2 active controlled DVT/PE treatment trials, RE-COVER and RE-COVER II, a total of 2,456 patients were included in the safety analysis for dabigatran etexilate. All patients received doses of 150 mg twice daily of dabigatran etexilate. Adverse drug reactions for both treatments, dabigatran etexilate and warfarin, are counted from the first intake of dabigatran etexilate or warfarin after the parenteral therapy has been discontinued (oral only treatment period). This includes all adverse drug reactions which occurred during dabigatran therapy. All adverse drug reactions, which occurred during warfarin therapy, are included except for those during the overlap period between warfarin and parenteral therapy.

A total of 2,114 patients were treated in the active controlled DVT/PE prevention trial, RE-MEDY, and in the placebo-controlled DVT/PE prevention trial, RE-SONATE. All patients received doses of 150 mg twice daily of dabigatran etexilate.

In total, about 9 % of patients treated for elective hip or knee surgery (short-term treatment for up to 42 days), 22 % of patient with atrial fibrillation treated for the prevention of stroke and SEE (long-term treatment for up to 3 years), 14 % of patient treated for DVT/PE and 15 % of patients treated for DVT/PE prevention experienced adverse reactions.

The most commonly reported adverse reactions are bleedings occurring in total in approximately 14 % of patients treated short-term for elective hip or knee replacement surgery, 16.5 % in patients with atrial fibrillation treated for the prevention of stroke and SEE, and in 14.4 % of patients treated for DVT/PE. Furthermore, bleeding occurred in 19.4% of patients in the DVT/PE prevention trial RE-MEDY and in 10.5% of patient in the DVT/PE prevention trial RE-SONATE.

Since the patient populations treated in the three indications are not comparable and bleeding events are distributed over several System Organ Classes (SOC), a summary description of major and any bleeding are broken down by indication and given in tables 5 and 6 below.

Although low in frequency in clinical trials, major or severe bleeding may occur and, regardless of location, may lead to disabling, life-threatening or even fatal outcomes.

Tabulated list of adverse reactions

Table 4 shows the adverse reactions identified from the primary VTE prevention studies after hip or knee replacement surgery, the study in the prevention of thromboembolic stroke, and SEE in patients with atrial fibrillation and the studies in DVT/PE treatment and in DVT/PE prevention. They are ranked under headings of SOC and frequency using the following convention: very common (≥ 1/10); common (≥ 1/100 to < 1/10); uncommon (≥ 1/1,000 to < 1/100); rare (≥ 1/10,000 to < 1/1,000); very rare (< 1/10,000); not known (cannot be estimated from the available data).

SOC / Preferred term.

Primary VTE prevention after hip or knee replacement surgery

Stroke and SEE prevention in patients with atrial fibrillation

DVT/PE treatment and DVT/PE prevention

Blood and lymphatic system disorders

Anaemia

Uncommon

Common

Uncommon

Haemoglobin decreased

Common

Uncommon

Not known

Thrombocytopenia

Rare

Uncommon

Rare

Haematocrit decreased

Uncommon

Rare

Not known

Immune system disorder

Drug hypersensitivity

Uncommon

Uncommon

Uncommon

Rash

Rare

Uncommon

Uncommon

Pruritus

Rare

Uncommon

Uncommon

Anaphylactic reaction

Rare

Rare

Rare

Angioedema

Rare

Rare

Rare

Urticaria

Rare

Rare

Rare

Bronchospasm

Not known

Not known

Not known

Nervous system disorders

Intracranial haemorrhage

Rare

Uncommon

Rare

Vascular disorders

Haematoma

Uncommon

Uncommon

Uncommon

Haemorrhage

Rare

Uncommon

Uncommon

Wound haemorrhage

Uncommon

-

 

Respiratory, thoracic and mediastinal disorders

Epistaxis

Uncommon

Common

Common

Haemoptysis

Rare

Uncommon

Uncommon

Gastrointestinal disorders

Gastrointestinal haemorrhage

Uncommon

Common

Common

Abdominal pain

Rare

Common

Uncommon

Diarrhoea

Uncommon

Common

Uncommon

Dyspepsia

Rare

Common

Common

Nausea

Uncommon

Common

Uncommon

Rectal haemorrhage

Uncommon

Uncommon

Common

Haemorrhoidal haemorrhage

Uncommon

Uncommon

Uncommon

Gastrointestinal ulcer, including oesophageal ulcer

Rare

Uncommon

Uncommon

Gastroesophagitis

Rare

Uncommon

Uncommon

Gastroesophageal reflux disease

Rare

Uncommon

Uncommon

Vomiting

Uncommon

Uncommon

Uncommon

Dysphagia

Rare

Uncommon

Rare

Hepatobiliary disorders

Hepatic function abnormal/ Liver function Test abnormal

Common

Uncommon

Uncommon

Alanine aminotransferase increased

Uncommon

Uncommon

Uncommon

Aspartate aminotransferase increased

Uncommon

Uncommon

Uncommon

Hepatic enzyme increased

Uncommon

Rare

Uncommon

Hyperbilirubinaemia

Uncommon

Rare

Not known

Skin and subcutaneous tissue disorder

Skin haemorrhage

Uncommon

Common

Common

Musculoskeletal and connective tissue disorders

Haemarthrosis

Uncommon

Rare

Uncommon

Renal and urinary disorders

Genitourological haemorrhage, including haematuria

Uncommon

Common

Common

General disorders and administration site conditions

Injection site haemorrhage

Rare

Rare

Rare

Catheter site haemorrhage

Rare

Rare

Rare

Bloody discharge

Rare

-

 

Injury, poisoning and procedural complications

Traumatic haemorrhage

Uncommon

Rare

Uncommon

Incision site haemorrhage

Rare

Rare

Rare

Post procedural haematoma

Uncommon

-

-

Post procedural haemorrhage

Uncommon

-

-

Anaemia postoperative

Rare

-

-

Post procedural discharge

Uncommon

-

-

Wound secretion

Uncommon

-

-

Surgical and medical procedures

Wound drainage

Rare

-

-

Post procedural drainage

Rare

-

-

Primary Prevention of Venous Thromboembolism in Orthopaedic Surgery (pVTEp orthopaedic surgery)

Bleeding

The table 5 shows the number (%) of patients experiencing the adverse reaction bleeding during the treatment period in the VTE prevention in the two pivotal clinical trials, according to dose.

 

Dabigatran etexilate 150 mg once daily

N (%) 

Dabigatran etexilate 220 mg once daily

N (%) 

Enoxaparin
 

N (%)

Treated

1,866 (100.0)

1,825 (100.0)

1,848 (100.0)

Major bleeding

24 (1.3)

33 (1.8)

27 (1.5)

Any bleeding

258 (13.8)

251 (13.8)

247 (13.4)

The definition of the adverse reaction major bleeding in the RE-NOVATE and RE-MODEL studies were as follows:

• fatal bleeding

• clinically overt bleeding in excess of what was expected and associated with ≥ 20 g/L (corresponds to 1.24 mmol/L) fall in haemoglobin in excess of what was expected

• clinically overt bleeding in excess of what was expected and leading to transfusion of ≥ 2 units packed cells or whole blood in excess of what was expected

• symptomatic retroperitoneal, intracranial, intraocular or intraspinal bleeding

• bleeding requiring treatment cessation

• bleeding leading to re-operation

Objective testing was required for a retroperitoneal bleed (ultrasound or Computer Tomography (CT) scan) and for an intracranial and intraspinal bleed (CT scan or Magnetic Resonance Imaging).

Prevention of stroke and SEE in adult patients with NVAF with one or more risk factors

Bleeding

The table 6 shows bleeding events broken down to major and any bleeding in the pivotal study testing the prevention of thromboembolic stroke and SEE in patients with atrial fibrillation.

 

Dabigatran etexilate 110 mg twice daily

Dabigatran etexilate 150 mg twice daily

Warfarin

Subjects randomized

6,015

6,076

6,022

Major bleeding

342 (2.87 %)

399 (3.32 %)

421 (3.57 %)

Intracranial bleeding

27 (0.23 %)

38 (0.32 %)

90 (0.76 %)

GI bleeding

134 (1.14 %)

186 (1.57 %)

125 (1.07 %)

Fatal bleeding

23 (0.19 %)

28 (0.23 %)

39 (0.33 %)

Minor bleeding

1,566 (13.16 %)

1,787 (14.85 %)

1,931 (16.37 %)

Any bleeding

1,754 (14.74 %)

1,993 (16.56 %)

2,166 (18.37 %)

Major bleeding was defined to fulfil one or more of the following criteria:

Bleeding associated with a reduction in haemoglobin of at least 20 g/L or leading to a transfusion of at least 2 units of blood or packed cells.

Symptomatic bleeding in a critical area or organ: intraocular, intracranial, intraspinal or intramuscular with compartment syndrome, retroperitoneal bleeding, intra-articular bleeding or pericardial bleeding.

Major bleeds were classified as life-threatening if they fulfilled one or more of the following criteria:

Fatal bleed; symptomatic intracranial bleed; reduction in haemoglobin of at least 50 g/L; transfusion of at least 4 units of blood or packed cells; a bleed associated with hypotension requiring the use of intravenous inotropic medicinal products; a bleed that necessitated surgical intervention.

Subjects randomized to dabigatran etexilate 110 mg twice daily or 150 mg twice daily had a significantly lower risk for life-threatening bleeds and intracranial bleeding compared to warfarin [p < 0.05]. Both dose strengths of dabigatran etexilate had also a statistically significant lower total bleed rate. Subjects randomized to dabigatran etexilate 110 mg twice daily had a significantly lower risk for major bleeds compared with warfarin (hazard ratio 0.80 [p=0.0026]). Subjects randomized to dabigatran etexilate 150 mg twice daily had a significantly higher risk for major GI bleeds compared with warfarin (hazard ratio 1.47 [p=0.0008]. This effect was seen primarily in patients ≥ 75 years.

The clinical benefit of dabigatran with regard to stroke and SEE prevention and decreased risk of ICH compared to warfarin is preserved across individual subgroups, e.g. renal impairment, age, concomitant medication use such as anti-platelets or P-gp inhibitors. While certain patient subgroups are at an increased risk of major bleeding when treated with an anticoagulant, the excess bleeding risk for dabigatran is due to GI bleeding, typically seen within the first 3-6 months following initiation of dabigatran etexilate therapy.

Treatment of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE), and prevention of recurrent DVT and PE in adults (DVT/PE treatment)

Table 7 shows bleeding events in the pooled pivotal studies RE-COVER and RE-COVER II testing the treatment of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE). In the pooled studies the primary safety endpoints of major bleeding, major or clinically relevant bleeding and any bleeding were significantly lower than warfarin at a nominal alpha level of 5 %.

 

Dabigatran etexilate 150 mg twice daily

Warfarin

Hazard ratio vs. warfarin

(95% confidence interval)

Patients included in safety analysis

2,456

2,462

 

Major bleeding events

24 (1.0 %)

40 (1.6 %)

0.60 (0.36, 0.99)

Intracranial Bleeding

2 (0.1 %)

4 (0.2 %)

0.50 (0.09, 2.74)

Major GI bleeding

10 (0.4 %)

12 (0.5 %)

0.83 (0.36, 1.93)

Life-threatening bleed

4 (0.2 %)

6 (0.2 %)

0.66 (0.19, 2.36)

Major bleeding events/clinically relevant bleeds

109 (4.4 %)

189 (7.7 %)

0.56 (0.45, 0.71)

Any bleeding

354 (14.4 %)

503 (20.4 %)

0.67 (0.59, 0.77)

Any GI bleeding

70 (2.9 %)

55 (2.2 %)

1.27 (0.90, 1.82)

Bleeding events for both treatments are counted from the first intake of dabigatran etexilate or warfarin after the parenteral therapy has been discontinued (oral only treatment period). This includes all bleeding events, which occurred during dabigatran etexilate therapy. All bleeding events which occurred during warfarin therapy are included except for those during the overlap period between warfarin and parenteral therapy.

The definition of major bleeding events (MBEs) followed the recommendations of the International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis. A bleeding event was categorised as an MBE if it fulfilled at least one of the following criteria:

• Fatal bleeding

• Symptomatic bleeding in a critical area or organ, such as intracranial, intraspinal, intraocular, retroperitoneal, intra-articular, or pericardial, or intramuscular with compartment syndrome. In order for bleeding in a critical area or organ to be classified as a MBE it had to be associated with a symptomatic clinical presentation

• Bleeding causing a fall in haemoglobin level of 20 g/L (1.24 mmol/L) or more, or leading to transfusion of 2 or more units of whole blood or red cells

Table 8 shows bleeding events in pivotal study RE-MEDY testing prevention of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE). Some bleeding events (MBEs/CRBEs; any bleeding) were significantly lower at a nominal alpha level of 5% in patients receiving dabigatran etexilate as compared with those receiving warfarin.

 

Dabigatran etexilate 150 mg twice daily

Warfarin

Hazard ratio vs warfarin

(95% Confidence Interval)

Treated patients

1,430

1,426

 

Major bleeding events

13 (0.9 %)

25 (1.8 %)

0.54 (0.25, 1.16)

Intracranial bleeding

2 (0.1 %)

4 (0.3 %)

Not calculable*

Major GI bleeding

4 (0.3%)

8 (0.5%)

Not calculable*

Life-threatening bleed

1 (0.1 %)

3 (0.2 %))

Not calculable*

Major bleeding event /clinically relevant bleeds

80 (5.6 %)

145 (10.2 %)

0.55 ( 0.41, 0.72)

Any bleeding

278 (19.4 %)

373 (26.2 %)

0.71 (0.61, 0.83)

Any GI bleeds

45 (3.1%)

32 (2.2%)

1.39 (0.87, 2.20)

*HR not estimable as there is no event in either one cohort/treatment

The definition of MBEs followed the recommendations of the International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis as described under RE-COVER and RE-COVER II.

Table 9 shows bleeding events in pivotal study RE-SONATE testing prevention of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE). The rate of the combination of MBEs/CRBEs and the rate of any bleeding was significantly lower at a nominal alpha level of 5 % in patients receiving placebo as compared with those receiving dabigatran etexilate.

 

Dabigatran etexilate 150 mg twice daily

Placebo

Hazard ratio vs placebo

(95% confidence interval)

Treated patients

684

659

 

Major bleeding events

(0.3 %)

0

Not calculable*

Intracranial bleeding

0

0

Not calculable*

Major GI bleeding

2 (0.3%)

0

Not calculable*

Life-threatening bleeds

0

0

Not calculable*

Major bleeding event/clinical relevant bleeds

36 (5.3 %)

13 (2.0 %)

2.69 (1.43, 5.07)

Any bleeding

72 (10.5 %)

40 (6.1 %)

1.77 (1.20, 2.61)

Any GI bleeds

5 (0.7%)

2 (0.3%)

2.38 (0.46, 12.27)

*HR not estimable as there is no event in either one treatment

The definition of MBEs followed the recommendations of the International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis as described under RE-COVER and RE-COVER II.

Myocardial infarction

Prevention of stroke and SEE in adult patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation with one or more risk factors (SPAF)

In the RE-LY study, in comparison to warfarin the annual myocardial infarction rate for dabigatran etexilate was increased from 0.64 % (warfarin) to 0.82 % (dabigatran etexilate 110 mg twice daily) / 0.81 % (dabigatran etexilate 150 mg twice daily) (see section 5.1).

Treatment of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE), and prevention of recurrent DVT and PE in adults (DVT/PE)

In the three active controlled studies, a higher rate of MI was reported in patients who received dabigatran etexilate than in those who received warfarin: 0.4% vs. 0.2% in the short-term RE-COVER and RE-COVER II studies; and 0.8 % vs. 0.1% in the long-term RE-MEDY trial. The increase was statistically significant in this study (p=0.022).

In the RE-SONATE study, which compared dabigatran etexilate to placebo, the rate of MI was 0.1% for patients who received dabigatran etexilate and 0.2 % for patients who received placebo (see section 4.4).

Paediatric population (DVT/PE)

In the clinical study 1160.88 in total, 9 adolescent patients (age 12 to < 18 years) with diagnosis of primary VTE received an initial oral dose of dabigatran etexilate of 1.71 (± 10 %) mg/kg bodyweight. Based on dabigatran concentrations as determined by the diluted thrombin time test and clinical assessment, the dose was adjusted to the target dose of 2.14 (± 10%) mg/kg bodyweight of dabigatran etexilate. On treatment 2 (22.1 %) patients experienced mild related adverse events (gastrooesophageal reflux / abdominal pain; abdominal discomfort) and 1 (11.1 %) patient experienced a not related serious adverse event (recurrent VTE of the leg) in the post treatment period > 3 days after stop of dabigatran etexilate.

Reporting of suspected adverse reactions

Reporting suspected adverse reactions after authorisation of the medicinal product is important. It allows continued monitoring of the benefit/risk balance of the medicinal product. Healthcare professionals are asked to report any suspected adverse reactions via:

United Kingdom

Yellow Card Scheme

Website: www.mhra.gov.uk/yellowcard

Ireland

HPRA Pharmacovigilance

Earlsfort Terrace

IRL - Dublin 2

Tel: +353 1 6764971

Fax: +353 1 6762517

Website: www.hpra.ie

e-mail: medsafety@hpra.ie

Malta

ADR Reporting

The Medicines Authority

Post-Licensing Directorate

203 Level 3, Rue D'Argens

GŻR-1368 Gżira

Website: www.medicinesauthority.gov.mt

e-mail: postlicensing.medicinesauthority@gov.mt

4.9 Overdose

Doses of dabigatran etexilate beyond those recommended, expose the patient to increased risk of bleeding.

In case of an overdose suspicion, coagulation tests can help to determine a bleeding risk (see sections 4.4 and 5.1). A calibrated quantitative dTT test or repetitive dTT measurements allow prediction of the time by when certain dabigatran levels will be reached (see section 5.1), also in case additional measures e.g. dialysis have been initiated.

Excessive anticoagulation may require interruption of Pradaxa treatment. There is no specific antidote to dabigatran. In the event of haemorrhagic complications, treatment must be discontinued and the source of bleeding investigated. Since dabigatran is excreted predominantly by the renal route adequate diuresis must be maintained. Appropriate supportive treatment, such as surgical haemostasis and blood volume replacement, should be undertaken at the prescribers discretion.

Activated prothrombin complex concentrates (e.g., FEIBA) or recombinant Factor VIIa or concentrates of coagulation factors II, IX and X, may be considered. There is some experimental evidence to support the role of these medicinal products in reversing the anticoagulant effect of dabigatran, but data on their usefulness in clinical settings and also on the possible risk of rebound thromboembolism is very limited. Coagulation tests may become unreliable following administration of suggested reversing medicinal products. Caution should be exercised when interpreting these tests. Consideration should also be given to administration of platelet concentrates in cases where thrombocytopenia is present or long acting antiplatelet drugs have been used. All symptomatic treatment should be given according to the physician's judgement.

Depending on local availability, a consultation of a coagulation expert should be considered in case of major bleedings.

As protein binding is low, dabigatran can be dialysed; there is limited clinical experience to demonstrate the utility of this approach in clinical studies (see section 5.2).

5. Pharmacological properties
5.1 Pharmacodynamic properties

Pharmacotherapeutic group: antithrombotic, direct thrombin inhibitors, ATC code: B01AE07.

Mechanism of action

Dabigatran etexilate is a small molecule prodrug which does not exhibit any pharmacological activity. After oral administration, dabigatran etexilate is rapidly absorbed and converted to dabigatran by esterase-catalysed hydrolysis in plasma and in the liver. Dabigatran is a potent, competitive, reversible direct thrombin inhibitor and is the main active principle in plasma.

Since thrombin (serine protease) enables the conversion of fibrinogen into fibrin during the coagulation cascade, its inhibition prevents the development of thrombus. Dabigatran also inhibits free thrombin, fibrin-bound thrombin and thrombin-induced platelet aggregation.

Pharmacodynamic effects

In-vivo and ex-vivo animal studies have demonstrated antithrombotic efficacy and anticoagulant activity of dabigatran after intravenous administration and of dabigatran etexilate after oral administration in various animal models of thrombosis.

There is a clear correlation between plasma dabigatran concentration and degree of anticoagulant effect based on phase II studies. Dabigatran prolongs the thrombin time (TT), ECT, and aPTT.

The calibrated diluted TT (dTT) test provides an estimation of dabigatran plasma concentration that can be compared to the expected dabigatran plasma concentrations.

The ECT can provide a direct measure of the activity of direct thrombin inhibitors.

The aPTT test is widely available and provides an approximate indication of the anticoagulation intensity achieved with dabigatran. However, the aPTT test has limited sensitivity and is not suitable for precise quantification of anticoagulant effect, especially at high plasma concentrations of dabigatran. High aPTT values should be interpreted with caution.

In general, it can be assumed that these measures of anti-coagulant activity may reflect dabigatran levels and can provide guidance for the assessment of bleeding risk, i.e. exceeding the 90th percentile of dabigatran trough levels or a coagulation assay such as aPTT measured at trough is considered to be associated with an increased risk of bleeding.

Primary Prevention of Venous Thromboembolism in Orthopaedic Surgery (pVTEp orthopaedic surgery)

Steady state (after day 3) geometric mean dabigatran peak plasma concentration, measured around 2 hours after 220 mg dabigatran etexilate administration, was 70.8 ng/mL, with a range of 35.2-162 ng/mL (25th–75th percentile range).The dabigatran geometric mean trough concentration, measured at the end of the dosing interval (i.e. 24 hours after a 220 mg dabigatran dose), was on average 22.0 ng/mL, with a range of 13.0-35.7 ng/mL (25th–75th percentile range).

In patients treated for prevention of VTEs after hip or knee replacement surgery with 220 mg dabigatran etexilate once daily,

• the 90th percentile of dabigatran plasma concentrations was 67 ng/mL, measured at trough (20-28 hours after the previous dose) (see section 4.4 and 4.9),

• the 90th percentile of aPTT at trough (20-28 hours after the previous dose) was 51 seconds, which would be 1.3-fold upper limit of normal.

The ECT was not measured in patients treated for prevention of VTEs after hip or knee replacement surgery with 220 mg dabigatran etexilate once daily.

Prevention of stroke and SEE in adult patients with NVAF with one or more risk factors (SPAF)

Steady state geometric mean dabigatran peak plasma concentration, measured around 2 hours after 150 mg dabigatran etexilate administration twice daily, was 175 ng/mL, with a range of 117-275 ng/mL (25th–75th percentile range). The dabigatran geometric mean trough concentration, measured at trough in the morning, at the end of the dosing interval (i.e. 12 hours after the 150 mg dabigatran evening dose), was on average 91.0 ng/mL, with a range of 61.0-143 ng/mL (25th–75th percentile range). For patients with NVAF treated for prevention of stroke and SEE with 150 mg dabigatran etexilate twice daily,

• the 90th percentile of dabigatran plasma concentrations measured at trough (10-16 hours after the previous dose) was about 200 ng/mL,

• an ECT at trough (10-16 hours after the previous dose), elevated approximately 3-fold upper limit of normal refers to the observed 90th percentile of ECT prolongation of 103 seconds,

• an aPTT ratio greater than 2-fold upper limit of normal (aPTT prolongation of about 80 seconds), at trough (10-16 hours after the previous dose) reflects the 90th percentile of observations.

Treatment of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE), and prevention of recurrent DVT and PE in adults (DVT/PE)

In patients treated for DVT and PE with 150 mg dabigatran etexilate twice daily, the dabigatran geometric mean trough concentration, measured within 10−16 hours after dose, at the end of the dosing interval (i.e. 12 hours after the 150 mg dabigatran evening dose), was 59.7 ng/ml, with a range of 38.6 - 94.5 ng/ml (25th-75th percentile range). For treatment of DVT and PE, with dabigatran etexilate 150 mg twice daily,

• the 90th percentile of dabigatran plasma concentrations measured at trough (10-16 hours after the previous dose) was about 146 ng/ml,

• an ECT at trough (10-16 hours after the previous dose), elevated approximately 2.3-fold compared to baseline refers to the observed 90th percentile of ECT prolongation of 74 seconds,

• the 90th percentile of aPTT at trough (10-16 hours after the previous dose) was 62 seconds, which would be 1.8-fold compared to baseline.

In patients treated for prevention of recurrent of DVT and PE with 150 mg dabigatran etexilate twice daily no pharmacokinetic data are available.

Clinical efficacy and safety

Ethnic origin

No clinically relevant ethnic differences among Caucasians, African-American, Hispanic, Japanese or Chinese patients were observed.

Clinical trials in Venous Thromboembolism (VTE) prophylaxis following major joint replacement surgery

In 2 large randomized, parallel group, double-blind, dose–confirmatory trials, patients undergoing elective major orthopaedic surgery (one for knee replacement surgery and one for hip replacement surgery) received Pradaxa 75 mg or 110 mg within 1-4 hours of surgery followed by 150 mg or 220 mg once daily thereafter, haemostasis having been secured, or enoxaparin 40 mg on the day prior to surgery and daily thereafter.

In the RE-MODEL trial (knee replacement) treatment was for 6-10 days and in the RE-NOVATE trial (hip replacement) for 28-35 days. Totals of 2,076 patients (knee) and 3,494 (hip) were treated respectively.

Composite of total VTE (including PE, proximal and distal DVT, whatever symptomatic or asymptomatic detected by routine venography) and all-cause mortality constituted the primary end-point for both studies. Composite of major VTE (including PE and proximal DVT, whatever symptomatic or asymptomatic detected by routine venography) and VTE-related mortality constituted a secondary end-point and is considered of better clinical relevance.

Results of both studies showed that the antithrombotic effect of Pradaxa 220 mg and 150 mg were statistically non-inferior to that of enoxaparin on total VTE and all-cause mortality. The point estimate for incidence of Major VTE and VTE related mortality for the 150 mg dose was slightly worse than enoxaparin (table 10). Better results were seen with the 220 mg dose where the point estimate of Major VTE was slightly better than enoxaparin (table 10).

The clinical studies have been conducted in a patient population with a mean age > 65 years.

There were no differences in the phase 3 clinical studies for efficacy and safety data between men and women.

In the studied patient population of RE-MODEL and RE-NOVATE (5,539 patients treated), 51 % suffered from concomitant hypertension, 9 % from concomitant diabetes, 9 % from concomitant coronary artery disease and 20 % had a history of venous insufficiency. None of these diseases showed an impact on the effects of dabigatran on VTE-prevention or bleeding rates.

Data for the major VTE and VTE-related mortality endpoint were homogeneous with regards to the primary efficacy endpoint and are shown in table 10.

Data for the total VTE and all cause mortality endpoint are shown in table 11.

Data for adjudicated major bleeding endpoints are shown in table 12 below.

Table 10: Analysis of major VTE and VTE-related mortality during the treatment period in the RE-MODEL and the RE-NOVATE orthopaedic surgery studies.

Trial

Dabigatran etexilate 220 mg once daily

Dabigatran etexilate 150 mg once daily

Enoxaparin

40 mg

RE-NOVATE (hip)

N

909

888

917

Incidences (%)

28 (3.1)

38 (4.3)

36 (3.9)

Risk ratio over enoxaparin

0.78

1.09

 

95 % CI

0.48, 1.27

0.70, 1.70

 

RE-MODEL (knee)

N

506

527

511

Incidences (%)

13 (2.6)

20 (3.8)

18 (3.5)

Risk ratio over enoxaparin

0.73

1.08

 

95 % CI

0.36, 1.47

0.58, 2.01

 

Table 11: Analysis of total VTE and all cause mortality during the treatment period in the RE-NOVATE and the RE-MODEL orthopaedic surgery studies.

Trial

Dabigatran etexilate 220 mg once daily

Dabigatran etexilate 150 mg once daily

Enoxaparin 40 mg

RE-NOVATE (hip)

N

880

874

897

Incidences (%)

53 (6.0)

75 (8.6)

60 (6.7)

Risk ratio over enoxaparin

0.9

1.28

 

95 % CI

(0.63, 1.29)

(0.93, 1.78)

 

RE-MODEL (knee)

N

503

526

512

Incidences (%)

183 (36.4)

213 (40.5)

193 (37.7)

Risk ratio over enoxaparin

0.97

1.07

 

95 % CI

(0.82, 1.13)

(0.92, 1.25)

 

Table 12: Major bleeding events by treatment in the individual RE-MODEL and the RE-NOVATE studies.

Trial

Dabigatran etexilate 220 mg once daily

Dabigatran etexilate 150 mg once daily

Enoxaparin 40 mg

RE-NOVATE (hip)

Treated patients N

1,146

1,163

1,154

Number of MBE N(%)

23 (2.0)

15 (1.3)

18 (1.6)

RE-MODEL (knee)

Treated patients N

679

703

694

Number of MBE N(%)

10 (1.5)

9 (1.3)

9 (1.3)

Prevention of stroke and SEE in adult patients with NVAF with one or more risk factors

The clinical evidence for the efficacy of dabigatran etexilate is derived from the RE-LY study (Randomized Evaluation of Long–term anticoagulant therapy) a multi-centre, multi-national, randomized parallel group study of two blinded doses of dabigatran etexilate (110 mg and 150 mg twice daily) compared to open-label warfarin in patients with atrial fibrillation at moderate to high risk of stroke and SEE. The primary objective in this study was to determine if dabigatran etexilate was non-inferior to warfarin in reducing the occurrence of the composite endpoint stroke and SEE. Statistical superiority was also analyzed.

In the RE-LY study, a total of 18,113 patients were randomized, with a mean age of 71.5 years and a mean CHADS2 score of 2.1. The patient population was 64 % male, 70 % Caucasian and 16 % Asian. For patients randomized to warfarin, the mean percentage of time in therapeutic range (TTR) (INR 2-3) was 64.4 % (median TTR 67 %).

The RE-LY study demonstrated that dabigatran etexilate, at a dose of 110 mg twice daily, is non-inferior to warfarin in the prevention of stroke and SEE in subjects with atrial fibrillation, with a reduced risk of ICH, total bleeding and major bleeding. The dose of 150 mg twice daily reduces significantly the risk of ischemic and haemorrhagic stroke, vascular death, ICH and total bleeding compared to warfarin. Major bleeding rates with this dose were comparable to warfarin. Myocardial infarction rates were slightly increased with dabigatran etexilate 110 mg twice daily and 150 mg twice daily compared to warfarin (hazard ratio 1.29; p=0.0929 and hazard ratio 1.27; p=0.1240, respectively). With improving monitoring of INR the observed benefits of dabigatran etexilate compared to warfarin diminish.

Tables 13-15 display details of key results in the overall population:

Table 13: Analysis of first occurrence of stroke or SEE (primary endpoint) during the study period in RE-LY.

 

Dabigatran etexilate 110 mg twice daily

Dabigatran etexilate 150 mg twice daily

Warfarin

Subjects randomized

6,015

6,076

6,022

Stroke and/or SEE

   

Incidences (%)

183 (1.54)

134 (1.11)

202 (1.71)

Hazard ratio over warfarin (95 % CI)

0.90 (0.74, 1.10)

0.65 (0.52, 0.81)

 

p value superiority

p=0.2943

p=0.0001

 

% refers to yearly event rate

Table 14: Analysis of first occurrence of ischemic or haemorrhagic strokes during the study period in RE-LY.

 

Dabigatran etexilate 110 mg twice daily

Dabigatran etexilate 150 mg twice daily

Warfarin

Subjects randomized

6,015

6,076

6,022

Stroke

   

Incidences (%)

171 (1.44)

122 (1.01)

186 (1.58)

Hazard ratio vs. warfarin (95 % CI)

0.91 (0.74, 1.12)

0.64 (0.51, 0.81)

 

p-value

0.3828

0.0001

 

SEE

   

Incidences (%)

15 (0.13)

13 (0.11)

21 (0.18)

Hazard ratio vs. warfarin (95 % CI)

0.71 (0.37, 1.38)

0.61 (0.30, 1.21)

 

p-value

0.3099

0.1582

 

Ischemic stroke

   

Incidences (%)

152 (1.28)

103 (0.86)

134 (1.14)

Hazard ratio vs. warfarin (95 % CI)

1.13 (0.89, 1.42)

0.75 (0.58, 0.97)

 

p-value

0.3139

0.0296

 

Haemorrhagic stroke

   

Incidences (%)

14 (0.12)

12 (0.10)

45 (0.38)

Hazard ratio vs. warfarin (95 % CI)

0.31 (0.17, 0.56)

0.26 (0.14, 0.49)

 

p-value

< 0.001

< 0.001

 

% refers to yearly event rate

Table 15: Analysis of all cause and cardiovascular survival during the study period in RE-LY.

 

Dabigatran etexilate 110 mg twice daily

Dabigatran etexilate 150 mg twice daily

Warfarin

Subjects randomized

6,015

6,076

6,022

All-cause mortality

   

Incidences (%)

446 (3.75)

438 (3.64)

487 (4.13)

Hazard ratio vs. warfarin (95 % CI)

0.91 (0.80, 1.03)

0.88 (0.77, 1.00)

 

p-value

0.1308

0.0517

 

Vascular mortality

   

Incidences (%)

289 (2.43)

274 (2.28)

317 (2.69)

Hazard ratio vs. warfarin (95 % CI)

0.90 (0.77, 1.06)

0.85 (0.72, 0.99)

 

p-value

0.2081

0.0430

 

% refers to yearly event rate

Tables 16-18 display results of the primary efficacy and safety endpoint in relevant sub-populations:

For the primary endpoint, stroke and SEE, no subgroups (i.e., age, weight, gender, renal function, ethnicity, etc.) were identified with a different risk ratio compared to warfarin.

Table 16: Hazard Ratio and 95 % CI for stroke/SEE by subgroups

Endpoint

Dabigatran etexilate

110 mg twice daily vs. warfarin

Dabigatran etexilate

150 mg twice daily vs. warfarin

Age (years)

  

< 65

1.10 (0.64, 1.87)

0.51 (0.26, 0.98)

65 ≤ and < 75

0.87 (0.62, 1.20)

0.68 (0.47, 0.96)

≥ 75

0.88 (0.66, 1.17)

0.67 (0.49, 0.90)

≥ 80

0.68 (0.44, 1.05)

0.65 (0.43, 1.00)

CrCL (mL/min)

  

30 ≤ and < 50

0.89 (0.61, 1.31)

0.47 (0.30, 0.74)

50 ≤ and < 80

0.91 (0.68, 1.20)

0.65 (0.47, 0.88)

≥ 80

0.83 (0.52, 1.32)

0.71 (0.44, 1.15)

For the primary safety endpoint of major bleeding there was an interaction of treatment effect and age. The relative risk of bleeding with dabigatran compared to warfarin increased with age. Relative risk was highest in patients ≥ 75 years. The concomitant use of antiplatelets ASA or clopidogrel approximately doubles MBE rates with both dabigatran etexilate and warfarin. There was no significant interaction of treatment effects with the subgroups of renal function and CHADS2 score.

Table 17: Hazard Ratio and 95 % CI for major bleeds by subgroups

Endpoint

Dabigatran etexilate

110 mg twice daily vs. warfarin

Dabigatran etexilate

150 mg twice daily vs. warfarin

Age (years)

  

< 65

0.33 (0.19, 0.59)

0.36 (0.21, 0.62)

65 ≤ and < 75

0.70 (0.56, 0.89)

0.80 (0.64, 1.00)

≥ 75

1.01 (0.83, 1.23)

1.18 (0.98, 1.43)

≥ 80

1.12 (0.84, 1.49)

1.35 (1.03, 1.77)

CrCL (mL/min)

  

30 ≤ and < 50

1.00 (0.77, 1.29)

0.94 (0.72, 1.21)

50 ≤ and < 80

0.76 (0.61, 0.93)

0.89 (0.73, 1.08)

≥ 80

0.59 (0.43, 0.82)

0.84 (0.62, 1.13)

ASA use

0.85 (0.68, 1.05)

0.92 (0.75, 1.14)

Clopidogrel use

0.88 (0.56, 1.37)

0.95 (0.62, 1.46)

RELY-ABLE (Long term multi-center extension of dabigatran treatment in patients with atrial fibrillation who completed the RE-LY trial)

The RE-LY extension study (RELY-ABLE) provided additional safety information for a cohort of patients which continued the same dose of dabigatran etexilate as assigned in the RE-LY trial. Patients were eligible for the RELY-ABLE trial if they had not permanently discontinued study medication at the time of their final RE-LY study visit. Enrolled patients continued to receive the same double-blind dabigatran etexilate dose randomly allocated in RE-LY, for up to 43 months of follow up after RE-LY (total mean follow-up RE-LY + RELY-ABLE, 4.5 years). There were 5897 patients enrolled, representing 49 % of patients originally randomly assigned to receive dabigatran etexilate in RE-LY and 86 % of RELY-ABLE-eligible patients. During the additional 2.5 years of treatment in RELY-ABLE, with a maximum exposure of over 6 years (total exposure in RELY + RELY-ABLE), the long-term safety profile of dabigatran etexilate was confirmed for both test doses 110 mg b.i.d. and 150 mg b.i.d.. No new safety findings were observed.

The rates of outcome events including, major bleed and other bleeding events were consistent with those seen in RE-LY.

Paediatric population

The European Medicines Agency has waived the obligation to submit the results of studies with Pradaxa in all subsets of the paediatric population in prevention of thromboembolic events in the granted indication (see section 4.2 for information on paediatric use).

Ethnic origin (SPAF)

No clinically relevant ethnic differences among Caucasians, African-American, Hispanic, Japanese or Chinese patients were observed.

Clinical efficacy and safety (DVT/PE treatment)

Treatment of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE) in adults (DVT/PE treatment)

The efficacy and safety was investigated in two multi-center, randomised, double blind, parallel-group, replicate studies RE-COVER and RE-COVER II. These studies compared dabigatran etexilate (150 mg bid) with warfarin (target INR 2.0-3.0) in patients with acute DVT and/or PE. The primary objective of these studies was to determine if dabigatran etexilate was non-inferior to warfarin in reducing the occurrence of the primary endpoint which was the composite of recurrent symptomatic DVT and/or PE and related deaths within the 6 month treatment period.

In the pooled RE-COVER and RE-COVER II studies, a total of 5,153 patients were randomized and 5,107 were treated.

The duration of treatment with fixed dose of dabigatran was 174.0 days without coagulation monitoring. For patients randomized to warfarin, the median time in therapeutic range (INR 2.0 to 3.0) was 60.6 %.

The trials, demonstrated that treatment with dabigatran etexilate 150 mg twice daily was non-inferior to the treatment with warfarin (non-inferiority margin for RE-COVER, and RE-COVER II: 3.6 for risk difference and 2.75 for hazard ratio).

Table 18: Analysis of the primary and secondary efficacy endpoints (VTE is a composite of DVT and/or PE) until the end of post-treatment period for the pooled studies RE-COVER and RE-COVER II

 

Dabigatran etexilate 150 mg twice daily

Warfarin

Treated patients

2,553

2,554

Recurrent symptomatic VTE and VTE-related death

68 ( 2.7 %)

62 ( 2.4 %)

Hazard ratio vs warfarin

(95% confidence interval)

1.09

(0.77, 1.54)

 

Secondary efficacy endpoints

  

Recurrent symptomatic VTE and all-cause deaths

109 (4.3 %)

104 (4.1 %)

95 % confidence interval

3.52, 5.13

3.34, 4.91

Symptomatic DVT

45 (1.8 %)

39 (1.5 %)

95 % confidence interval

1.29, 2.35

1.09, 2.08

Symptomatic PE

27 (1.1 %)

26 (1.0 %)

95 % confidence interval

0.70, 1.54

0.67, 1.49

VTE-related deaths

4 (0.2 %)

3 (0.1 %)

95 % confidence interval

0.04, 0.40

0.02, 0.34

All-cause deaths

51 (2.0 %)

52 (2.0 %)

95 % confidence interval

1.49, 2.62

1.52, 2.66

Ethnic orgin (DVT/PE treatment)

No clinically relevant ethnic differences among Caucasians, African-American, Hispanic, Japanese or Chinese patients were observed.

Paediatric population (DVT/PE treatment)

The European Medicines Agency has deferred the obligation to submit the results of studies with Pradaxa in all subsets of the paediatric population in DVT/PE treatment (see section 4.2 for information on paediatric use).

The pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of dabigatran etexilate administered twice daily for three consecutive days (total 6 doses) at the end of standard anticoagulant therapy were assessed in an open-label safety and tolerability study in 9 stable adolescents (12 to < 18 years). All patients received an initial oral dose of 1.71 (± 10%) mg/kg of dabigatran etexilate (80 % of the adult dose of 150 mg/70 kg adjusted for the patient's weight). Based on dabigatran concentrations and clinical assessment, the dose was subsequently modified to a target dose of 2.14 (± 10 %) mg/kg of dabigatran etexilate (100 % of the adult dose adjusted for the patient's weight). In this small number of adolescents, dabigatran etexilate capsules were apparently tolerated with only three mild and transient gastrointestinal adverse events reported by two patients. According to the relatively low exposure, coagulation at 72 hrs (presumed dabigatran trough level at steady state or close to steady state conditions) was only slightly prolonged with aPTT at maximum 1.60 fold, ECT 1.86 fold, and Hemoclot® TT (Anti-FIIa) 1.36 fold, respectively. Dabigatran plasma concentrations observed at 72 hrs were relatively low, between 32.9 ng/mL and 97.2 ng/mL at final doses between 100 mg and 150 mg (gMean dose normalized total dabigatran plasma concentration of 0.493 ng/mL/mg).

Clinical efficacy and safety (DVT/PE prevention)

Prevention of recurrent deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE) in adults (DVT/PE prevention)

Two randomized, parallel group, double-blind studies were performed in patients previously treated with anticoagulation therapy. RE-MEDY, warfarin controlled study, enrolled patients already treated for 3 to 12 months with the need for further anticoagulant treatment and RE-SONATE, the placebo controlled study, enrolled patients already treated for 6 to 18 months with Vitamin K inhibitors.

The objective of the RE-MEDY study was to compare the safety and efficacy of oral dabigatran etexilate (150 mg bid) to warfarin (target INR 2.0-3.0) for the long-term treatment and prevention of recurrent, symptomatic DVT and/or PE. A total of 2,866 patients were randomized and 2,856 patients were treated. Duration of dabigatran exilate treatment ranged from 6 to 36 months (median 534.0 days). For patients randomized to warfarin, the median time in therapeutic range (INR 2.0-3.0) was 64.9 %.

RE-MEDY demonstrated that treatment with dabigatran etexilate 150 mg twice daily was non-inferior to warfarin non-inferiority margin: 2.85 for hazard ratio and 2.8 for risk difference).

Table 19: Analysis of the primary and secondary efficacy endpoints (VTE is a composite of DVT and/or PE) until the end of post-treatment period for the RE-MEDY study

 

Dabigatran etexilate 150 mg twice daily

Warfarin

Treated patients

1430

1426

Recurrent symptomatic VTE and VTE-related death

26 (1.8 %)

18 (1.3 %)

Hazard ratio vs warfarin

(95% confidence interval)

1.44

(0.78, 2.64)

 

non-inferiority margin

2.85

 

Patients with event at 18 months

22

17

Cumulative risk at

18 months (%)

1.7

1.4

Risk difference vs. warfarin (%)

0.4

 

95% confidence interval

  

non-inferiority margin

2.8

 

Secondary efficacy endpoints

  

Recurrent symptomatic VTE and all-cause deaths

42 (2.9 %)

36 (2.5 %)

95 % confidence interval

2.12, 3.95

1.77, 3.48

Symptomatic DVT

17 (1.2 %)

13 (0.9 %)

95 % confidence interval

0.69, 1.90

0.49, 1.55

Symptomatic PE

10 (0.7 %)

5 (0.4 %)

95 % confidence interval

0.34, 1.28

0.11, 0.82

VTE-related deaths

1 (0.1 %)

1 (0.1 %)

95 % confidence interval

0.00, 0.39

0.00, 0.39

All-cause deaths

17 (1.2 %)

19 (1.3 %)

95 % confidence interval

0.69, 1.90

0.80, 2.07

The objective of the RE-SONATE study was to evaluate superiority of dabigatran etexilate versus placebo for the prevention of recurrent symptomatic DVT and/or PE in patients who had already completed 6 to 18 months of treatment with VKA. The intended therapy was 6 months dabigatran etexilate 150 mg twice daily without need for monitoring.

RE-SONATE demonstrated dabigatran etexilate was superior to placebo for the prevention of recurrent symptomatic DVT/PE events including unexplained deaths, with a risk reduction from 5.6 % to 0.4 % (relative risk reduction 92 % based on hazard ratio ) during the treatment period (p<0.0001). All secondary and sensitivity analyses of the primary endpoint and all secondary endpoints showed superiority of dabigatran etexilate over placebo.

The study included observational follow-up for 12 months after the conclusion of treatment. After discontinuation of study medication the effect was maintained until the end of the follow-up, indicating that the initial treatment effect of dabigatran etexilate was sustained. No rebound effect was observed. At the end of the follow-up VTE events in patients treated with dabigatran etexilate was 6.9 % vs. 10.7 % among the placebo group (hazard ratio 0.61 (95% CI 0.42, 0.88), p=0.0082).

Table 20: Analysis of the primary and secondary efficacy endpoints (VTE is a composite of DVT and/or PE) until the end of post-treatment period for the RE-SONATE study.

 

Dabigatran etexilate 150 mg twice daily

Placebo

Treated patients

681

662

Recurrent symptomatic VTE and related deaths

3 (0.4 %)

37 (5.6 %)

Hazard Ratio vs placebo

(95% confidence interval)

0.08

(0.02, 0.25)

 

p-value for superiority

< 0.0001

 

Secondary efficacy endpoints

  

Recurrent symptomatic VTE and all-cause deaths

3 (0.4 %)

37 (5.6 %)

95% confidence interval

0.09, 1.28

3.97, 7.62

Symptomatic DVT

2 (0.3 %)

23 (3.5 %)

95% confidence interval

0.04, 1.06

2.21, 5.17

Symptomatic PE

1 (0.1 %)

14 (2.1 %)

95% confidence interval

0.00, 0.82

1.16, 3.52

VTE-related deaths

0 (0)

0 (0)

95% confidence interval

0.00, 0.54

0.00, 0.56

Unexplained deaths

0 (0)

2 (0.3 %)

95% confidence interval

0.00, 0.54

0.04, 1.09

All-cause deaths

0 (0)

2 (0.3 %)

95% confidence interval

0.00, 0.54

0.04, 1.09

Ethnic origin (DVT/PE prevention)

No clinically relevant ethnic differences among Caucasians, African-American, Hispanic, Japanese or Chinese patients were observed.

Paediatric population (DVT/PE prevention)

The European Medicines Agency has deferred the obligation to submit the results of studies with Pradaxa in all subsets of the paediatric population in DVT/PE prevention (see section 4.2 for information on paediatric use).

Clinical trials for the prevention of thromboembolism in patients with prosthetic heart valves

A phase II study examined dabigatran etexilate and warfarin in a total of 252 patients with recent mechanical valve replacement surgery (i.e. within the current hospital stay) and in patients who received a mechanical heart valve replacement more than three months ago. More thromboembolic events (mainly strokes and symptomatic/asymptomatic prosthetic valve thrombosis) and more bleeding events were observed with dabigatran etexilate than with warfarin. In the early post-operative patients, major bleeding manifested predominantly as haemorrhagic pericardial effusions, specifically in patients who started dabigatran etexilate early (i.e. on Day 3) after heart valve replacement surgery (see section 4.3).

5.2 Pharmacokinetic properties

After oral administration, dabigatran etexilate is rapidly and completely converted to dabigatran, which is the active form in plasma. The cleavage of the prodrug dabigatran etexilate by esterase-catalysed hydrolysis to the active principle dabigatran is the predominant metabolic reaction. The absolute bioavailability of dabigatran following oral administration of Pradaxa was approximately 6.5 %.

After oral administration of Pradaxa in healthy volunteers, the pharmacokinetic profile of dabigatran in plasma is characterized by a rapid increase in plasma concentrations with Cmax attained within 0.5 and 2.0 hours post administration.

Absorption

A study evaluating post-operative absorption of dabigatran etexilate, 1-3 hours following surgery, demonstrated relatively slow absorption compared with that in healthy volunteers, showing a smooth plasma concentration-time profile without high peak plasma concentrations. Peak plasma concentrations are reached at 6 hours following administration in a postoperative period due to contributing factors such as anaesthesia, gastrointestinal paresis, and surgical effects independent of the oral medicinal product formulation. It was demonstrated in a further study that slow and delayed absorption is usually only present on the day of surgery. On subsequent days absorption of dabigatran is rapid with peak plasma concentrations attained 2 hours after medicinal product administration.

Food does not affect the bioavailability of dabigatran etexilate but delays the time to peak plasma concentrations by 2 hours.

The oral bioavailability may be increased by 75 % compared to the reference capsule formulation when the pellets are taken without the Hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC) capsule shell. Hence, the integrity of the HPMC capsules should always be preserved in clinical use to avoid unintentionally increased bioavailability of dabigatran etexilate. Therefore, patients should be advised not to open the capsules and taking the pellets alone (e.g. sprinkled over food or into beverages) (see section 4.2).

Distribution

Low (34-35 %) concentration independent binding of dabigatran to human plasma proteins was observed. The volume of distribution of dabigatran of 60–70 L exceeded the volume of total body water indicating moderate tissue distribution of dabigatran.

Cmax and the area under the plasma concentration-time curve were dose proportional. Plasma concentrations of dabigatran showed a biexponential decline with a mean terminal half-life of 11 hours in healthy elderly subjects. After multiple doses a terminal half-life of about 12-14 hours was observed. The half-life was independent of dose. Half-life is prolonged if renal function is impaired as shown in table 21.

Biotransformation

Metabolism and excretion of dabigatran were studied following a single intravenous dose of radiolabeled dabigatran in healthy male subjects. After an intravenous dose, the dabigatran-derived radioactivity was eliminated primarily in the urine (85 %). Faecal excretion accounted for 6 % of the administered dose. Recovery of the total radioactivity ranged from 88-94 % of the administered dose by 168 hours post dose.

Dabigatran is subject to conjugation forming pharmacologically active acylglucuronides. Four positional isomers, 1-O, 2-O, 3-O, 4-O-acylglucuronide exist, each accounts for less than 10 % of total dabigatran in plasma. Traces of other metabolites were only detectable with highly sensitive analytical methods. Dabigatran is eliminated primarily in the unchanged form in the urine, at a rate of approximately 100 mL/min corresponding to the glomerular filtration rate.

Special populations

Renal insufficiency

In phase I studies the exposure (AUC) of dabigatran after the oral administration of Pradaxa is approximately 2.7-fold higher in volunteers with moderate renal insufficiency (CrCL between 30-50 mL/min) than in those without renal insufficiency.

In a small number of volunteers with severe renal insufficiency (CrCL 10-30 mL/min), the exposure (AUC) to dabigatran was approximately 6 times higher and the half-life approximately 2 times longer than that observed in a population without renal insufficiency (see sections 4.2, 4.3 and 4.4).

Table 21: Half-life of total dabigatran in healthy subjects and subjects with impaired renal function.

glomerular filtration rate (CrCL,)

 

[mL/min]

gMean (gCV %; range)

half-life

[h]

≥ 80

13.4 (25.7 %; 11.0-21.6)

≥ 50-< 80

15.3 (42.7 %;11.7-34.1)

≥ 30-< 50

18.4 (18.5 %;13.3-23.0)

< 30

27.2(15.3 %; 21.6-35.0)

Clearance of dabigatran by haemodialysis was investigated in 7 patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) without atrial fibrillation. Dialysis was conducted with 700 mL/min dialysate flow rate, four hour duration and a blood flow rate of either 200 mL/min or 350-390 mL/min. This resulted in a removal of 50 % to 60 % of dabigatran concentrations, respectively. The amount of drug cleared by dialysis is proportional to the blood flow rate up to a blood flow rate of 300 mL/min. The anticoagulant activity of dabigatran decreased with decreasing plasma concentrations and the PK/PD relationship was not affected by the procedure.

The median CrCL in RE-LY was 68.4 mL/min. Almost half (45.8 %) of the RE-LY patients had a CrCL > 50-< 80 mL/min. Patients with moderate renal impairment (CrCL between 30-50 mL/min) had on average 2.29-fold and 1.81-fold higher pre- and post-dose dabigatran plasma concentrations, respectively, when compared with patients without renal impairment (CrCL ≥ 80 mL/min).

The median CrCL in the RE-COVER study was 100.4 mL/min. 21.7 % of patients had mild renal impairment (CrCL > 50 - < 80 mL/min) and 4.5% of patients had a moderate renal impairment (CrCL between 30 and 50 mL/min). Patients with mild and moderate renal impairment had at steady state an average 1.8-fold and 3.6-fold higher pre-dose dabigatran plasma concentrations compared with patients with CrCL > 80 mL/min, respectively. Similar values for CrCL were found in RE-COVER II.

The median CrCL in the RE-MEDY and RE-SONATE studies were 99.0 mL/min and 99.7 mL/min, respectively. 22.9 % and 22.5 % of the patients had a CrCL > 50-< 80 mL/min, and 4.1 % and 4.8 % had a CrCL between 30 and 50 mL/min in in the RE-MEDY and RE-SONATE studies.

Elderly patients

Specific pharmacokinetic phase I studies with elderly subjects showed an increase of 40 to 60 % in the AUC and of more than 25 % in Cmax compared to young subjects.

The effect by age on exposure to dabigatran was confirmed in the RE-LY study with an about 31 % higher trough concentration for subjects ≥ 75 years and by about 22 % lower trough level for subjects < 65 years compared to subjects between 65 and 75 years (see sections 4.2 and 4.4).

Hepatic impairment

No change in dabigatran exposure was seen in 12 subjects with moderate hepatic insufficiency (Child Pugh B) compared to 12 controls (see sections 4.2 and 4.4).

Body weight

The dabigatran trough concentrations were about 20 % lower in patients with a body weight > 100 kg compared with 50-100 kg. The majority (80.8 %) of the subjects were in the ≥ 50 kg and < 100 kg category with no clear difference detected (see sections 4.2 and 4.4). Limited clinical data in patients < 50 kg are available.

Gender

Active substance exposure in the primary VTE prevention studies was about 40 % to 50 % higher in female patients and no dose adjustment is recommended. In atrial fibrillation patients females had on average 30 % higher trough and post-dose concentrations. No dose adjustment is required (see section 4.2).

Ethnic origin

No clinically relevant inter-ethnic differences among Caucasian, African-American, Hispanic, Japanese or Chinese patients were observed regarding dabigatran pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics.

Pharmacokinetic interactions

The pro-drug dabigatran etexilate but not dabigatran is a substrate of the efflux transporter P-gp. Therefore concomitant use of P-gp transporter inhibitors (amiodarone, verapamil, clarithromycin, quinidine, dronedarone, ticagrelor and ketoconazole) and inducers (rifampicin) had been investigated (see sections 4.2, 4.4 and 4.5).

In vitro interaction studies did not show any inhibition or induction of the principal isoenzymes of cytochrome P450. This has been confirmed by in vivo studies with healthy volunteers, who did not show any interaction between this treatment and the following active substances: atorvastatin (CYP3A4), digoxin (P-gp transporter interaction) and diclofenac (CYP2C9).

5.3 Preclinical safety data

Non-clinical data reveal no special hazard for humans based on conventional studies of safety pharmacology, repeated dose toxicity and genotoxicity.

Effects observed in the repeat-dose toxicity studies were due to the exaggerated pharmacodynamic effect of dabigatran.

An effect on female fertility was observed in the form of a decrease in implantations and an increase in pre-implantation loss at 70 mg/kg (5-fold the plasma exposure level in patients). At doses that were toxic to the mothers (5- to 10-fold the plasma exposure level in patients), a decrease in foetal body weight and viability along with an increase in foetal variations were observed in rats and rabbits. In the pre- and post-natal study, an increase in foetal mortality was observed at doses that were toxic to the dams (a dose corresponding to a plasma exposure level 4-fold higher than observed in patients).

In lifetime toxicology studies in rats and mice, there was no evidence for a tumorigenic potential of dabigatran up to maximum doses of 200 mg/kg.

Dabigatran, the active moiety of dabigatran etexilate mesilate, is persistent in the environment.

6. Pharmaceutical particulars
6.1 List of excipients

Capsule fill

• Tartaric acid

• Acacia

• Hypromellose

• Dimeticone 350

• Talc

• Hydroxypropylcellulose

Capsule shell

• Carrageenan

• Potassium chloride

• Titanium dioxide

• Indigo carmine (E132)

• Sunset yellow (E110)

• Hypromellose

• Water purified

Black printing ink

• Shellac

• N-Butyl alcohol

• Isopropyl alcohol

• Industrial methylated spirit

• Iron oxide black (E172)

• Purified water

• Propylene glycol

6.2 Incompatibilities

Not applicable.

6.3 Shelf life

Blister and bottle: 3 years

Once the bottle is opened, the medicinal product must be used within 4 months.

6.4 Special precautions for storage

Blister

Store in the original package in order to protect from moisture.

Bottle

Store in the original package in order to protect from moisture. Keep the bottle tightly closed.

6.5 Nature and contents of container

Cartons containing 10 x 1, 30 x 1 or 60 x 1 hard capsules a multipack containing 3 packs of 60 x 1 hard capsules (180 hard capsules) and a multipack containing 2 packs of 50 x 1 hard capsules (100 hard capsules) in perforated aluminium unit dose blisters. Furthermore, cartons containing 6 blister strips (60 x 1) in perforated aluminium unit dose white blisters. The blister consists of an aluminium lidding foil coated with polyvinylchloride-polyvinylacetate copolymer-acrylate (PVCAC acrylate) in contact with the product and an aluminium bottom foil with polyvinylchloride (PVC) in contact with the product.

Polypropylene bottle with a screw cap containing 60 hard capsules.

Not all pack sizes may be marketed.

6.6 Special precautions for disposal and other handling

When taking Pradaxa capsules out of the blister pack, the following instructions should be followed:

• The hard capsules should be taken out of the blister card by peeling off the backing foil.

• The hard capsules should not be pushed through the blister foil.

• The blister foil should only be peeled off, when a hard capsule is required.

When taking a hard capsule out of the bottle, please observe the following instructions:

• The cap opens by pushing and turning.

Any unused product or waste material should be disposed of in accordance with local requirements.

7. Marketing authorisation holder

Boehringer Ingelheim International GmbH

Binger Str. 173

D-55216 Ingelheim am Rhein

Germany

8. Marketing authorisation number(s)

EU/1/08/442/005

EU/1/08/442/006

EU/1/08/442/007

EU/1/08/442/008

EU/1/08/442/014

EU/1/08/442/015

EU/1/08/442/018

9. Date of first authorisation/renewal of the authorisation

Date of first authorisation: 18 March 2008

Date of latest renewal: 17 January 2013

10. Date of revision of the text

09/2014

Detailed information on this medicinal product is available on the website of the European Medicines Agency http://www.ema.europa.eu/.

Company contact details

Boehringer Ingelheim Limited

Company image
Address

Ellesfield Avenue, Bracknell, Berkshire, RG12 8YS

Fax

+44 (0)1344 741 298

Medical Information e-mail
Telephone

+44 (0)1344 424 600

Medical Information Direct Line

0845 601 7880 - Pradaxa enquiries

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Active ingredients

dabigatran etexilate mesilate

Legal categories

POM - Prescription Only Medicine

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