Section 4.2 Posology and method of administration
Major Depressive Episodes
Adults: (addition of)
Citalopram should be administered as a single oral dose of 16 mg (8 drops) daily.
Dependent on individual patient response, the dose may be increased to a maximum of 32 mg (16 drops) daily.
Adults: (addition of)
A single oral dose of 8 mg (4 drops) is recommended for the first week before increasing the dose to 16 mg (8 drops) daily. Dependent on individual patient response, the dose may be increased to a maximum of 32 mg (16 drops) daily.
Elderly patients (> 65 years of age)
For elderly patients the dose should be decreased to half of the recommended dose, e.g. 8 mg (4 drops) to 16 mg (8 drops) daily. The recommended maximum dose for the elderly is 16 mg (8 drops) daily.
Reduced hepatic function
An initial dose of 8 mg (4 drops) daily for the first two weeks of treatment is recommended in patients with mild or moderate hepatic impairment. Depending on individual patient response, the dose may be increased to a maximum of 16 mg (8 drops) daily. Caution and extra careful dose titration is advised in patients with severely reduced hepatic function (see section 5.2).
Poor metabolisers of CYP2C19
An initial dose of 8 mg (4 drops) daily during the first two weeks of treatment is recommended for patients who are known to be poor metabolisers with respect to CYP2C19. The dose may be increased to a maximum of 16 mg (8 drops) daily depending on individual patient response, (see section 5.2).
Section 4.3 Contraindications
Citalopram is contraindicated in patients with known QT-interval prolongation or congenital long QT syndrome.
Citalopram is contraindicated together with medicinal products that are known to prolong the QT-interval (see section 4.5).
Section 4.4 Special warnings and precautions for use
Citalopram has been found to cause a dose-dependent prolongation of the QT-interval. Cases of QT interval prolongation and ventricular arrhythmia including torsade de pointes have been reported during the post-marketing period, predominantly in patients of female gender, with hypokalaemia, or with pre-existing QT prolongation or other cardiac diseases (see sections 4.3, 4.5, 4.8, 4.9 and 5.1).
Caution is advised in patients with significant bradycardia; or in patients with recent acute myocardial infarction or uncompensated heart failure.
Electrolyte disturbances such as hypokalaemia and hypomagnesaemia increase the risk for malignant arrhythmias and should be corrected before treatment with citalopram is started.
If patients with stable cardiac disease are treated, an ECG review should be considered before treatment is started.
If signs of cardiac arrhythmia occur during treatment with citalopram, the treatment should be withdrawn and an ECG should be performed.
Section 4.5 Interactions
QT interval prolongation
Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic studies between citalopram and other medicinal products that prolong the QT interval have not been performed. An additive effect of citalopram and these medicinal products cannot be excluded. Therefore, co-administration of citalopram with medicinal products that prolong the QT interval, such as Class IA and III antiarrhythmics, antipsychotics (e.g. fentiazine derivatives, pimozide, haloperidol), tricyclic antidepressants, certain antimicrobial agents (e.g. sparfloxacin, moxifloxacin, erythromycin IV, pentamidine, anti-malarial treatment particularly halofantrine), certain antihistamines (astemizole, mizolastine) etc., is contraindicated.
Influence of other medicinal products on the pharmacokinetics of citalopram
Cimetidine (potent CYP2D6, 3A4 and 1A2 inhibitor) caused a moderate increase in the average steady state levels of citalopram. Caution is advised when administering citalopram in combination with cimetidine. Dose adjustment may be warranted.
Section 4.8 Undesirable effects
Addition to table:
Frequency not known: ventricular arrhythmia including torsade de pointes
Addition below table:
Cases of QT-prolongation and ventricular arrhythmia including torsade de pointes have been reported during the post-marketing period, predominantly in patients of female gender, with hypokalaemia, or with pre-existing QT prolongation or other cardiac diseases (see sections 4.3, 4.4, 4.5, 4.9 and 5.1).
Section 4.9 Overdose
ECG monitoring is advisable in case of overdose in patients with congestive heart failure/bradyarrhythmias, in patients using concomitant medications that prolong the QT interval, or in patients with altered metabolism, e.g. liver impairment.
Section 5.1 Pharmacodynamic properties
In a double-blind, placebo-controlled ECG study in healthy subjects, the change from baseline in QTc (Fridericia-correction) was 7.5 (90%CI 5.9-9.1) msec at the 20 mg/day dose and 16.7 (90%CI 15.0-18.4) msec at the 60 mg day/dose (see sections 4.3, 4.4, 4.5, 4.8 and 4.9).